Sandy Levin

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Sandy Levin
Sander Levin.JPG
U.S. House, Michigan, District 9
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 1983-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 31
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorWilliam Brodhead (D)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$7.90 in 2012
First electedNovember 2, 1982
Next primaryAugust 5, 2014
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$8,634,680
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Michigan State Senate
1965-1970
Education
High schoolCentral High School, Detroit, MI
Bachelor'sUniversity of Chicago
Master'sColumbia University
J.D.Harvard University
Personal
BirthdaySeptember 6, 1931
Place of birthDetroit, MI
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth$2,974,591
ReligionJewish
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Sander M. "Sandy" Levin (b. September 6, 1931, in Detroit, MI) is a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives representing Michigan's 9th Congressional District. Levin was first elected to the House in 1982. Levin is the brother of Sen. Carl Levin (D-MI).[1]

Levin most recently won re-election to the 9th Congressional District seat in 2012. He defeated Don Volaric (R), Jim Fulner (L), Julia Williams (G) and Les Townsend (UST) in the general election on November 6, 2012.

Levin is running for re-election to Michigan's 9th District in 2014.

Levin began his political career in the Michigan State Senate, where he served from 1965 to 1970.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Levin is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

Levin was born in 1931 in Detroit, MI. After graduating from the University of Chicago in 1952, Levin went on to earn his M.A. from Columbia University and his J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1954 and 1957, respectively. Prior to his political career, Levin worked as an attorney.[2]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Levin's professional and political career:[2]

  • 1965-1970: Michigan State Senate
  • 1977-1981: Assistant Administrator, Agency for International Development
  • 2009-Present: U.S. House of Representatives, Michigan

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Levin serves on the following committees:[3]

Joint Committee on Taxation

2011-2012

Levin served on the following House committees:[4]

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1%) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14% of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[5] For more information pertaining to Levin's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[6]

National security

NDAA

Voted "No" Levin voted against HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[7]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Levin voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[8]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Levin voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[9]

Economy

Farm bill

Voted "No" On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, known as the Farm Bill.[10] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill provides for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[11][12] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[12] Levin voted with 102 other Democratic representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Voted "Yes" On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[13][14] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[14] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[15] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Levin joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[13][14]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "No" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[16] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[17] Levin voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[18]

Voted "Yes" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[19] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Levin voted for HR 2775.[20]

Federal Pay Adjustment Elimination

Voted "No" Levin voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[21]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Levin voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[22] The vote largely followed party lines.[23]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "No" Levin voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[24]

Social issues

Abortion

Voted "No" Levin voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[25]

SNAP challenge

See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

In June 2013, more than two dozen House Democrats, including Levin, took part in a SNAP challenge, feeding themselves for a week on the average benefit level of a SNAP recipient.[26]

The SNAP Challenge encouraged participants to get a sense of what life is like for millions of low-income Americans facing hunger. By accepting the SNAP Challenge, participants committed to eat all meals from a limited food budget comparable to that of a SNAP participant, approximately $1.50 per meal, or $4.50 a day.[27]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Levin voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[28]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Levin's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Levin is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Levin received a score of 74 percent on social issues and 10 percent on economic issues.[29]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[30]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Strongly Opposes
Support & expand free trade Favors Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Favors
Privatize Social Security Strongly Opposes Never legalize marijuana Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[29]

IRS targeting

On May 10, 2013, news broke that various branches of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) had specifically targeted conservative groups' applications for tax-exempt status. This began during the tea party surge in 2010. The agency was separating tax-exempt applications by searching for political terms such as "tea party" and "patriot." In June 2011, an IRS official was briefed on these transgressions and asked that this practice end. The flagging continued, however, when the criteria was changed in January 2012 to look out for groups educating on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.[31]

The targeting included allegations that tea party groups were forced to provide information not asked of other tax exempt groups. Examples of this included requests for donor information, Facebook posts, resumes and political intentions of group officials and connections to other groups.[32][33]

On May 16, IRS Commissioner Steven Miller announced his resignation. He still testified at the hearings the next day.[34]

As a result of this scandal, Republicans and many Democratic members of Congress, including Levin, publicly called for a deeper investigation into these matters. The House Ways and Means Committee held a hearing on May 17 during which it was disclosed that the Obama administration was made aware of the targeting on June 4, 2012.[35]

On May 20, Senators Max Baucus and Orrin Hatch sent a written inquiry regarding the process for how the agency reviewed applications for tax exempt status. The letter also requested any correspondence between White House officials and the IRS mentioning 501(c) organizations.[36]

During the May 22 House committee hearing on the issue, Lois Lerner, head of the IRS tax-exempt organizations office, declined to answer questions citing her Fifth Amendment right.[37] The next day, May 23, Lerner was placed on administrative leave pending an investigation after Senators John McCain and Carl Levin called on IRS officials to place her on suspension.[38] Lerner retired on September 23, 2013.[39]

Campaign themes

2012

  • Energy

Excerpt: "Energy is the lifeblood of our economy. It powers our homes, industries, vehicles, and everything from the iPods in our pockets to the backyard grill. We need a balanced energy plan that plays to our nation’s – and Michigan’s – strengths."[40]

  • Environment

Excerpt: "Michigan is surrounded by the largest system of fresh water on Earth. The Great Lakes hold a full 95 percent of the fresh surface water in the United States. The Lakes literally define Michigan. They are a priceless and irreplaceable natural resource."[41]

  • Economy

Excerpt: "Our state is going through some tough times but we are fighting back. We pulled together and saved the auto industry in the last year. Now we are re-tooling the plants, investing in advanced technologies and preparing to build the cars of the future."[42]

  • Healthcare

Excerpt: "Our country took an important step toward affordable health care for all Americans with the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The legislation reforms health care by protecting Americans from the worst insurance industry practices and offering the uninsured and small businesses the opportunity to obtain affordable health care plans, all while reducing the deficit by more than a trillion dollars over the next twenty years."[43]

Elections

2014

See also: Michigan's 9th Congressional District elections, 2014

Levin is running for re-election to Michigan's 9th District in 2014. Levin is seeking the Democratic nomination in the primary on August 5, 2014. The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: Michigan's 9th Congressional District elections, 2012

Levin won the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing Michigan's 9th District. He ran unopposed in the August 7 Democratic primary. He defeated Don Volaric (R), Jim Fulner (L), Julia Williams (G) and Les Townsend (UST) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[44]

U.S. House, Michigan District 9 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngSander Levin Incumbent 61.9% 208,846
     Republican Don Volaric 34% 114,760
     Libertarian Jim Fulner 1.8% 6,100
     Green Julia Williams 1.4% 4,708
     UST Les Townsend 0.9% 2,902
Total Votes 337,316
Source: Michigan Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"

Endorsements

Levin was endorsed by Macomb County's six countywide elected officials.[45]

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Levin is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Levin raised a total of $8,634,680 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[61]

Sandy Levin's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Michigan, District 9) Won $1,836,756
2010 US House (Michigan, District 12) Won $2,345,155
2008 US House (Michigan, District 12) Won $725,438
2006 US House (Michigan, District 12) Won $626,413
2004 US House (Michigan, District 12) Won $980,157
2002 US House (Michigan, District 12) Won $941,800
2000 US House (Michigan, District 12) Won $1,178,961
Grand Total Raised $8,634,680

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Levin’s reports.[62]

Sandy Levin (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[63]April 14, 2013$238,137.97$115,728.00$(198,387.87)$155,478
July Quarterly[64]July 15, 2013$155,478.10$204,010.00$(123,449.59)$236,038.51
October Quarterly[65]October 14, 2013$236,038.51$283,844.36$(172,816.50)$347,066.37
Year-End[66]January 30, 2014$347,066.37$147,113.63$(143,599.53)$350,580.47
April Quarterly[67]April 15, 2014$350,580.47$227,210.35$(200,513.67)$377,277.15
Running totals
$977,906.34$(838,767.16)

2012

Breakdown of funds according to source.

Levin won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Levin's campaign committee raised a total of $1,836,756 and spent $1,836,756.[68]

Cost per vote

Levin spent $7.90 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Levin's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Levin won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Levin's campaign committee raised a total of $2,345,155 and spent $2,392,309.[69]

U.S. House, Michigan District 12, 2010 - Sandy Levin Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $2,345,155
Total Spent $2,392,309
Total Raised by General Election Opponent $62,174
Total Spent by General Election Opponent $57,383
Top contributors to Sandy Levin's campaign committee
Ford Motor Co$20,600
Dow Lohnes PLLC$17,680
Comcast Corp$15,400
Bank of America$14,500
Twin Med$14,400
Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$173,738
Insurance$158,960
Health Professionals$158,100
Lobbyists$128,800
Real Estate$98,950

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Levin's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $2,882,092 and $3,067,090. That averages to $2,974,591, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Levin ranked as the 108th most wealthy representative in 2012.[70] Between 2004 and 2012, Levin's calculated net worth[71] increased by an average of 8 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2014, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[72]

Sander Levin Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$1,838,339
2012$2,974,591
Growth from 2004 to 2012:62%
Average annual growth:8%[73]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[74]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Levin is a "moderate Democratic leader" as of July 2014.[75] This was the same rating Levin received in June 2013.

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[76]

Levin most often votes with:

Levin least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Levin missed 187 of 19,096 roll call votes from January 1983 to July 2014. This amounts to 1.0 percent, which is better than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.[77]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Levin paid his congressional staff a total of $1,164,571 in 2011. He ranked 22nd on the list of the highest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 26th overall of the highest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Michigan ranked 13th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[78]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2013

Levin ranked 117th in the liberal rankings in 2013.[79]

2012

Levin ranked 100th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[80]

2011

Levin ranked 126th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[81]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2014

Levin voted with the Democratic Party 93.4 percent of the time, which ranked 93rd among the 204 House Democratic members as of July 2014.[82]

2013

Levin voted with the Democratic Party 97.6 percent of the time, which ranked 10th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[83]

Personal

Levin lives in Royal Oak, MI. He was married to his late wife, Vicki, for over 50 years and has four children and ten grandchildren.[84]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Sandy + Levin + Michigan + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Sandy Levin News Feed

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See also

External links

Track-at-political-tracker-com.png
Political Tracker has an article on:
Sander Levin


References

  1. NPR, "Brothers Levin Near The End Of A 32-Year Congressional Partnership," January 28, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Sander Levin," accessed December 23, 2011
  3. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  4. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "House of Representatives Committee Assignments," accessed December 23, 2011
  5. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  6. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  7. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  8. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  9. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  10. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  11. Politico, "House clears Farm Bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  15. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  17. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  18. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  19. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  20. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  21. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  22. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  23. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. U.S. House.gov, "Full Member List of Congressional Snap Challenge," accessed September 25, 2013
  27. Feeding America, "Taking the SNAP Challenge," accessed September 25, 2013
  28. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 On The Issues, "Sander Levin Vote Match," accessed June 20, 2014
  30. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  31. USA Today, "IRS knew of Tea Party profiling in 2011, report shows," accessed May 16, 2013
  32. Politico, "The IRS wants YOU- to share everything," accessed May 16, 2013
  33. Washington Post, "IRS officials in Washington were involved in targeting of conservative groups," accessed May 16, 2013
  34. CNN, "'Angry' Obama announces IRS leader's ouster after conservatives targeted," accessed May 16, 2013
  35. The New York Times, "Treasury Knew of I.R.S. Inquiry in 2012, Official Says," accessed May 17, 2013
  36. Politico, "Max Baucus and Orrin Hatch expand IRS probe," May 20,2013
  37. The Washington Post, "Lois Lerner invokes Fifth Amendment in House hearing on IRS targeting," May 22, 2013
  38. CBS, "IRS official Lois Lerner placed on leave," May 23, 2013
  39. Wall Street Journal, "Lois Lerner, at Center of IRS Investigation, Retires," accessed December 16, 2013
  40. Sandy Levin, "Issues," October 8, 2012
  41. Sandy Levin, "Issues," October 8, 2012
  42. Sandy Levin, "Issues," October 8, 2012
  43. Sandy Levin, "Issues," October 8, 2012
  44. Associated Press, "2012 Primary Results," accessed August 7, 2012
  45. Sandy Levin, "Macomb County-wide Officials Endorse Sandy Levin for Re-election in New District," accessed October 8, 2012
  46. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  47. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  48. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  49. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  50. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  51. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  52. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  53. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  54. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
  55. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1992," accessed March 28, 2013
  56. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1990," accessed March 28, 2013
  57. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1988," accessed March 28, 2013
  58. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1986," accessed March 28, 2013
  59. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1984," accessed March 28, 2013
  60. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 1982," accessed March 28, 2013
  61. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Sandy Levin," accessed May 16, 2013
  62. Federal Election Commission, "Sandy Levin Summary Report," accessed July 30, 2013
  63. Federal Election Commission, "Sandy Levin April Quarterly," accessed July 30, 2013
  64. Federal Election Commission, "Sandy Levin July Quarterly," accessed July 30, 2013
  65. Federal Election Commission, "Sandy Levin October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  66. Federal Election Commission, "Sandy Levin Year-End," accessed February 10, 2014
  67. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 15, 2014
  68. Open Secrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
  69. Open Secrets, "Sandy Levin 2010 Election Cycle," accessed December 23, 2011
  70. OpenSecrets, "Levin, (D-MI), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  71. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  72. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  73. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  74. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  75. GovTrack, "Sandy Levin," accessed July 29, 2014
  76. OpenCongress, "Sandy Levin," accessed July 29, 2014
  77. GovTrack, "Sandy Levin," accessed July 29, 2014
  78. LegiStorm, "Sandy Levin," accessed December 15, 2012
  79. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 29, 2014
  80. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  81. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  82. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  83. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  84. Official House Site, "Biography," accessed December 24, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
William Brodhead
U.S. House of Representatives - Michigan
1983-present
Succeeded by
-