Public school district (United States)
School bond election
No Child Left Behind Act
Race to the Top
Teacher merit pay
- 1 Organization
- 2 Types
- 3 Funding
- 4 See also
- 5 External links
- 6 References
In most school districts, the school board is at the top of its organizational hierarchy. The board provides oversight and governance for a district and its schools. Below the school board is the superintendent of schools, followed by executive officials or assistant superintendents who lead various departments within the district's bureaucracy. A school principal manages the daily operations of a given school and reports to the district's superintendent.
- See also: School board
A board of education, board of directors, school board or school committee is the title given to the governing body of a school district. The authority of school boards differ among districts and states. School boards are responsible for the appointment and dismissal of the district superintendent, to whom they delegate the routine operations of the district. Some school boards may have the authority to set and levy tax rates, recommend measures to a legislative body or be involved in personnel decisions.
A superintendent, chief education officer or chief executive officer is the head administrative official of a school district. They provide administrative oversight of the students, public schools and educational services within their district. Superintendents are most often hired by the district's school board. In many states, superintendents also serve as non-voting members on the board. The superintendent is responsible for keeping the board informed of events and developments in the district and for making recommendations about changes to daily district operations.
This is the organizational chart for Atlanta Public Schools, which demonstrates the organizational structure of a school district:
Consolidated school district
A consolidated or reorganized school district indicates that it was formed from two or more districts.
Elementary school district
Elementary school districts educate students who are at lower grade or age levels.
Independent school district
Independent school districts can take different forms depending on the state. In Texas, independent denotes that the district is separate from any county or municipal-level entity. Similarly, in Kentucky, independent districts are separate from county districts. In Minnesota, independent denotes any school district created since July 1, 1957.
Intermediate school district
An intermediate school district is a government agency usually organized at the county or multi-county level that assists local school districts in providing programs and services. These districts operate outside the charter of a local school district. The exact role of these agencies varies by state.
Joint school district
A joint school district denotes that the district includes territory from more than one county. A joint state school district means that the district includes territory from more than one state.
Secondary school district
Secondary school districts educate students who are at higher grade or age levels. These are also known as high school districts.
Traditional school district
A traditional school district is an agency responsible for providing free public education for school-age children residing within its jurisdiction. This category excludes local supervisory unions that provide management services for a group of associated school districts; regional education service agencies that typically provide school districts with research, testing and data processing services; state and federally operated school districts; and other agencies that do not fall into these groupings.
Unified school district
A unified school district is a district that provides both elementary and secondary education services and instruction.
Federal, state and local governments contribute to the funding of school districts in the United States. States typically provide about 43% of all elementary and secondary education funding. Local governments generally contribute about 44% of the total and the federal government contributes about 13% of all direct expenditures. Historically, elementary and secondary education was funded largely by local governments, but in the the 1970s state education spending began to overtake local education spending.
The federal government spends more than $40 billion annually on primary and secondary education programs. Much of the funding is discretionary, meaning it is set by Congress annually. Funding flows primarily through the U.S. Department of Education, although other federal agencies administer some funding for education related activities.
States rely primarily on income and sales taxes to fund public education. State legislatures generally determine the level and distribution of funding by following rules and procedures that vary among states. Most states use funding formulas based on student enrollment to determine the allocation of funding for a district. In addition to enrollment figures, some formulas also include additional variables, such as the number of students with disabilities, the number of students living in poverty or the number of students for whom English is a second language.
Local governments rely on property taxes support most of public education funding. Local governments collect taxes from residential and commercial properties as a direct revenue source for the school district. Property-rich areas tend to collect more in property taxes. Although poorer communities may use higher tax rates to compensate for the smaller property tax base, they still tend to raise less revenue for their local school districts than wealthier communities.
- School board elections portal
- Largest school districts in the United States by enrollment
- List of school districts in the United States
- Glossary of education terms
- National Center for Education Statistics, "School and District Glossary," accessed February 13, 2014
- Center for Education Reform, "K-12 Facts," accessed February 13, 2014
- The Office of Reservoir of Statutes, "2013 Minnesota Statutes," accessed February 13, 2014
- National Center for Education Statistics, "Glossary," accessed February 13, 2014
- New America Foundation, "Federal Education Budget Project," accessed February 13, 2014