State Legislative Tracker: California legislator faces perjury trial

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January 6, 2014

Edited by Joel Williams
This week’s tracker includes a partisan count update and information on a perjury trial.

Weekly highlight

Last week, two states, California and Idaho, began their legislative sessions. Here is a brief look at issues making headlines across the country:

  • California: A perjury trial against Sen. Roderick Wright (D) is set to begin in Los Angeles this week — more than three years after a grand jury indicted the lawmaker on allegations that he incorrectly reported his legal address of residence when he sought his state senate seat in 2008. When Wright registered to vote on March 14, 2007, he listed his address as being a four-plex in Inglewood. The issue of residency was a campaign issue in the heavily-contested June 2008 primary election. The residency of contender Mervyn Dymally and of Wright was questioned because both candidates owned homes in the district, and in more affluent areas outside of the district. At that time, when questioned about where he lived, Wright told a local newspaper, "It wasn't like I switched last week to be eligible. I've owned the house for years. It's a kind of nonissue." Wright was indicted on eight criminal counts in September 2010, following an investigation by the district attorney’s office. The D.A. has alleged that Wright lied about his residency in order to run for the Senate seat. The charges against Wright were thrown out in March 2011 by a California Superior Court judge for being improperly filed, but reinstated by the California 2nd District Court of Appeals in July. Wright has pleaded not guilty to the charges of voter fraud and perjury. If convicted, Wright — who was first elected to the chamber in 2008 — faces possible prison time. Wright’s lawyer, Kevin Winston McKesson, disputed the charges when contacted by media sources on December 30, 2013. “He’s complied with all the residency requirements as required by law,” McKesson said, adding that Wright has “multiple places that he owns, which the code allows.”[1][2][3][4][5]
  • Delaware: Special Deputy Attorney General of Delaware E. Norman Veasey's 101-page report on Delaware's campaign funding found violations of campaign contribution laws. Veasey recovered over $600,000 for the state through civil settlements when he had proof of intent of the crimes; however, Veasey did not prosecute everyone he found in violation. Veasey found that some contributions exceeded the donor limit, and that candidates ignored the "potential abuses of campaign rules and laws." Veasey provided numerous reasons in his report for not prosecuting violators, including the fact that there is not necessarily a direct connection to follow between the donations made and executive or legislative actions of elected officials. Veasey also reported that there is a lack of witnesses providing evidence and that "the statute of limitations expired in some cases." Other laws violated were candidates receiving gifts, not reporting donations over $250, encouraging donations made under the name of others, and improperly reimbursing donors. Veasey suggested changes to the campaign finance laws to help prevent future unlawful donations, including banning contributions from business entities and "strengthening the Public Integrity Commission, whose counsel investigates potential ethical violations by public officials."[6][7][8][9]
  • Nebraska: The Nebraska Legislature, the lone unicameral legislature in the country, is due to begin a 60-day session on Wednesday with no shortage of issues to tackle. The main topic appears to be the state's tax system, which Gov. Dave Heineman (R), now in his final year in office, has perennially looked to overhaul. Leaving specific bills to be drafted by senators themselves, Heineman says that cuts in income and corporate taxes and agricultural land values are essential to the state's economic growth. Heineman has proposed rates of 5.5 and 65 percent, respectively. The legislature did not pass two bills proposed by Heineman in the last session, leaving the matter for committee study in the interim. In an op-ed published by the Norfolk Daily News, District 40 incumbent Tyson Larson expressed doubt that "major adjustments" would be made to the tax system. Appropriations Committee chair Heath Mello is also skeptical, saying that cutting taxes without demonstrating alternative funding for education and care of the elderly and disabled is "not an option." Also up for possible consideration are prison reform, Medicaid expansion, same-sex marriage and the death penalty. The Legislature is also expected to respond to a report released by the Water Sustainability Task Force, including a recommended tax on ethanol to fund water-related projects. Sen. Scott Lautenbaugh has his own plan for the session, proposing legislation that would permit the sale of the Metropolitan Utilities District, which he said could raise $3 billion for the state.[10][11][12][13][14]
  • New York: Brad M. Hoylman (D) of the New York State Senate has introduced legislation that would outlaw outside employment for all state legislators. Paid an annual base salary of $79,500, New York legislators are considered part-time. The new bill would make serving in the legislature a full-time job. Hoylman believes that the legislation would cut down on corruption, an issue that has plagued New York in recent years, by eliminating potential conflicts of interest. Legislators who may potentially oppose this bill are Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver (D) and Sen. Dean Skelos (R), who reportedly make up to $450,000 and $250,000 annually, respectively, at their individual law firms. Gov. Andrew Cuomo's (D) anti-corruption commission recently released a report that claimed that "having second jobs is not inherently wrong but can lead to conflicts of interest or the appearance of corruption without greater disclosure rules. Several lawmakers in recent years were charged or went to jail for improperly mixing their state and private business interests." One of the arguments against making the New York State Legislature full-time are the costs associated with it, including a raise to lawmakers' salaries that has not risen since 1999. The next step for the bill will be a discussion in the senate when it returns from recess.[15][16]
[edit]

As of today, January 6, 2014, the following figures represent the cumulative partisan breakdown of the 50 state senates and 49 state houses. In the 50 states, Republicans currently control 51.7% of all seats while Democrats hold 46.6%. All told, Republicans control 57 chambers while Democrats are the majority in 40 chambers. Two chambers are non-partisan.


Representation in 50 State Legislatures
Party Number of Percentage
Democratic state legislators 3,444 46.6%
Republican state legislators 3,812 51.6%
Independent (and non-partisan) state legislators 68 0.92%
Third party (and non-voting) legislators 12 0.16%
Vacancies 49 0.66%

State Senates

The partisan composition of state senates refers to which political party holds the majority of seats in the state senate. Altogether, in the 50 state senates, there are 1,972 state senators.

As of January 6, 2014, the breakdown of chamber control by party is as follows:

See also: Partisan composition of state houses

Cumulative numbers

As of July 7, 2014, 1,905 state senators are affiliated with either the Republican or Democratic parties.

Party Number of Percentage
Democratic state senators 875 44.4%
Republican state senators 1,030 52.2%
Nonpartisan state senators 49 2.48%
Independent state senators 4 0.2%
Third Party state senators 2 0.1%
Vacancies 12 0.61%

Vacancies

As of July 7, 2014, there are 12 vacancies in 8 states.

State Vacancies
Missouri 2
New Hampshire 1
New York 2
South Carolina 1
Texas 2
Virginia 2
Wisconsin 1
Wyoming 1

Independents

As of July 7, 2014, there are 6 state senators in 5 states identifying as independents or parties other than Democratic and Republican.

State Independents/Third Party
Alabama 1 (Independent)
Kentucky 1 (Independent)
Maine 1 (Independent)
Rhode Island 1 (Independent)
Vermont 2 (Vermont Progressive)

State Houses

The partisan composition of state houses refers to which party holds the majority of seats in the state house or the lower level of each state legislature. Altogether, in the 49 state houses, there are 5,416 state representatives.

As of January 6, 2014, the breakdown of chamber control by party is as follows:

  • Democratic Party 20 chambers
  • Republican Party 29 chambers

Cumulative numbers

As of July 7, 2014, 5,347 state representatives are affiliated with either the Republican or Democratic parties.

Party Number of Percentage
Democratic state representatives 2,554 47.2%
Republican state representatives 2,793 51.6%
Independent state representatives 13 0.24%
Third party (and nonvoting) representatives 10 0.18%
Vacancies 43 0.79%

Vacancies

As of July 7, 2014, there are 43 state house vacancies in 12 different states.

State Vacancies
Alabama 1
California 1
Connecticut 1
Georgia 1
Illinois 2
Louisiana 1
Massachusetts 5
Missouri 3
Nevada 1
New Hampshire 14
New York 11
Virginia 2

Independents

As of July 7, 2014, there are 23 state representatives in 9 states identifying as independents or parties other than Democratic and Republican.

State Independents/Third Party
Alabama 1 (Independent)
Arkansas 1 (Green)
Georgia 1 (Independent)
Louisiana 2 (Independent)
Maine 7 (3 non-voting Native American representatives, 4 Independent)
Michigan 1 (Independent)
Tennessee 1 (Carter County Republican)
Vermont 9 (5 Vermont Progressive Party, 4 Independent)

Regular sessions

Current sessions capture for the week of January 6, 2014
See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions
Click here to see a chart of each state's 2014 session information.

Currently two out of 50 state legislatures are meeting in regular session.

The following states have convened their 2014 regular session:[17]

Special sessions

Snapshot of State Legislatures:
Thursday, July 24, 2014
There are 7,385 Total State Legislators
Total Democratic state legislators 3,429 (46.4%)
Total Republican state legislators 3,823 (51.8%)
There are 99 Total State Legislative Chambers
Total Democratic Party-controlled chambers 40
Total Republican Party-controlled chambers 57
Total tied or nonpartisan chambers 2
2014 Session Information
Total Special Elections 0
Total Special Sessions 0

There are currently no legislatures meeting in special session.

See also: State legislative elections, 2014

A total of 87 of the 99 chambers will hold state legislative elections on November 4, 2014.

The 87 chambers with elections in 2014 are in 46 states. They are:

The Kansas, Minnesota, New Mexico and South Carolina senates also typically hold elections in odd years. However, senators are elected to 4-year terms in those states and those will not be up for election again until 2015.

1090 of the country's 1,972 state senate seats are up for re-election in November 2014, and 4,958 of the country's 5,415 state house seats are up for re-election. Altogether, 6,048 of the country's 7,387 state legislative seats are up for re-election on November 4, 2014.

Primary Information

See also: Signature requirements and deadlines for 2014 state legislative elections

The state legislative filing deadlines and primary dates are as follows:

Note: Ballot access is a complicated issue. The dates in the table below are primarily for candidates filing for access to the primary. For more detailed information about each state's qualification requirements -- including all relevant ballot access dates for the primary and general election -- click to our detailed pages in the state column.

2014 State Legislative Primary Information
State Filing Deadline Primary Date Days from Deadline to Primary
Alabama Red padlock.png 2/7/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 116
Alaska Red padlock.png 6/2/2014[18] 8/19/2014 78
Arizona Red padlock.png 5/28/2014[19] 8/26/2014 90
Arkansas Red padlock.png 3/3/2014[20][21] Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 78
California Red padlock.png 3/7/2014[22][23][24] Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 88
Colorado Red padlock.png 3/31/2014[25][26] Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 85
Connecticut Red padlock.png 6/10/2014[27] 8/12/2014 90
Delaware Red padlock.png 7/8/2014 9/9/2014 63
Florida Red padlock.png 6/20/2014[28][29] 8/26/2014 67
Georgia Red padlock.png 3/7/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 74
Hawaii Red padlock.png 6/3/2014[30][31] 8/9/2014 67
Idaho Red padlock.png 3/14/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 78
Illinois Red padlock.png 12/2/2013 Red padlock.png 3/18/2014 106
Indiana Red padlock.png 2/7/2014 Red padlock.png 5/6/2014 88
Iowa Red padlock.png 3/14/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 81
Kansas Red padlock.png 6/2/2014 8/5/2014 65
Kentucky Red padlock.png 1/28/2014[32][33] Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 112
Maine Red padlock.png 3/17/2014[34] Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 85
Maryland Red padlock.png 2/25/2014[35] Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 119
Massachusetts Red padlock.png 6/3/2014[36] 9/9/2014 98
Michigan Red padlock.png 4/22/2014 8/5/2014 105
Minnesota Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 8/12/2014 70
Missouri Red padlock.png 3/25/2014 8/5/2014 133
Montana Red padlock.png 3/10/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 85
Nebraska Red padlock.png 3/3/2014[32] Red padlock.png 5/13/2014 85
Nevada Red padlock.png 3/14/2014 Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 88
New Hampshire Red padlock.png 6/13/2014 9/9/2014 88
New Mexico Red padlock.png 2/4/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 119
New York Red padlock.png 7/10/2014 9/9/2014 61
North Carolina Red padlock.png 2/28/2014 Red padlock.png 5/6/2014 67
North Dakota Red padlock.png 4/7/2014 Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 64
Ohio Red padlock.png 2/5/2014 Red padlock.png 5/6/2014 90
Oklahoma Red padlock.png 4/11/2014 Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 74
Oregon Red padlock.png 3/11/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 70
Pennsylvania Red padlock.png 3/11/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 70
Rhode Island Red padlock.png 6/25/2014 9/9/2014 76
South Carolina Red padlock.png 3/30/2014 Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 72
South Dakota Red padlock.png 3/25/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 70
Tennessee Red padlock.png 4/3/2014 8/7/2014 126
Texas Red padlock.png 12/9/2013 Red padlock.png 3/4/2014 85
Utah Red padlock.png 3/20/2014 Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 96
Vermont Red padlock.png 6/12/2014 8/26/2014 75
Washington Red padlock.png 5/17/2014 8/5/2014 80
West Virginia Red padlock.png 1/25/2014 Red padlock.png 5/13/2014 108
Wisconsin Red padlock.png 6/2/2014 8/12/2014 71
Wyoming Red padlock.png 5/30/2014 8/19/2014 81


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See also: State legislative special elections, 2014

There are six special elections scheduled this week: two in Georgia, one in Iowa, one in Massachusetts and two in Virginia.

Georgia House of Representatives District 2

See also: Georgia state legislative special elections, 2014

Republicans Neal Florence, Steve Tarvin and Doug Woodruff faced off in the special election, which took place on January 7.[37][38][39] As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Tarvin and Florence - met in a runoff on February 4, which Tarvin won.[40][41]

The seat was vacant following Jay Neal's (R) resignation to serve as executive director of the Governor’s Office of Transition, Support and Re-entry.[42]

A special election for the position of Georgia House of Representatives District 2 was called for January 7, with a runoff if necessary on February 4. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was November 20, 2013.[43]

Georgia House of Representatives, District 2, Runoff Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Tarvin 53.9% 1,925
     Republican Neal Florence 46.1% 1,649
Total Votes 3,574
Georgia House of Representatives, District 2, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Tarvin 38.2% 1,073
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngNeal Florence 34.3% 964
     Republican Doug Woodruff 27.5% 774
Total Votes 2,811
January 7 Special election candidates:
Republican Party Neal Florence
Republican Party Steve Tarvin
Republican Party Doug Woodruff

Georgia House of Representatives District 22

See also: Georgia state legislative special elections, 2014

Republicans Meagan Biello, Nate Cochran, Jeff Duncan and Sam Moore faced off in the special election, which took place on January 7.[37][44][45] As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Moore and Biello - met in a runoff on February 4, which Moore won.[46][47]

The seat was vacant following Calvin Hill's (R) death on October 30, 2013 after a battle with leukemia.[48]

A special election for the position of Georgia House of Representatives District 22 was called for January 7, with a runoff if necessary on February 4. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was November 20, 2013.[49]

Georgia House of Representatives, District 22, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSam Moore 57.7% 1,520
     Republican Meagan Biello 42.3% 1,113
Total Votes 2,633
January 7 Special election candidates:
Republican Party Meagan Biello
Republican Party Nate Cochran
Republican Party Jeff Duncan
Republican Party Sam Moore

Iowa House of Representatives District 25

See also: Iowa state legislative special elections, 2014

Stan Gustafson (R) defeated Pam Deichmann (D) in the special election, which took place on January 7.[50][37][51][52]

The seat was vacant following Julian B. Garrett's (R) election to the Iowa State Senate on November 19, 2013.[53]

A special election for the position of Iowa House of Representatives District 25 was called for January 7, with a runoff if necessary on February 4. Candidates were nominated by their party rather than chosen through a primary.[54]

Iowa House of Representatives, District 25, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngStan Gustafson 70.1% 1,627
     Democratic Pam Deichmann 29.9% 694
Total Votes 2,321


January 7 Special election candidates:
Republican Party Stan Gustafson
Democratic Party Pam Deichmann

Massachusetts House of Representatives Ninth Norfolk District

See also: Massachusetts state legislative special elections, 2014

Shawn C. Dooley (R) defeated Christopher G. Timson (I) and Edward J. McCormick, III (D) in the special election, which took place on January 7.[37][55][56]

The seat was vacant following Daniel Winslow's (R) resignation on September 29, 2013, to take a job as senior vice president and general counsel of Rimini Street, an enterprise software support firm.[57][58]

A special election for the position of Massachusetts House of Representatives Ninth Norfolk District was called for January 7. As only one candidate filed for each party, a primary on December 10 was not necessary. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was November 5, 2013.[59]

Massachusetts House of Representatives, Ninth Norfolk District, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngShawn C. Dooley 61.1% 1,922
     Independent Christopher G. Timson 20.9% 659
     Democratic Edward J. McCormick, III 18% 566
Total Votes 3,147
January 7 Special election candidates:
Democratic Party Edward J. McCormick, III
Republican Party Shawn C. Dooley

Virginia State Senate District 6

See also: Virginia state legislative special elections, 2014

Lynwood Lewis (D) defeated Wayne Coleman (R) in the special election.[37] Initial returns showed Lewis leading by only 22 votes,[60] within the range of a recount. Official results published by the State Board of Elections declared Lewis the winner by nine votes, leading Coleman to seek a recount.[61] Following the recount, Lewis was declared the winner by eleven votes.[62][63]

The seat was vacant following Ralph Northam's (D) election as Lieutenant Governor of Virginia on November 5, 2013.

A special election for the position of Virginia State Senate District 6 was called for January 7. Candidates were nominated by their party rather than chosen through a primary.[64]

Virginia State Senate, District 6, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngLynwood Lewis 50% 10,201
     Republican Wayne Coleman 50% 10,192
Total Votes 20,393

January 7 Special election candidates:

Democratic Party Lynwood Lewis
Republican Party Wayne Coleman

Virginia House of Delegates District 11

See also: Virginia state legislative special elections, 2014

S. "Sam" Rasoul (D) defeated Octavia L. Johnson (R) in the special election, which took place on January 7.[37][65][66]

The seat was vacant following Onzlee Ware's (D) resignation on November 14, 2013, to spend time with his family.[67]

A special election for the position of Virginia House of Delegates District 11 was called for January 7. Candidates were nominated by their party rather than chosen through a primary. The nominating deadline for parties was December 11, 2013.[68]

Virginia House of Delegates, District 11, Special Election, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngS. "Sam" Rasoul 70.3% 5,129
     Republican Octavia L. Johnson 29.7% 2,166
Total Votes 7,295

January 7 Special election candidates:

Democratic Party S. "Sam" Rasoul
Republican Party Octavia L. Johnson

Recent election results

December 17, 2013

CheckedBoxOffset.jpg New Hampshire House of Representatives Sixth Strafford District
Rep. Phil Ginsburg (D) resigned after he moved out of the district. A special election was initially called for February 4, 2014, with a primary on December 17, 2013. Because only one candidate from each party filed, however, the special election was held on December 17. Candidates had until October 22 to file certified nomination papers with the Town Clerk.[69][70]

December 17 Special election candidates:
Democratic Party Amanda Merrill Green check mark transparent.png
Republican Party Deidre Lepkowski

CheckedBoxOffset.jpg Wisconsin State Assembly District 82
Rep. Jeffrey Stone (R) resigned to become Division Administrator for the Division of Water, Compliance, and Consumer Affairs of the Public Service Commission. A special election has been called for December 17, with a primary on November 19. Candidates had until October 22 to file certified nomination papers with the Secretary of State.[71][72][73][74]

December 17 Special election candidates:
Democratic PartyJohn R. Hermes
Republican PartyKen Skowronski Green check mark transparent.png

Looking ahead

Upcoming special elections include:

  • January 14: Arkansas Senate District 21
  • January 21: Virginia State Senate District 33
  • January 28: Alabama House of Representatives District 31
  • January 28: Alabama House of Representatives District 104
  • January 28: Pennsylvania House of Representatives District 78
  • January 28: Texas House of Representatives District 50

See also

References

  1. The Sacramento Bee, “The Buzz: As California lawmakers convene for 2014, trial against Sen. Rod Wright set to begin,” January 2, 2014
  2. Los Angeles Times, “State Sen. Roderick Wright’s trial to get underway this week,” January 2, 2014
  3. Los Angeles Times, “If Sen. Wright lives outside his district, it may not matter,” September 28, 2009
  4. LATimes.com, "Two charges against state senator reinstated," July 12, 2011
  5. Los Angeles Times, "Some California legislators bring arrest records to their campaigns," May 5, 2012
  6. The Metropolitan Corporate Counsel, "Hon. E. Norman Veasey Announces Career Change," December 4, 2013
  7. Delaware Online, "Veasey Report: Corrupt politics, but no charges," December 28, 2013
  8. Delaware Online, "Legislators troubled by Veasey report 'whitewash,'" December 30, 3013
  9. delamarvanow.com, "Opinion: Delaware must weed out 'pay for play' culture," January 1, 2014
  10. Omaha World-Herald, "'Meaningful tax relief' tops Gov. Heineman's wish list," December 30, 2013
  11. Wahoo Newspaper, "Senator predicts busy session," January 2, 2014
  12. Midwest Producer, "Taxes, water issues on Legislature's planner," December 26, 2013
  13. Nebraska Radio Network, "Farm Bureau to keep pressing for tax relief in legislative session," December 31, 2013
  14. Associated Press, "Lawmaker urges utility sale to cover Omaha bills," January 1, 2014
  15. www.nydailynews.com, "NYS State Sen. Brad Hoylman Introduces Bill To Ban Outside Employment For Legislators," accessed January 2, 2014
  16. www.nydailynews.com, "Kill the moonlight, state Sen. Brad Hoylman says of pols working on the side," accessed January 2, 2014
  17. Stateside Associates, " Session Calendar 2014," accessed January 6, 2014
  18. Alaska Statutes, "Section 15.25, Nomination of Candidates," accessed October 31, 2013
  19. Secretary of State Website, "2014 Election Important Dates," accessed November 4, 2013
  20. Running for Public Office, "A 'Plain English' Handbook for Candidates," 2012 Edition, accessed October 21, 2013
  21. Arkansas Code of 1987, "Title 7, Elections," accessed October 30, 2013
  22. Summary of Qualifications and Requirements for the Office of State Senator, Member of the Assembly, "June 3, 2014, Primary Election," accessed October 21, 2013
  23. California Elections Code, "Section 8100-8107," accessed October 28, 2013
  24. California Secretary of State Website, "Key Dates and Deadlines," accessed October 21, 2013
  25. Colorado Secretary of State Website, "Major Political Parties FAQs," accessed October 31, 2013
  26. Colorado Revised Statutes, "Title 1, Elections," accessed October 31, 2013
  27. Connecticut Secretary of State Website, "Frequently Asked Questions, Nominating Papers," accessed October 31, 2013
  28. Florida Department of State Division of Elections, "2013-2014 Dates to Remember," accessed November 6, 2013
  29. 2013 Florida Statutes, "Section 99.061," accessed December 2, 2014
  30. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hi
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  32. 32.0 32.1 2014 Kentucky Election Calendar, accessed November 12, 2013
  33. Kentucky State Board of Elections "Candidate Qualifications and Filing Fees" accessed November 26, 2011
  34. Maine Secretary of State "State of Maine 2014 Candidate's Guide to Ballot Access," accessed February 11, 2014
  35. The State Board of Elections, "Candidacy," accessed November 5, 2013
  36. 2014 Massachusetts State Primary and State Election Schedule, accessed December 2, 2013
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  38. wrcbtv.com, "Northwest Georgia special election results," January 7, 2014
  39. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 22, 2014
  40. Dalton Daily Citizen, "Tarvin wins runoff for state House seat," February 4, 2014
  41. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official runoff election results," accessed March 14, 2014
  42. daltondailycitizen.com, "Neal appointment means special election coming up," November 2, 2013
  43. sos.ga.gov, "Secretary of State Kemp Sets Qualifying Dates for the Special Elections in State House District 2 and State House District 22," November 12, 2013
  44. canton-ga.patch.com, "State House District 22 Candidates Headed for Special Election Runoff," January 8, 2014
  45. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 22, 2014
  46. Cherokee Tribune, "Moore wins District 22 runoff," February 4, 2014
  47. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official runoff election results," accessed March 14, 2014
  48. ajc.com, "Rep. Calvin Hill passes away," October 30, 2013
  49. sos.ga.gov, "Secretary of State Kemp Sets Qualifying Dates for the Special Elections in State House District 2 and State House District 22," November 12, 2013
  50. theiowarepublican.com, "Gustafson Nominated in House District 25 Special Election," December 2, 2013
  51. desmoinesregister.com, "Republican Stan Gustafson wins special Iowa House election," January 7, 2014
  52. Iowa Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 15, 2014
  53. blogs.desmoinesregister.com, "Special election set for Iowa House District 25 vacancy," November 26, 2013
  54. Iowa Secretary of State, "Special election information," accessed November 26, 2013
  55. thesunchronicle.com, "Dooley wins by landslide in 9th Norfolk District state rep. race," January 7, 2014
  56. Massachusetts Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed April 16, 2014
  57. Boston Globe, "State Rep. Dan Winslow stepping down, joining software firm," September 16, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  58. Business Wire, "Rimini Street Appoints Daniel B. Winslow as General Counsel," September 16, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  59. thesunchronicle.com, "Special election to fill state rep seat to be held Jan. 7," September 30, 2013
  60. washingtonpost.com, "Va. Senate control hangs in balance as Democrat leads special election by 22 votes," January 7, 2014
  61. bradblog.com, "Another VA 'Recount' Coming: 9-Vote Margin in Special Election for Control of State Senate," January 10, 2014
  62. Washington Post, "Democrat wins Virginia Senate recount, giving Gov. Terry McAuliffe’s agenda a crucial boost," January 27, 2014
  63. Virginia Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 30, 2014
  64. wvec.com, "Special Election in Senate District 6 set for January 7th," December 6, 2013
  65. washingtonpost.com, "Va. Senate control hangs in balance as Democrat leads special election by 22 votes," January 7, 2014
  66. Virginia Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 22, 2014
  67. roanoke.com, " Ware to resign from House of Delegates, citing mother’s poor health," November 14, 2013
  68. governor.virginia.gov, " Governor McDonnell Sets Date for Special Election in Virginia House District 11," November 27, 2013
  69. fosters.com, "Merrill files for state rep special election," October 24, 2013
  70. Silo Breaker, "Merrill wins special election for N.H. House," December 18, 2013
  71. gab.wi.gov, "Executive Order #118," accessed December 16, 2013
  72. gab.wi.gov, "Official candidate list," accessed December 16, 2013
  73. gab.wi.gov, "Official primary election results," accessed December 16, 2013
  74. Journal Sentinel," "Ken Skowronski wins special Assembly election to replace Jeff Stone," December 17, 2013