State Legislative Tracker: Massachusetts rep expelled from legislature

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February 10, 2014

Edited by Joel Williams
This week’s tracker includes a look at a legislator getting expelled.

Weekly highlight

Last week, three states began their legislative sessions. Here is a brief look at issues making headlines across the country:

  • Colorado: Republican state legislators in Colorado are working to repeal controversial new laws passed in the wake of mass shootings at a movie theatre and elementary school last year. Senate Democrats this week shot down an attempt by Republican lawmakers to reverse a new bill expanding background check requirements on the sale of firearms. According to Republicans who backed the repeal effort, there has not been enough evidence that the new gun control laws improve public safety. Conservative lawmakers have also argued that the laws infringe on the constitutional rights of Colorado citizens. Democrats, on the other hand, argued that the number of background checks and denials calculated since the new laws took effect prove that they are working. According to reports by the Colorado Bureau of Investigation, there have been more than 6,000 background checks conducted in that time frame, with roughly 100 denials in the first six months. Jennifer Hope, leader of the Colorado chapter of Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America, applauded the Democrats' efforts. "If only one person convicted of assault or domestic violence is prevented from getting a gun because of this law then our state is that much safer," she said. National Rifle Association lobbyist Daniel Carey had a different take on the laws. "Really, it only unnecessarily burdens law-abiding citizens," he said. Sen. George Rivera (R), who sponsored the repeal bill that was defeated after a six-hour hearing in the State, Veterans and Military Affairs Committee on Monday had similar thoughts about the new laws. “They place unreasonable burden on law-abiding Coloradans, criminalizing commonplace activities like lending a hunting rifle to a friend,” he said. Despite the defeat, Republicans have another repeal bill in the works that would undo a 2013 law limiting ammunition magazines to 15 rounds.[1][2][3][4]
  • Massachusetts: The Massachusetts House of Representatives expelled its first member in nearly a century. Fifth Suffolk Rep. Carlos Henriquez (D), who is currently serving a six-month sentence in a house of correction, was voted out of the House 146-5 last Thursday following an hour and a half of debate. Henriquez was convicted in January of two misdemeanor charges of assault and battery on a woman he dated in July 2012. Henriquez has continued to profess his innocence, even speaking on the House floor for six minutes prior to his expulsion. The embattled representative's proponents included Rep. Russell Holmes (D), who put forward an amendment to limit Henriquez's punishment to censure, which was widely rejected; and the New England NAACP, which urged lawmakers not to vote to expel, arguing that Henriquez is still popular and that House rules do not allow for expulsion because of misdemeanor convictions. Earlier last week, the Ethics Committee voted unanimously to recommend Henriquez's expulsion, saying in its report that by virtue of being imprisoned and asking for a six-month leave from the House, Henriquez's "independence of judgment" is impaired, violating a House rule. Henriquez's expulsion is the first in the House since 1916, when Harry Foster was thrown out due to a conflict of interest, and the first in the General Court since 1977, when Joseph DiCarlo was removed amidst a bribery scandal.[5][6][7][8][9]
  • South Carolina: Last week, the South Carolina House of Representatives passed House Bill 4384, which would require all mopeds sold in the state to be equipped with a tail light that continually flashes and would also require moped drivers to wear a reflective vest at all times. The legislation would also make it illegal for moped drives to drive on roads where the speed limit exceeds 45 mph. HB 4384 passed in the House by a vote of 76 to 40. Moped drivers caught violating the bill would be charged with a misdemeanor, and upon conviction, would face up to a $200 fine or up to 30 days in jail. Rep. Bill Whitmire (R) of District 1 said that he proposed HB 4384 after he almost hit a moped that was going 30 mph on a 55 mph four-lane highway. Whitmire says the new legislation is nothing more than a bill to improve public safety. Bill Boggs, a co-owner of BJ's Scooter Rentals in Myrtle Beach and an opponent to the new legislation, said that it would be safer for the state's drivers if the legislature allowed mopeds to go faster than the current speed limit of 25 mph. Other opponents of the legislation point out that the people that have mopeds cannot usually afford a vehicle, and the new legislation will cut off many of the streets that they use to go to work, school and the grocery store. The bill will now be sent to the Senate for approval.[10][11][12][13]
  • Washington: The Washington State Senate passed a bill this week that would open up funding for students in the state who were brought to the United States as children and do not have legal status. Now known as the Real Hope Act, the measure adds $5 million to the State Need Grant program, which gives financial aid for college to those brought to the U.S. as minors by their guardians. The bill was sponsored by Sens Barbara Bailey (R), Steve Litzow (R), Joe Fain (R), Rodney Tom (D), Andy Hill (R) and Bruce Dammeier (R). The Washington House of Representatives passed a very similar measure on the first day of its legislative session: the Washington Dream Act, House Bill 1417. At least 18 states across the country have passed or are considering measures to make college more affordable for undocumented students, including allowing these students to pay in-state tuition, as long as they can prove residence in that state for several years prior. Governor Jay Inslee (D) is expected to sign the measure into law, once the house brings the senate's bill to their floor.[14][15][16][17][18]
[edit]

As of today, February 3, 2014, the following figures represent the cumulative partisan breakdown of the 50 state senates and 49 state houses. In the 50 states, Republicans currently control 51.7% of all seats while Democrats hold 46.5%. All told, Republicans control 57 chambers while Democrats are the majority in 41 chambers. One chambers is nonpartisan.


Representation in 50 State Legislatures
Party Number of Percentage
Democratic state legislators 3,438 46.5%
Republican state legislators 3,823 51.8%
Independent (and nonpartisan) state legislators 66 0.89%
Third party (and non-voting) legislators 12 0.16%
Vacancies 37 0.50%

State Senates

The partisan composition of state senates refers to which political party holds the majority of seats in the state senate. Altogether, in the 50 state senates, there are 1,972 state senators.

As of January 21, 2014, the breakdown of chamber control by party is as follows:

See also: Partisan composition of state houses

Cumulative numbers

As of December 1, 2014, 1,902 state senators are affiliated with either the Republican or Democratic parties. This total is updated monthly.

Party Number of Percentage
Democratic state senators 861 43.6%
Republican state senators 1,041 52.8%
Nonpartisan state senators 49 2.48%
Independent state senators 4 0.2%
Third Party state senators 2 0.1%
Vacancies 15 0.76%

Vacancies

As of December 1, 2014, there are 15 vacancies in 12 states. This total is updated monthly.

State Vacancies
Arkansas 2
California 1
Florida 1
Mississippi 1
Missouri 2
New Hampshire 1
New York 2
Pennsylvania 1
Texas 1
Utah 1
Virginia 1
Wisconsin 1

Independents

As of December 1, 2014, there are 6 state senators in 5 states identifying as independents or parties other than Democratic and Republican. This total is updated monthly.

State Independents/Third Party
Alabama 1 (Independent)
Kentucky 1 (Independent)
Maine 1 (Independent)
Rhode Island 1 (Independent)
Vermont 2 (Vermont Progressive)

State Houses

The partisan composition of state houses refers to which party holds the majority of seats in the state house or the lower level of each state legislature. Altogether, in the 49 state houses, there are 5,415 state representatives.

As of January 21, 2014, the breakdown of chamber control by party is as follows:

  • Democratic Party 20 chambers
  • Republican Party 29 chambers

Cumulative numbers

As of December 1, 2014, 5,338 state representatives are affiliated with either the Republican or Democratic parties. This total is updated monthly.

Party Number of Percentage
Democratic state representatives 2,535 46.9%
Republican state representatives 2,803 51.8%
Independent state representatives 12 0.22%
Third party representatives 6 0.11%
Vacancies 51 0.94%

Vacancies

As of December 1, 2014, there are 51 state house vacancies in 18 different states. This total is updated monthly.

State Vacancies
California 1
Florida 4
Georgia 1
Illinois 1
Indiana 1
Maine 2
Massachusetts 6
Missouri 2
Nevada 1
New Hampshire 14
New York 11
North Dakota 1
Ohio 1
Pennsylvania 1
Texas 1
Vermont 1
Virginia 1
Washington 1

Independents

As of December 1, 2014, there are 18 state representatives in 6 states identifying as independents or parties other than Democratic and Republican. Three members of the Maine House of Representatives are non-voting Native American representatives. This total is updated monthly.

State Independents/Third Party
Arkansas 1 (Green)
Georgia 1 (Independent)
Louisiana 2 (Independent)
Maine 7 (3 non-voting Native American representatives, 4 Independent)
Michigan 1 (Independent)
Vermont 9 (5 Vermont Progressive Party, 4 Independent)

Regular sessions

Current sessions capture for the week of February 10, 2014
See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions
Click here to see a chart of each state's 2014 session information.

Currently 41 out of 50 state legislatures are meeting in regular session. One state, Wisconsin, is meeting in special session.

The following states have convened their 2014 regular session:[19]

Special sessions

Snapshot of State Legislatures:
Wednesday, December 17, 2014
There are 7,387 Total State Legislators
Total Democratic state legislators 3,323 (45%)
Total Republican state legislators 3,943 (53.4%)
There are 99 Total State Legislative Chambers
Total Democratic Party-controlled chambers 41
Total Republican Party-controlled chambers 57
Total tied or nonpartisan chambers 1
2014 Session Information
Total Special Elections 11
Total Special Sessions 1
Wisconsin

Gov. Scott Walker (R) called the legislature into special session on January 22. Walker asked the legislature to find a way to fund $500 million worth of property and income tax cuts.[20]

In recess

As of today, February 10, there are no state legislatures currently in recess.[21]









See also: State legislative elections, 2014

A total of 87 of the 99 chambers will hold state legislative elections on November 4, 2014.

The 87 chambers with elections in 2014 are in 46 states. They are:

The Kansas, Minnesota, New Mexico and South Carolina senates also typically hold elections in odd years. However, senators are elected to 4-year terms in those states and those will not be up for election again until 2015.

1090 of the country's 1,972 state senate seats are up for re-election in November 2014, and 4,958 of the country's 5,415 state house seats are up for re-election. Altogether, 6,048 of the country's 7,387 state legislative seats are up for re-election on November 4, 2014.

Primary Information

See also: Signature requirements and deadlines for 2014 state legislative elections

The state legislative filing deadlines and primary dates are as follows:

Note: Ballot access is a complicated issue. The dates in the table below are primarily for candidates filing for access to the primary. For more detailed information about each state's qualification requirements -- including all relevant ballot access dates for the primary and general election -- click to our detailed pages in the state column.

2014 State Legislative Primary Information
State Filing Deadline Primary Date Days from Deadline to Primary
Alabama Red padlock.png 2/7/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 116
Alaska Red padlock.png 6/2/2014[22] Red padlock.png 8/19/2014 78
Arizona Red padlock.png 5/28/2014[23] Red padlock.png 8/26/2014 90
Arkansas Red padlock.png 3/3/2014[24][25] Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 78
California Red padlock.png 3/7/2014[26][27][28] Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 88
Colorado Red padlock.png 3/31/2014[29][30] Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 85
Connecticut Red padlock.png 6/10/2014[31] Red padlock.png 8/12/2014 90
Delaware Red padlock.png 7/8/2014 Red padlock.png 9/9/2014 63
Florida Red padlock.png 6/20/2014[32][33] Red padlock.png 8/26/2014 67
Georgia Red padlock.png 3/7/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 74
Hawaii Red padlock.png 6/3/2014[34] Red padlock.png 8/9/2014 67
Idaho Red padlock.png 3/14/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 78
Illinois Red padlock.png 12/2/2013 Red padlock.png 3/18/2014 106
Indiana Red padlock.png 2/7/2014 Red padlock.png 5/6/2014 88
Iowa Red padlock.png 3/14/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 81
Kansas Red padlock.png 6/2/2014 Red padlock.png 8/5/2014 65
Kentucky Red padlock.png 1/28/2014[35][36] Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 112
Maine Red padlock.png 3/17/2014[37] Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 85
Maryland Red padlock.png 2/25/2014[38] Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 119
Massachusetts Red padlock.png 6/3/2014[39] Red padlock.png 9/9/2014 98
Michigan Red padlock.png 4/22/2014 Red padlock.png 8/5/2014 105
Minnesota Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 Red padlock.png 8/12/2014 70
Missouri Red padlock.png 3/25/2014 Red padlock.png 8/5/2014 133
Montana Red padlock.png 3/10/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 85
Nebraska Red padlock.png 3/3/2014[40] Red padlock.png 5/13/2014 85
Nevada Red padlock.png 3/14/2014 Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 88
New Hampshire Red padlock.png 6/13/2014 Red padlock.png 9/9/2014 88
New Mexico Red padlock.png 2/4/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 119
New York Red padlock.png 7/10/2014 Red padlock.png 9/9/2014 61
North Carolina Red padlock.png 2/28/2014 Red padlock.png 5/6/2014 67
North Dakota Red padlock.png 4/7/2014 Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 64
Ohio Red padlock.png 2/5/2014 Red padlock.png 5/6/2014 90
Oklahoma Red padlock.png 4/11/2014 Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 74
Oregon Red padlock.png 3/11/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 70
Pennsylvania Red padlock.png 3/11/2014 Red padlock.png 5/20/2014 70
Rhode Island Red padlock.png 6/25/2014 Red padlock.png 9/9/2014 76
South Carolina Red padlock.png 3/30/2014 Red padlock.png 6/10/2014 72
South Dakota Red padlock.png 3/25/2014 Red padlock.png 6/3/2014 70
Tennessee Red padlock.png 4/3/2014 Red padlock.png 8/7/2014 126
Texas Red padlock.png 12/9/2013 Red padlock.png 3/4/2014 85
Utah Red padlock.png 3/20/2014 Red padlock.png 6/24/2014 96
Vermont Red padlock.png 6/12/2014 Red padlock.png 8/26/2014 75
Washington Red padlock.png 5/17/2014 Red padlock.png 8/5/2014 80
West Virginia Red padlock.png 1/25/2014 Red padlock.png 5/13/2014 108
Wisconsin Red padlock.png 6/2/2014 Red padlock.png 8/12/2014 71
Wyoming Red padlock.png 5/30/2014 Red padlock.png 8/19/2014 81


SLP badge.png
See also: State legislative special elections, 2014

There are no special elections scheduled this week. The next special election will take place on February 25, 2014

Recent election results

February 4, 2014

CheckedBoxOffset.jpg Alabama House of Representatives District 31

See also: Alabama state legislative special elections, 2014

Mike Holmes, Jimmy Collier, Michael Griggs and Frank Bertarelli faced off in the Republican primary.[41][42] As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Holmes and Collier - met in the Republican primary runoff on February 4, which Holmes won.[43][44]

The seat was vacant following Barry Mask's (R) appointment as the new chief executive officer of the Alabama Association of Realtors.[45]

A special election for the position of Alabama House of Representatives District 31 was initially called for January 28, with a primary on December 3, 2013. Because no Democratic candidate filed to run, the Republican primary runoff became the special election. Candidates from both major parties had until October 10, 2013, to file certified nomination papers with the Secretary of State.[45] Due to inclement weather, the election was pushed back a week to February 4.[46]

Alabama House of Representatives, District 31 Runoff Republican Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngMike Holmes 56.7% 2,028
Jimmy Collier 43.3% 1,550
Total Votes 3,578
Republican Party February 4 GOP runoff:

UncheckedBox.jpg Alabama House of Representatives District 53

See also: Alabama state legislative special elections, 2014

Anthony "Alann" Johnson (D) defeated Willie "W.A." Casey (R) in the special election, which took place on April 1.[47][48] Johnson, Arthur D. Shores Lee, Demetrius C. Newton Jr. and Frank Topping faced off in the Democratic primary.[49] As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Johnson and Lee - met in the Democratic primary runoff on February 4, which Johnson won.[50] Casey was unopposed in the Republican primary.[41]

The seat was vacant following Demetrius Newton's (D) death on September 11, 2013.[51]

A special election for the position of Alabama House of Representatives District 53 was initially called for January 28, with a primary on December 3, 2013. Because a runoff on January 28, 2014, was required, the special election was scheduled to take place on March 25 instead. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was October 10, 2013.[51] Due to inclement weather, the runoff was pushed back a week to February 4. The special election instead took place on April 1.[52]

Alabama House of Representatives, District 53, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngAnthony "Alann" Johnson 68.1% 320
     Republican Willie "W.A." Casey 31.9% 150
Total Votes 470
Democratic Party February 4 Democratic runoff:

CheckedBoxOffset.jpg Alabama House of Representatives District 104

See also: Alabama state legislative special elections, 2014

Margie Wilcox (R) defeated Stephen P. Carr, II (D) in the special election, which took place on February 4.[53] Carr was unopposed in the Democratic primary. Susan Hightower, Margie Wilcox, Ralph Carmichael, Nathan Davis and Charlie Plyler faced off in the Republican primary. As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Wilcox and Hightower - met in the Republican primary runoff on December 3, 2013, which Wilcox won.[54][55]

The seat was vacant following Jim Barton's (R) resignation on August 7, 2013, to work for the Kinney Capitol Group.[56]

A special election for the position of Alabama House of Representatives District 104 was initially called for December 3, 2013, with a primary on October 15, 2013.[56] Because a runoff on December 3, 2013, was needed, the special election was scheduled to take place on January 28, 2014, instead. Due to inclement weather, the election was pushed back a week to February 4.[57]

Alabama House of Representatives, District 104, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngMargie Wilcox 90.5% 2,932
     Republican Stephen P. Carr, II 9.5% 307
Total Votes 3,239

February 4 Special election candidates:

Democratic Party Stephen P. Carr, II
Republican Party Margie Wilcox Green check mark transparent.png

RunoffArrow.jpgCheckedBoxOffset.jpg Georgia House of Representatives District 2

See also: Georgia state legislative special elections, 2014

Republicans Neal Florence, Steve Tarvin and Doug Woodruff faced off in the special election, which took place on January 7.[41][58][59] As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Tarvin and Florence - met in a runoff on February 4, which Tarvin won.[60][61]

The seat was vacant following Jay Neal's (R) resignation to serve as executive director of the Governor’s Office of Transition, Support and Re-entry.[62]

A special election for the position of Georgia House of Representatives District 2 was called for January 7, with a runoff if necessary on February 4. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was November 20, 2013.[63]

Georgia House of Representatives, District 2, Runoff Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Tarvin 53.9% 1,925
     Republican Neal Florence 46.1% 1,649
Total Votes 3,574
Georgia House of Representatives, District 2, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Tarvin 38.2% 1,073
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngNeal Florence 34.3% 964
     Republican Doug Woodruff 27.5% 774
Total Votes 2,811
February 4 Runoff election candidates:
Republican Party Neal Florence
Republican Party Steve Tarvin Green check mark transparent.png

RunoffArrow.jpgCheckedBoxOffset.jpg Georgia House of Representatives District 22

See also: Georgia state legislative special elections, 2014

Republicans Meagan Biello, Nate Cochran, Jeff Duncan and Sam Moore faced off in the special election, which took place on January 7.[41][64][65] As no candidate received more than fifty percent of the vote, the top-two vote-getters - Moore and Biello - met in a runoff on February 4, which Moore won.[66][67]

The seat was vacant following Calvin Hill's (R) death on October 30, 2013 after a battle with leukemia.[68]

A special election for the position of Georgia House of Representatives District 22 was called for January 7, with a runoff if necessary on February 4. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was November 20, 2013.[69]

Georgia House of Representatives, District 22, Special Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSam Moore 57.7% 1,520
     Republican Meagan Biello 42.3% 1,113
Total Votes 2,633
February 4 Runoff election candidates:
Republican Party Meagan Biello
Republican Party Sam Moore Green check mark transparent.png

Looking ahead

Upcoming special elections include:

  • February 25: Connecticut State Senate District 10
  • February 25: Rhode Island House of Representatives District 49
  • February 25: Virginia House of Delegates District 100
  • March 18: Pennsylvania State Senate District 28

See also

References

  1. ‘’Guns,’’ “Colorado legislators propse repeal of anti-gun laws as local district ends ban on open-carry,” January 31, 2014
  2. ‘’The Durango Herald,’’ “Gun Bill repeal shot down,” February 2, 2014
  3. ‘’sfgate.com,’’ “Bill to repeal new Colo. background check fails,” February 4, 2014
  4. ‘’The Gazette,’’ “AP Exclusive: Colorado gun background checks incomplete,” February 6, 2014
  5. Associated Press, "Mass. House votes to expel Rep. Henriquez," February 6, 2014. Accessed February 6, 2014
  6. The Boston Globe, "House votes to expel Rep. Carlos Henriquez, Dorchester lawmaker convicted of assault on woman," February 6, 2014. Accessed February 6, 2014
  7. MassLive.com, "Mass. House of Representatives votes to expel jailed state Rep. Carlos Henriquez after conviction for assault and battery on a woman," February 6, 2014. Accessed February 6, 2014
  8. State House News Service, "Rep. Henriquez Asserts Innocence, Knocks Colleagues," February 5, 2014. Accessed February 6, 2014
  9. WBUR, "DiMasi’s Alleged Crimes Recall The Old Days On Beacon Hill," June 5, 2009. Accessed February 6, 2014
  10. www.foxcarolina.com, "SC bill on moped requirements heads to Senate," accessed February 6, 2014
  11. www.wmbfnews.com, "New bill would take mopeds off fast roads, aimed to improve safety," accessed February 6, 2014
  12. www.wbtw.com, "SC House passes new moped safety requirements," accessed February 6, 2014
  13. www.carolinalive.com, "Bill proposed to improve safety regulations for moped drivers ," accessed February 6, 2014
  14. “The Capitol Hill Times,” “Washington DREAM Act Passes Senate,” accessed February 7, 2014
  15. “FM News 101 KXL”, “WA State Senate Bill to Expand Financial Aid to Illegal Immigrants,” accessed February 7, 2014
  16. “The Wall Street Journal”, “States Take Lead in Boosting Immigrant,” accessed February 7, 2014
  17. “KATU.com”, “Washington Senate OKs immigrant financial aid bill,” accessed February 7, 2014
  18. "Yakima Herald" "Senate Oks immigrant college financial aid bill," accessed February 7, 2014 (dead link)
  19. Stateside Associates, " Session Calendar 2014," accessed February 10, 2014
  20. Wisconsin Governor's Office, "Governor Scott Walker Calls Special Session, Calls on Legislators to Pass the Blueprint for Prosperity," January 23, 2014
  21. StateNet, " Daily Session Summary," accessed February 10, 2014
  22. Alaska Statutes, "Section 15.25, Nomination of Candidates," accessed October 31, 2013
  23. Secretary of State Website, "2014 Election Important Dates," accessed November 4, 2013
  24. Running for Public Office, "A 'Plain English' Handbook for Candidates," 2012 Edition, accessed October 21, 2013 (dead link)
  25. Arkansas Code of 1987, "Title 7, Elections," accessed October 30, 2013
  26. Summary of Qualifications and Requirements for the Office of State Senator, Member of the Assembly, "June 3, 2014, Primary Election," accessed October 21, 2013
  27. California Elections Code, "Section 8100-8107," accessed October 28, 2013
  28. California Secretary of State Website, "Key Dates and Deadlines," accessed October 21, 2013
  29. Colorado Secretary of State Website, "Major Political Parties FAQs," accessed October 31, 2013
  30. Colorado Revised Statutes, "Title 1, Elections," accessed October 31, 2013
  31. Connecticut Secretary of State Website, "Frequently Asked Questions, Nominating Papers," accessed October 31, 2013
  32. Florida Department of State Division of Elections, "2013-2014 Dates to Remember," accessed November 6, 2013
  33. 2013 Florida Statutes, "Section 99.061," accessed December 2, 2014
  34. Hawaii State Legislature, "HRS §12-6 Nomination papers: time for filing; fees", accessed May 22, 2013
  35. 2014 Kentucky Election Calendar, accessed November 12, 2013
  36. Kentucky State Board of Elections "Candidate Qualifications and Filing Fees" accessed November 26, 2011
  37. Maine Secretary of State "State of Maine 2014 Candidate's Guide to Ballot Access," accessed February 11, 2014
  38. The State Board of Elections, "Candidacy," accessed November 5, 2013
  39. 2014 Massachusetts State Primary and State Election Schedule, accessed December 2, 2013
  40. Official Election Calendar for the State of Nebraska, accessed November 18, 2014
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 seattlepi.com, "4 running as Republicans for Alabama House seat," October 11, 2013
  42. al.com, "Mike Holmes, Jimmy Collier qualify for Republican runoff in Alabama House District 31," December 3, 2013
  43. al.com, "Mike Holmes defeats Jimmy Collier in special election in Alabama House District 31," February 4, 2014
  44. Official special election results submitted to Ballotpedia by Brandon Walters from the Alabama Secretary of State's Office on May 7, 2014
  45. 45.0 45.1 therepublic.com, "Special election timeline announced for vacant Ala. House District 31 seat," October 1, 2013
  46. al.com, "Citing inclement weather forecast, governor delays special election set for Mobile House seat," January 27, 2014
  47. blog.al.com, "'This is a launching pad': Johnson, winner of state House special election, not worried about brief term," April 1, 2014
  48. Official special election results submitted to Ballotpedia by Brandon Walters from the Alabama Secretary of State's Office on May 7, 2014
  49. abc3340.com, "Johnson, Lee in runoff for Alabama House 53," December 3, 2013
  50. al.com, "In District 53 Democratic runoff, Anthony 'Alann' Johnson defeats Arthur Shores Lee in last-minute win (updated)," February 4, 2014
  51. 51.0 51.1 alreporter.com, "Governor Announces Special Election for District 53," September 19, 2013
  52. al.com, "Citing inclement weather forecast, governor delays special election set for Mobile House seat," January 27, 2014
  53. Official special election results submitted to Ballotpedia by Brandon Walters from the Alabama Secretary of State's Office on May 7, 2014
  54. al.com, "Hightower, Wilcox to face off in GOP primary for state House seat (updated, photos)," October 15, 2013
  55. therepublic.com, "Wilcox defeats Hightower in Alabama House District 104 runoff," December 3, 2013
  56. 56.0 56.1 timesdaily.com, " Special elections set for Ala. House districts," August 8, 2013 (dead link)
  57. al.com, "Citing inclement weather forecast, governor delays special election set for Mobile House seat," January 27, 2014
  58. wrcbtv.com, "Northwest Georgia special election results," January 7, 2014
  59. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 22, 2014
  60. Dalton Daily Citizen, "Tarvin wins runoff for state House seat," February 4, 2014 (dead link)
  61. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official runoff election results," accessed March 14, 2014
  62. daltondailycitizen.com, "Neal appointment means special election coming up," November 2, 2013 (dead link)
  63. sos.ga.gov, "Secretary of State Kemp Sets Qualifying Dates for the Special Elections in State House District 2 and State House District 22," November 12, 2013
  64. canton-ga.patch.com, "State House District 22 Candidates Headed for Special Election Runoff," January 8, 2014
  65. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official special election results," accessed January 22, 2014
  66. Cherokee Tribune, "Moore wins District 22 runoff," February 4, 2014
  67. Georgia Secretary of State, "Official runoff election results," accessed March 14, 2014
  68. ajc.com, "Rep. Calvin Hill passes away," October 30, 2013
  69. sos.ga.gov, "Secretary of State Kemp Sets Qualifying Dates for the Special Elections in State House District 2 and State House District 22," November 12, 2013