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A voter is eligible to vote absentee in an election if he or she cannot make it to the polls on election day for one of the following reasons:[1]

  • Will be absent from the county on election day;
  • Is ill or has a physical infirmity that prevents a trip to the polling place;
  • Is A Registered Alabama Voter Living Outside The County including but not limited to, members of the armed forces or a U.S. citizen residing overseas (or a spouse or dependent of such a person) or students at an educational institution located outside their county of residence;
  • Is an appointed election officer or poll watcher at a polling place other than his or her regular polling place; or
  • Works A Required Shift Which Has At Least 10 Hours that coincide with polling hours.
  • Business/Medical Emergency Voting applications can be made after the absentee deadline but no later than 5 PM on the day before the election, if the voter:
  • is required by an employer due to unforeseen circumstances to be out of the county on an emergency business trip on election day; or
  • has a medical emergency requiring treatment from a licensed physician within 5 days of an election.
  • In addition to application information outlined in the next section, the business emergency application contains an affidavit acknowledging that the voter was not aware of the out-of-county business trip prior to the normal absentee ballot deadline. The medical emergency application requires that the attending physician describe and certify the circumstances as constituting an emergency.


The absentee ballot application must be received at least five days prior to the election. It must then be returned either in person by close of business the day before the election or by mail. If returned by mail, it must be postmarked no later than the day before the election and received by the election manager by noon on election day.[1]

Military and overseas voting

Citizens who are members of the Uniformed Services or their family members, Merchant Marines, commissioned corps of the Public Health Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Alabama overseas citizens (UOCAVA voters) can receive their ballots by either electronic transmission or by U.S. mail.[1]