The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

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Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

Changes in Net Worth
The Donation Concentration Metric

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March 30, 2015

By Sarah Rosier and the Congress team
The price tag for pursuing a seat in Congress has increased more than 500 percent since 1984; as a result, the advantage in a campaign is often decided months before election day.[1] The rapid increase in campaign spending shows no indication of abatement, and analysts expect the trend to continue for the foreseeable future. Spending on television ads in Alaska and Iowa currently exceeds $11 per voter, while Senate races in Kentucky and North Carolina are expected to cost over $100 million in the coming years.[1]

The rapidly increasing price tag means that congressional office-seekers must make their cases for election and re-election not only to voters in their districts, but also to donors nationwide. The need for donors may be more acute for Republicans than Democratic candidates, as the cost for a Republican’s bid for a congressional seat increased 611 percent between 1984 and 2012. Still, elections for Democratic candidates do not come cheap either, with the price tag for their seats increasing 480 percent over the same period. In contrast, American household incomes rose only 128 percent during the same period.[1] According to OpenSecrets.org, the average U.S. House seat can cost over $1 million. Seats in the Senate can go for far more, sometimes costing 10 times the amount of their counterparts in the House.[2]

While it is possible to count the dollars flowing into campaigns, it is harder to understand the impact of money on the actions of congressmen. Does a higher amount of career contributions from a specific industry or sector correlate with a stronger allegiance to donors over constituents? We cannot definitively say. However, the donation concentration does provide a lens through which we can judge the actions and decisions of our elected officials. It is also an opportunity to see which industries think which elected officials can help them.

The average member of Congress receives over a quarter of his or her career donations from only five industries. While it is harder to quantify the exact effect donor concentration may have on a member's tenure, this information gives constituents an idea of the interests heavily invested in their public servants.

The tables and graphs on this page show some of the highlights of the study. The information on top industry donors has also been added to each of Ballotpedia's profiles of the 535 congressional incumbents. The data includes some former members, whose data was calculated at the end of their terms in the 113th Congress. This page will be updated on a bi-yearly basis.

This is the second part of the Personal Gain Index (PGI), a two-part study that examines the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have individually prospered during their tenures as public servants.

Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

In this study, we look at the concentration of career donations for each member and industry. This allows us to:

  • See which members had the highest percentage of their donations coming from their top five industries;
  • Provide anecdotal examples of the relationships between committee membership and industry donations;
Ex: Rep. Jeb Hensarling, chair of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce, received 15.67 percent of his career contributions from Unions.
  • Compare the partisan breakdown of each sector's highest recipients;
Ex: Democratic top Education recipients outnumber Republicans 8-0.
  • Provide anecdotal examples of the relationships between sponsored legislation topics and sector donations;
Ex: Over one quarter of the top recipients by sector have the first or second highest bill sponsorship in related topics.
  • Establish the most involved sectors by:
    • The frequency with which each sector appears on members' top five industry lists.
Ex: Lawyers & Lobbyists appeared in the top five industries of 374 members.
  • The average percentage concentration for members receiving sector money.
Ex: Unions averaged 9.3 percent of their recipients' total contributions.

Click each tab for details.

[edit]
Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

The following are the key findings of the Donation Concentration Metric study:

Industry Concentration: Of the six members with the highest concentration of donations by industry, five were Democrats: three from the U.S. House of Representatives and two from the U.S. Senate. Lawyers/Law Firms appear in all five of the Democrats' top five. The five industries that make up the top five industries of the Republican member, Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX), are not shared by any of the four Democrats in the top five.

Sector Concentration: Of the 15 sectors analyzed by Ballotpedia, nine had highly partisan giving patterns, appearing primarily in either Republican or Democratic members' top five sectors. The Energy sector favored Republicans highly, with the sector appearing in the top five sectors of 19 Republicans, but only three Democrats. Democrats were the most favorable within the Unions sector, which placed in the top five of 18 Democrats and one independent. Like the Education sector, the Unions sector does not appear in the top five of any Republicans, indicating that they are more heavily supportive of Democrats than Republicans. The other 13 sectors appear in the top five sectors of at least one member of both major parties.

Bill Sponsorship: Of the 15 sectors, four of the highest recipients had direct correlations between sector donations and bill sponsorship. These four members sponsored a significant portion of legislation that is relevant to their highest donating sector. When organizing their sponsored legislation into categories, the category with the most sponsored legislation is directly relevant to the highest contributing sector of three of the four members.

Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

Methodology and notes

See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png

To investigate the special interests that may be influencing members of Congress, Ballotpedia sorted through the career contributions of members of the 113th United States Congress to identify which members had the highest concentration of their contributions coming from various industries and sectors.[3]

The individual industries listed on the Industries: Concentration by member and Industries: Committee membership tabs, in both the individual incumbents' boxes and the yellow charts, were identified by OpenSecrets.org. Although OpenSecrets.org classifies based on the micro-level breakdown of industries, Ballotpedia grouped these industries into macro-level sectors for this study to further analyze any emerging trends. For example, the Banking sector includes the following industries: Commercial Banks, Insurance, Securities & Investments, Misc. Finance, Accountants, Credit Unions and Finance/Credit Companies.

Definitions

Career contributions: OpenSecrets.org organizes top industry donors either by individual election cycles or by totals over each member's career. Career data is only available back to 1989, for the 1990 election cycle. The percentages are calculated based on the dollar amount per industry over each member's career, divided by his or her total donations. Because some races and candidates may attract more donations than others, using a percentage of total donations allowed Ballotpedia to evaluate each member's concentration.

Concentration: Throughout the study, concentration refers to the percentage of each member's total donations that he or she receives from specific industries or sectors.

Industry: According to Federal Election Commission (FEC) regulations, any donor of $200 or more is required to disclose his or her employer and occupation. Opensecrets.org then categorizes each employer into an industry. Additionally, all donations from an entity or organization are categorized by industry.

Sectors: In order to analyze the data provided by OpenSecrets.org even further, Ballotpedia identified broader interests, such as combining all union industries into a "Union" sector. This allowed us to evaluate which members may have a high concentration of donors coming from broader interests. For example, by combining the industries in our Energy sector, Ballotpedia was able to see which members may have a broader interest in energy policy than if Electric Utilities, Mining and Oil & Gas were viewed separately.[4]

The overarching sectors Ballotpedia identified appear italicized below, with the OpenSecrets.org industries included in each sector:

Banking: Commercial Banks, Insurance, Securities & Investments, Misc. Finance, Accountants, Credit Unions, Finance/Credit Companies

Computers/Internet

Construction/Real Estate: Building Materials, Construction Services, Real Estate, General Contractors, Special Trade Contractors, Misc. Manufacturing

Defense & Foreign Policy: Defense Aerospace, Defense Electronics, Misc. Defense, Misc. Foreign Policy, Pro-Israel[5]

Education

Energy: Electric Utilities, Mining, Oil & Gas

Farming: Agricultural Services, Crop Production, Dairy, Forestry & Forestry Products, Livestock, Tobacco

Food & Entertainment: Beer, Wine & Liquors, Casinos & Gambling, Food & Beverage, Food Processing & Sales, TV/Movies/Music

Healthcare: Health Professionals, Pharmaceuticals/Health Products, Hospitals/Nursing, Health Services/HMO

Law: Lawyers/Law firms, Lobbyists[6]

Misc. Business: Business Services, Retail Sales, Non-Profit Institutions[7]

Politics & Policy: Abortion Policy, Candidate Committees, Democratic/Liberal, Environment, Leadership PACs, Republican/Conservative, Women’s Issues

Retirement: This industry is composed of any $200+ donor who identifies as a retiree. It also includes donations made by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)

Transportation: Air transport, Automotive, Railroads, Sea Transport

Unions: Building Trade Unions, Civil Servants/Public Officials, Misc. Unions, Public Sector Unions, Transportation Unions

Bill sponsorship: The website FindTheBest tracks the topics of legislation each member of Congress sponsors. For example, in the 113th United States Congress, Sen. Rand Paul sponsored a bill requesting a full audit of the Federal Reserve, Senate Bill 209. FindTheBest categorized the bill under the "Finance And Financial Sector." In this study, Ballotpedia identified six out of the 15 highest recipients from each sector who had the highest or second highest bill sponsorship from a similar topic to the donation sector.

For access to the data used in this study for replication purposes, please contact Sarah Rosier.

Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

With the growth of campaign spending, many pundits use "mega-donors" (donors on both sides who funnel millions into elections each cycle) to predict the behavior of members of Congress, indicating that a congressman may owe loyalty to big donors. However, mega-donors only paint a part of the picture. The information below outlines what percentage of a member's career contributions (1989 to present) came from only five industries. Instead of focusing solely on one or two large donors, this data will demonstrate which elected officials have been given high votes of confidence (through donations) by a small number of industries.

PGImemberaverage.jpg

The average member of the 113th Congress received 26.34 percent of his or her career donations from only five industries. Although senators were marginally less concentrated (at 24.66 percent) compared to representatives (at 26.72 percent), many members received a high ratio of total contributions from a small selection of industries.



Highest overall concentration
PGIMember1.jpg

Rep. Michael Burgess (R-TX) had the highest concentration of career donations coming from his top five industries: 49.56 percent came from five industries from within the Energy and Healthcare sectors.[8]

Lowest overall concentration
PGIMember3.jpg

Rep. Scott Perry (R-PA) had the lowest concentration of career donations coming from his top five industries: 2.9 percent.[9]




Three highest overall: U.S. House

Rep. Burgess: 49.56 percent

Rep. Michael Burgess (R-MN)
Michael Burgess Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $6,320,053
Total Spent $6,120,189
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Health Professionals$1,740,538
Pharmaceuticals/Health Products$637,424
Oil & Gas$348,146
Health Services/HMOs$216,250
Electric Utilities$189,822
% total in top industry27.54%
% total in top two industries37.63%
% total in top five industries49.56%


Rep. Cartwright: 45.65 percent

Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA)
Matt Cartwright Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $2,423,482
Total Spent $1,726,491
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$817,014
Public Sector Unions$99,750
Building Trade Unions$80,000
Industrial Unions$61,500
Transportation Unions$48,000
% total in top industry33.71%
% total in top two industries37.83%
% total in top five industries45.65%


Rep. Sarbanes: 43.42 percent

Rep. John Sarbanes (D-MD)
John Sarbanes Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $5,108,715
Total Spent $4,175,626
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$841,756
Retirement$456,775
Real Estate$382,507
Securities & Investment$271,028
Education$266,250
% total in top industry16.48%
% total in top two industries25.42%
% total in top five industries43.42%


Three highest overall: U.S. Senate

Sen. McCaskill: 38.34 percent

Sen. Claire McCaskill (D-MO)
Claire McCaskill Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $33,663,468
Total Spent $33,423,083
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Women's Issues$5,116,239
Lawyers/Law Firms$4,076,329
Retirement$2,146,772
Securities & Investments$872,918
Real Estate$693,030
% total in top industry15.2%
% total in top two industries27.31%
% total in top five industries38.34%


Sen. Walsh: 37.85 percent

Sen. John Walsh (D-MT)
John Walsh Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $2,779,750
Total Spent $2,066,129
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$347,146
Leadership PACs$313,000
Retirement$191,300
Lobbyists$112,100
Real Estate$88,610
% total in top industry12.49%
% total in top two industries23.75%
% total in top five industries37.85%


Sen. Booker: 37.85 percent

Sen. Cory Booker (D-NJ)
Cory Booker Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $16,171,449
Total Spent $12,682,311
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$1,930,689
Securities & Investment$1,897,370
Real Estate$958,645
TV/Movies/Music$635,750
Business Services$416,350
% total in top industry11.94%
% total in top two industries23.67%
% total in top five industries36.11%


Top 100 most concentrated

Although many of the individual sectors and industries are highly polarized, having a high concentration of donations appears to be a bipartisan way of life. Of the top 100 most concentrated members of Congress, 54 were Democrats and 46 were Republican. There is also little difference between members of the two parties in terms of the percentage a member has in their top five industries. Democrats average 34.65 percent in their top five industries, while Republicans average just below at 34.41 percent.

Members with highest % from top five industries
Party Member of Congress % of career contributions[10] Year assumed office
Top 20: The average concentrated percentage in the top 20 was 40.23% over career contributions.
Republican Party Rep. Michael C. Burgess 49.56% 2003
Democratic Party Rep. Matt Cartwright 45.65% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. John Sarbanes 43.42% 2007
Republican Party Rep. Paul Gosar 42.24% 2011
Republican Party Rep. David G. Valadao 41.10% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Henry Waxman 40.64% 1975
Republican Party Rep. Tom Price 40.23% 2005
Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus 40.23% 1993
Republican Party Rep. Roger Williams 39.89% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Bruce Braley 39.28% 2007
Republican Party Rep. Andy Harris 38.97% 2011
Democratic Party Rep. Theodore E. Deutch 38.83% 2010
Democratic Party Rep. Jose Serrano 38.69% 1973
Democratic Party Rep. Jerrold Nadler 38.65% 1993
Democratic Party Rep. James A. Himes 38.55% 2009
Democratic Party Sen. Claire McCaskill 38.34% 2007
Democratic Party Sen. John Walsh 37.85% 2014
Republican Party Rep. Joe Heck 37.80% 2011
Republican Party Rep. Phil Gingrey 37.42% 2003
Democratic Party Rep. Gene Green 37.21% 1993
Total by party (1-20): 11 were Democrats Democratic Party 9 were Republicans Republican Party.
Top 21-40:The average concentrated percentage in the top 40 was 37.86% over career contributions.; for those in spots 21-40, it was 35.5%.
Republican Party Rep. Mike Conaway (Texas) 36.45% 2005
Republican Party Rep. Frank D. Lucas 36.39% 1994
Republican Party Rep. David Jolly 36.37% 2014
Democratic Party Sen. Cory Booker 36.11% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Joseph Kennedy III 36.09% 2013
Democratic Party Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse 36.00% 2007
Democratic Party Rep. Hakeem Jeffries 35.94% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Anna Eshoo 35.94% 1993
Democratic Party Rep. John C. Carney Jr. 35.67% 2011
Democratic Party Sen. Chris Coons 35.66% 2010
Democratic Party Rep. Zoe Lofgren 35.55% 1995
Democratic Party Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand 35.47% 2009
Democratic Party Rep. Lloyd Doggett 35.28% 1995
Democratic Party Rep. Joseph Crowley 35.25% 1999
Republican Party Rep. Doug LaMalfa 35.18% 2013
Democratic Party Sen. Chuck Schumer 34.87% 1999
Democratic Party Rep. William Enyart 34.78% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Gregory W. Meeks 34.37% 1998
Democratic Party Rep. Nita Lowey 34.34% 1989
Republican Party Rep. Jeb Hensarling 34.29% 2003
Total by party (1-40): 26 were Democrats Democratic Party 14 were Republicans Republican Party.
Top 41-60:The average concentrated percentage in the top 60 was 36.43% over career contributions.; for those in spots 41-60, it was 33.57%.
Republican Party Rep. Devin Nunes 34.29% 2003
Democratic Party Rep. George Miller 34.21% 1975
Democratic Party Rep. Al Green 33.90% 2005
Republican Party Rep. Bill Huizenga 33.87% 2011
Democratic Party Rep. Terri Sewell 33.87% 2011
Democratic Party Rep. Chaka Fattah 33.84% 1995
Democratic Party Rep. Collin Peterson 33.79% 1991
Democratic Party Rep. John Barrow 33.69% 2005
Republican Party Rep. Scott DesJarlais 33.58% 2011
Republican Party Rep. Phil Roe 33.55% 2009
Republican Party Rep. Jim Bridenstine 33.53% 2013
Republican Party Rep. Cynthia Lummis 33.50% 2009
Republican Party Rep. John Campbell 33.42% 2005
Republican Party Rep. Charles Boustany Jr. 33.40% 2005
Democratic Party Rep. Richard Neal 33.39% 1989
Democratic Party Rep. Daniel Lipinski 33.26% 2005
Republican Party Rep. Larry Bucshon 33.24% 2011
Republican Party Sen. Mark Kirk 33.13% 2011
Democratic Party Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard 33.08% 1993
Democratic Party Rep. John Conyers, Jr. 32.96% 1965
Total by party (1-60): 36 were Democrats Democratic Party 24 were Republicans Republican Party.
Top 61-80:The average concentrated percentage in the top 80 was 35.38% over career contributions.; for those in spots 61-80, it was 32.24%.
Republican Party Rep. John Culberson 32.84% 2001
Republican Party Rep. Kevin Brady 32.84% 1997
Democratic Party Rep. Sean Maloney 32.84% 2013
Republican Party Rep. Joseph R. Pitts 32.77% 1997
Republican Party Sen. John Barrasso 32.73% 2007
Democratic Party Rep. Robert Brady 32.72% 1998
Republican Party Rep. Tom Cotton 32.65% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Allyson Schwartz 32.34% 2005
Democratic Party Rep. Mike Quigley 32.32% 2009
Democratic Party Rep. Chris Van Hollen 32.17% 2003
Republican Party Rep. Scott Garrett 32.12% 2003
Republican Party Rep. Bradley Byrne 32.00% 2014
Democratic Party Rep. Marcy Kaptur 31.95% 1983
Democratic Party Rep. John Lewis 31.86% 1987
Democratic Party Rep. Julia Brownley 31.82% 2013
Republican Party Rep. Dan Benishek 31.79% 2011
Republican Party Rep. Rob Woodall 31.77% 2011
Republican Party Rep. Scott Tipton 31.77% 2011
Republican Party Rep. Mo Brooks 31.74% 2011
Republican Party Sen. Rob Portman 31.73% 2011
Total by party (1-80): 44 were Democrats Democratic Party 36 were Republicans Republican Party.
Top 81-100:The average concentrated percentage in the top 100 was 34.54% over career contributions.; for those in spots 61-80, it was 31.16%.
Republican Party Rep. Louis B. "Louie" Gohmert Jr. 31.69% 2005
Democratic Party Rep. Diana DeGette 31.62% 1997
Republican Party Rep. Mac Thornberry 31.58% 1995
Democratic Party Rep. Ann Kirkpatrick 31.53% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Carolyn B. Maloney 31.50% 1993
Democratic Party Rep. Frederica S. Wilson 31.46% 2011
Democratic Party Sen. Bill Nelson 31.29% 2000
Republican Party Rep. Mark Meadows 31.28% 2013
Democratic Party Sen. Michael Bennet 31.27% 2009
Republican Party Rep. Stephen Lee Fincher 31.22% 2011
Democratic Party Rep. Carol Shea-Porter 31.14% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Jared Huffman 31.08% 2013
Democratic Party Rep. Raul Ruiz 31.03% 2013
Republican Party Rep. John Fleming 30.98% 2009
Republican Party Rep. Joe Barton 30.92% 1985
Republican Party Rep. Ron DeSantis 30.80% 2013
Republican Party Sen. Tim Scott 30.75% 2013
Republican Party Rep. Michael Grimm 30.71% 2011
Democratic Party Rep. Frank Pallone 30.65% 1993
Democratic Party Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson 30.62% 1993
Total by party (1-100): 54 were Democrats Democratic Party 46 were Republicans Republican Party.

Correlation to time in office

Of the top 100 most concentrated members, the average year they assumed office was late 2003. For all members in the study, it was early 2004.

Length of time in office appears to have no meaningful impact on concentration percentages for members of Congress. For members that were elected in the five years preceding the 113th Congress, the concentration of donations within their top five industries was averaged at 26.63 percent. This number fluctuated under 1 percent between members elected in the preceding five years and the preceding 25 years.

Average percentage of donations in the top 5 industries over time in office
Duration in Office Average % of career contributions[11]
1 to 5 years 26.63%
6 to 10 years 26.42%
11 to 15 years 25.30%
16 to 20 years 26.30%
21 to 25 years 26.51%

Summary

The average member of the 113th Congress received 26.34 percent of his career donations from just five industries. The highest concentration of donations topped out at 49.56 percent, and the lowest was just 2.9 percent. Both were Republican members of Congress. Of the top 100 most concentrated members, just over half were Democrats. When it comes to the top six concentrated members — three from the House and three from the Senate — only one is a Republican, with the other five belonging to the Democratic party. Amongst the Democratic members, there are three industries that appear on the top of five of at least three members. Lawyers/Law Firms appear in the top five of all five Democratic members. Real Estate appears in four of the top five lists, and Retirement appears in three. None of these three industries appear in the top five list of the lone Republican, Rep. Michael Burgess from Texas. His top five industries are equally unshared with the Democrats. Finally, length of time in office has no correlation to concentration of donating industries.

Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

Committee membership is one way members of Congress can wield their influence and use their expertise. Committees often serve to craft and revise legislation that will see a vote on the floor of Congress. Members of each committee can play an integral role in shaping legislation within the purview of each committee's jurisdiction. Below are the members who had committee membership in the 113th United States Congress and top donors from related industries.

Banking

House Committee on Financial Services

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services
Committee chair Rep. Jeb Hensarling

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Committee on Financial services include the following:

House Ways and Means Committee

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Ways and Means

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Ways and Means Committee include the following:

Senate Finance Committee

See also: United States Senate Committee on Finance

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the Senate Finance Committee include the following:

Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

See also: United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs include the following:

Energy

House Committee on Energy and Commerce

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce
Committee chair Rep. Joe Barton

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Committee on Energy and Commerce include the following:

Note: All five top recipients of donations from the Electric Utilities industry sit on the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

House Committee on Natural Resources

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Natural Resources

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Committee on Natural Resources include the following:

Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources

See also: United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources include the following:

Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works

See also: United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works include the following:

Farming

House Committee on Agriculture

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Agriculture
Committee chair Rep. Frank Lucas

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Committee on Agriculture include the following:

Senate Committee on Agriculture

Committee ranking member Sen. Thad Cochran
See also: United States Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the Senate Committee on Agriculture include the following:

Healthcare

Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions

See also: United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions include the following:

Transportation

Ranking member Rep. Nick Rahall

House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure include the following:

Unions

Ranking member Rep. George Miller

House Committee on Education and the Workforce

See also: United States House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce

The members listed in the previous tab who are on the House Committee on Education and the Workforce include the following:




Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

In addition to the industries identified by OpenSecrets.org, Ballotpedia sought to categorize related industries into broader sectors. For more information on how we grouped the industries, please see the Methodology and definitions tab. Below are the top recipients by sector.

Top recipients by sector

Highest from one sector
PGIMember2.jpg

Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA) had the highest concentration of career donations coming from one sector: 33.71 percent coming from Lawyers & Lobbyists.[12]

Second highest from one sector
PGIMember5.jpg

Rep. Jose Serrano (D-NY) had the second highest concentration of career donations coming from one sector: 32.86 percent coming from Unions.[13]


Third highest from one sector
PGIMember4.jpg

Rep. Spencer Bachus (R-AL) had the third highest concentration of career donations coming from one sector: 31.48 percent coming from Banking.[14]


Bachus was the chairman of the House Committee on Finance during the 112th Congress.

In order to analyze the data provided by OpenSecrets.org even further, Ballotpedia identified broader interests, such as combining all union industries into a "Union" sector. This allowed us to evaluate which members may have a high concentration of donors coming from broader interests. For example, by combining the industries in our Energy sector, Ballotpedia was able to see which members may have a broader interest in energy policy than if Electric Utilities, Mining and Oil & Gas were viewed separately.

Career contributions were used for this calculation. OpenSecrets.org provides data back to 1989 for members elected prior to 1990.

Banking

Spencer Bachus.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus had the highest concentration of donations from the Banking industry: 31.48 percent.


Construction/Real Estate

Gary Miller.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Gary Miller had the highest concentration of donations from the Construction/Real Estate industry: 14.95 percent.


Education

Bill Foster.jpg

Democratic Party Rep. Bill Foster had the highest concentration of donations from the Education industry: 8.54 percent.


Farming

David Valadao.jpg

Republican Party Rep. David Valadao had the highest concentration of donations from the Farming industry: 26.59 percent.


Healthcare

Michael Burgess.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Michael Burgess had the highest concentration of donations from the Healthcare industry: 41.05 percent.


Misc. Business

Steve Womack.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Steve Womack had the highest concentration of donations from the Misc. Business industry: 9.33 percent.


Retirement

Mark meadows nc.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Mark Meadows had the highest concentration of donations from the Retirement industry: 14.01 percent.


Unions

Jose Serrano, official 109th Congress photo.jpg

Democratic Party Rep. Jose Serrano had the highest concentration of donations from the Unions industry: 32.86 percent.

Computers/Internet

Zoe Lofgren.jpg

Democratic Party Rep. Zoe Lofgren had the highest concentration of donations from the Computers/Internet industry: 14.64 percent.



Defense & Foreign Policy

Howard McKeon.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Buck McKeon had the highest concentration of donations from the Defense & Foreign Policy industry: 14.99 percent.

Energy

David McKinley.jpg

Republican Party Rep. David McKinley had the highest concentration of donations from the Energy industry: 17.72 percent.



Food & Entertainment

Mike Thompson.jpg

Democratic Party Rep. Mike Thompson had the highest concentration of donations from the Food & Entertainment industry: 26.59 percent.



Lawyers & Lobbyists

Matt Cartwright.jpg

Democratic Party Rep. Matt Cartwright had the highest concentration of donations from the Lawyers & Lobbyists industry: 33.71 percent.

Politics & Policy

David Jolly.jpg

Republican Party Rep. David Jolly had the highest concentration of donations from the Politics & Policy industry: 21.5 percent.

Transportation

John Duncan.jpg

Republican Party Rep. John Duncan had the highest concentration of donations from the Transportation industry: 14.07 percent.



Banking

Rep. Bachus had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Banking sector are Commercial Banks, Insurance, Securities & Investments, Misc. Finance, Accountants, Credit Unions and Finance/Credit Companies.

The industries categorized in the Banking sector appeared in the top five industries of 243 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Banking sector was 6.9 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Banking sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Banking sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
19
Republican Party Republican
21
Independent Independent
1


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Banking industries was:
Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus: 31.48 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Commercial Banks
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus 10.4%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Jeb Hensarling 7.45%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Joyce Beatty 6.6%
4th Republican Party Rep. Frank Lucas 6.3%
5th Republican Party Rep. Kenny Marchant 6.21%
Top five industry recipients: Insurance
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Richard Neal 13.79%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. John Larson 10.46%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Juan Vargas 9.65%
4th Republican Party Rep. Dennis Ross 9.17%
5th Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus 8.61%
Top five industry recipients: Securities & Investments
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Jim Himes 16.95%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Scott Garrett 12.92%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Joseph Kennedy 11.93%
4th Republican Party Rep. Randy Hultgren 10.67%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Nita Lowey 8.61%
Top five industry recipients: Accountants
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Steven Palazzo 5.87%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Mike Conaway (Texas) 5.52%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Collin Peterson 3.68%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Brad Sherman 3.1%
Top five industry recipients: Credit Unions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Rob Bishop 3.93%
Top five industry recipients: Finance/Credit Companies
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Gregory W. Meeks 5.85%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus 4.43%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Kevin Yoder 4.13%
4th Democratic Party Rep. John Delaney 2.31%
5th Republican Party Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer 2.26%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Finance
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Jeb Hensarling 6.11%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Billy Long 5.03%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Louie Gohmert 4.73%
4th Republican Party Rep. Pete Sessions 4.31%
5th Republican Party Rep. Mark Sanford 4.24%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Commercial Banks
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Tom Carper 4.66%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Richard Shelby 3.97%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Jerry Moran 3.91%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Tim Johnson 3.8%
5th Republican Party Sen. Deb Fischer 2.73%
Top five industry recipients: Insurance
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Ben Cardin 6.17%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Chuck Grassley 6.02%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Chuck Schumer 5.69%
4th Republican Party Sen. Dan Coats 5.56%
5th Democratic Party Sen. Jack Reed 5.3%
Top five industry recipients: Securities & Investments
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Al Franken 14.73%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Amy Klobuchar 11.73%
3rd Independent Sen. Angus King 9.98%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Ben Cardin 9.5%
5th Democratic Party Sen. Bill Nelson 9.46%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Finance
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Marco Rubio 1.76%


Computers/Internet

Rep. Lofgren had the highest concentration.

The industries categorized in the Computers/Internet sector appeared in the top five industries of 19 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Computers/Internet sector was 4.77 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Computers/Internet sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Computers/Internet partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
6
Republican Party Republican
3


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Computers/Internet industries was:
Democratic Party Rep. Zoe Lofgren: 14.64 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Computers/Internet
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Zoe Lofgren 14.64%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Anna Eshoo 9.67%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Jason Chaffetz 6.4%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Adam Smith 6.02%
5th Republican Party Rep. Bob Goodlatte 5.19%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Computers/Internet
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Patrick Leahy 3.76%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Mike Lee (Utah) 3.47%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Maria Cantwell 2.31%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Patty Murray 1.95%



Construction/Real Estate

Rep. Miller had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Construction/Real Estate sector are Building Materials, Construction Services, Real Estate, General Contractors, Special Trade Contractors and Misc. Manufacturing.

The industries categorized in the Construction/Real Estate sector appeared in the top five industries of 288 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Construction/Real Estate sector was 4.88 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Construction/Real Estate sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Construction/Real Estate partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
9
Republican Party Republican
19


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Construction/Real Estate industries was:
Republican Party Rep. Gary Miller: 14.95 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Real Estate
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Gary Miller 14.95%
2nd Republican Party Rep. John Campbell 10.74%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Beto O'Rourke 9.2%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Steve Israel 8.97%
5th Republican Party Rep. Michael Grimm 8.96%
Top five industry recipients: Construction Services
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Daniel Lipinski 7.37%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Earl Blumenauer 6.37%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Filemon Vela 5.8%
4th Republican Party Rep. Bill Shuster 4.37%
5th Republican Party Rep. John Mica 4.12%
Top five industry recipients: General Contractors
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Tom Rice 7.96%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Charles J. Fleischmann 5.14%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Don Young 4.88%
4th Republican Party Rep. Blake Farenthold 4.84%
5th Republican Party Rep. Richard Hanna 4.51%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Manufacturing
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Tim Walberg 2.94%
Top five industry recipients: Building Materials
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Bill Shuster 5%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Tom Petri 3.63%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Scott DesJarlais 3%
4th Republican Party Rep. Ken Calvert 2.77%
5th Republican Party Rep. Phil Roe 2.39%
Top five industry recipients: Special Trade Contractors
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Reid Ribble 3.94%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Markwayne Mullin 2.87%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Real Estate
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Johnny Isakson 11.23%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Bob Menendez 6.93%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Chuck Schumer 6.41%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Brian Schatz 6.14%
5th Democratic Party Sen. Ben Cardin 5.98%
Top five industry recipients: Construction Services
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Bob Menendez 3.47%
Top five industry recipients: General Contractors
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Bob Menendez 2.91%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Manufacturing
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Rob Portman 4.79%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Ron Johnson 1.83%


Defense & Foreign Policy

Rep. McKeon had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Defense & Foreign Policy sector are Defense Aerospace, Defense Electronics, Misc. Defense and Pro-Israel[5].

The industries categorized in the Defense & Foreign Policy sector appeared in the top five industries of 30 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Defense & Foreign Policy sector was 6.27 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Defense & Foreign Policy sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Defense & Foreign Policy partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
9
Republican Party Republican
10


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Defense & Foreign Policy industries was:
Republican Party Rep. Buck McKeon: 14.99 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Pro-Israel
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Ted Deutch 8.08%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Eliot Engel 6.78%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen 6.7%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Brad Schneider 6%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Alcee L. Hastings 4.2%
Top five industry recipients: Defense Aerospace
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Buck McKeon 7.1%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Mo Brooks 6.86%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Mac Thornberry 6.14%
4th Republican Party Rep. Jeff Miller 4.82%
5th Republican Party Rep. Kay Granger 4.81%
Top five industry recipients: Defense Electronics
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Jeff Miller 4.85%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Jim Moran 4.41%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Duncan Hunter 4.34%
4th Republican Party Rep. Bill Posey 4%
5th Republican Party Rep. Rob Wittman 3.96%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Defense
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Rob Wittman 6.2%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Jim Moran 5.92%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Mo Brooks 5.64%
4th Republican Party Rep. Buck McKeon 4.49%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger 4.46%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Pro-Israel
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Mark Kirk 5.49%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Carl Levin 5.18%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Ron Wyden 2.88%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Barbara Mikulski 2.66%


Education

Rep. Foster had the highest concentration.

The industries categorized in the Education sector appeared in the top five industries of 12 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Education sector was 4.44 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Education sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Education sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
8
Republican Party Republican
0


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Education industries was:
Democratic Party Rep. Bill Foster: 8.54 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Education
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Bill Foster 8.54%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Albio Sires 7%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Rush D. Holt, Jr. 6.16%
4th Democratic Party Rep. John Sarbanes 5.21%
5th Democratic Party Rep. David Price 4.86%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Education
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Patrick Leahy 3.02%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Tim Kaine 2.75%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Sherrod Brown 2.11%



Energy

Rep. McKinley had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Energy sector are Electric Utilities, Mining and Oil & Gas.

The industries categorized in the Energy sector appeared in the top five industries of 113 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Energy sector was 6.77 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Energy sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Energy sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
3
Republican Party Republican
19


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Energy industries was:
Republican Party Rep. David McKinley: 17.72 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Electric Utilities
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Joe Barton 7.93%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. John Dingell 7.56%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Ralph Hall 6.97%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Bobby Rush 6.69%
5th Republican Party Rep. Michael Doyle 6.38%
Top five industry recipients: Mining
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. David McKinley 11.04%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Andy Barr 8.2%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Morgan Griffith 7.1%
4th Republican Party Rep. Bob Gibbs 5.82%
5th Republican Party Rep. Bill Johnson 5.73%
Top five industry recipients: Oil & Gas
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Mike Conaway (Texas) 14.62%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Mike Pompeo 14.21%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Cynthia Lummis 12.43%
4th Republican Party Rep. James Lankford 11.55%
5th Republican Party Rep. Kevin Cramer 11.12%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Electric Utilities
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Lisa Murkowski 6.48%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Joe Manchin 4.36%
3rd Republican Party Sen. John Barrasso 3.96%
4th Republican Party Sen. Jim Inhofe 2.84%
Top five industry recipients: Mining
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Joe Manchin 6.17%
2nd Republican Party Sen. John Hoeven 6.02%
Top five industry recipients: Oil & Gas
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Jim Inhofe 8.55%
2nd Republican Party Sen. John Hoeven 6.79%
3rd Republican Party Sen. John Barrasso 6.66%
4th Republican Party Sen. John Cornyn 6.41%
5th Republican Party Sen. Lisa Murkowski 6.09%


Farming

Rep. Valadao had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Farming sector are Agricultural Services, Crop Production, Dairy, Forestry & Forestry Products, Livestock and Tobacco.

The industries categorized in the Farming sector appeared in the top five industries of 51 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Farming sector was 7.66 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Farming sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Farming sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
5
Republican Party Republican
19


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Farming industries was:
Republican Party Rep. David Valadao: 26.59 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Agricultural Services
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Collin Peterson 8.36%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Frank Lucas 7.58%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Ted Yoho 5.31%
4th Republican Party Rep. Tom Latham 4.65%
5th Republican Party Rep. Vicky Hartzler 4.33%
Top five industry recipients: Crop Production
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Doug LaMalfa 16.8%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Stephen Fincher 14.48%
3rd Republican Party Rep. David Valadao 14.04%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Collin Peterson 13.44%
5th Republican Party Rep. Devin Nunes 12.58%
Top five industry recipients: Dairy
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. David Valadao 9.49%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Devin Nunes 9.38%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Collin Peterson 4.09%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Jim Costa 3.67%
5th Republican Party Rep. Jeff Denham 2.90%
Top five industry recipients: Forestry & Forest Products
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Greg Walden 5.37%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers 3.57%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Kurt Schrader 3.31%
4th Republican Party Rep. Jaime Herrera Beutler 2.81%
5th Republican Party Rep. Doc Hastings 2.43%
The top recipients of the Forestry & Forest Products industry are all from either Oregon or Washington State.
Top five industry recipients: Livestock
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Mac Thornberry 6.22%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Cynthia Lummis 5.13%
Top five industry recipients: Tobacco
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Howard Coble 2.55%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Agricultural Services
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Jerry Moran 5.11%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Pat Roberts 5.1%
3rd Republican Party Sen. Thad Cochran 3.6%
Top five industry recipients: Crop Production
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Thad Cochran 7.83%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Jerry Moran 6.71%
3rd Republican Party Sen. Saxby Chambliss 4.72%
4th Republican Party Sen. Deb Fischer 3.04%


Food & Entertainment

Rep. Thompson had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Food & Entertainment sector are Beer, Wine & Liquors, Casinos & Gambling, Food & Beverage, Food Processing & Sales and TV/Movies/Music.

The industries categorized in the Food & Entertainment sector appeared in the top five industries of 52 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Food & Entertainment sector was 4.9 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Food & Entertainment sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Food & Entertainment partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
12
Republican Party Republican
11


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Food & Entertainment industries was: Democratic Party Rep. Mike Thompson: 11.82 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: TV/Movies/Music
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Henry Waxman 9.49%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Karen Bass 9.05%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. John Conyers, Jr. 8.8%
4th Republican Party Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner 6.27%
5th Republican Party Rep. Bob Goodlatte 5.35%
Top five industry recipients: Casinos & Gambling
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Paul Cook 8.05%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Tom Cole 7.24%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Mark Amodei 7.16%
4th Republican Party Rep. Joe Heck 7.06%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Ben Ray Lujan 6.57%
  • All representatives who received substantial contributions from the Casinos & Gambling industry are from states where gambling is prevalent: California, Nevada, New Mexico and Oklahoma.
Top five industry recipients: Beer, Wine & Liquors
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Mike Thompson 11.82%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Pete Gallego 3.31%
Top five industry recipients: Food & Beverage
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Rodney Davis 3.45%
Top five industry recipients: Special Trade Contractors
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Steve Womack 4.41%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Reid Ribble 3.05%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Paul Gosar 2.57%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: TV/Movies/Music
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Patrick Leahy 8.59%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Ed Markey 5.35%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Cory Booker 3.93%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Barbara Boxer 3.41%
5th Democratic Party Sen. Michael Bennet 2.87%
Top five industry recipients: Casinos & Gambling
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Dean Heller 4.52%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Harry Reid 4.38%

Sens. Reid & Heller are from Nevada.


Healthcare

Rep. Burgess had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Healthcare sector are Health Professionals, Pharmaceuticals/Health Products, Hospitals/Nursing and Health Services/HMO.

The industries categorized in the Healthcare sector appeared in the top five industries of 275 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Healthcare sector was 6.41 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Healthcare sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Healthcare sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
4
Republican Party Republican
18


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Healthcare industries was:
Republican Party Rep. Michael Burgess: 41.05 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Health Professionals
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Michael Burgess 27.54%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Paul Gosar 26.48%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Tom Price 24.97%
4th Republican Party Rep. Phil Gingrey 22.07%
5th Republican Party Rep. Andy Harris 21.38%
  • All five top Health Professionals recipients received a medical doctorate.
Top five industry recipients: Pharmaceuticals/Health Products
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Anna Eshoo 10.51%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Michael Burgess 10.09%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Joseph Pitts 9.18%
4th Republican Party Rep. Leonard Lance 8.97%
5th Republican Party Rep. Jason Chaffetz 6.43%
Top five industry recipients: Hospitals/Nursing
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Henry Waxman 5.12%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Glenn Thompson 3.87%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Diane Black 3.53%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Jim Cooper 3.44%
5th Republican Party Rep. John Fleming 2.86%
Top five industry recipients: Health Services/HMOs
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Michael Burgess 3.42%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Richard Nugent 3.21%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Health Professionals
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. John Barrasso 12.43%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Tim Scott 9.71%
3rd Republican Party Sen. John Boozman 6.98%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Ben Cardin 5.91%
5th Republican Party Sen. Mike Enzi 5.81%
Top five industry recipients: Pharmaceuticals
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Orrin Hatch 7.39%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Mike Enzi 6.80%
3rd Republican Party Sen. John Barrasso 4.12%
4th Republican Party Sen. Richard Burr 3.81%



Lawyers & Lobbyists

Rep. Cartwright had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Lawyers & Lobbyists sector are Lawyers/Law Firms and Lobbyists.

The industries categorized in the Lawyers & Lobbyists sector appeared in the top five industries of 374 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Lawyers & Lobbyists sector was 7 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Lawyers & Lobbyists sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Lawyers & Lobbyists partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
18
Republican Party Republican
2


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Lawyers & Lobbyists industries was:
Democratic Party Rep. Matt Cartwright: 33.71 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Lawyers/Law Firms
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Matt Cartwright 33.71%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Bruce Braley 27.06%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Lloyd Doggett 20.23%
4th Democratic Party Rep. John Barrow 17.67%
5th Democratic Party Rep. John Sarbanes 16.48%
Top five industry recipients: Lobbyists
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard 6.29%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Ed Pastor 5.87%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Peter Visclosky 5.81%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Jim Moran 5.7%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Dan Maffei 4.63%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Lawyers/Law Firms
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Chris Coons 18.06%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Bob Casey, Jr. 17.39%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Bill Nelson 16.12%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Mark Pryor 14.77%
5th Democratic Party Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand 14.35%
Top five industry recipients: Lobbyists
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Patrick Leahy 6.25%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Lisa Murkowski 4.81%
3rd Republican Party Sen. Kelly Ayotte 4.54%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Ed Markey 4.14%
5th Democratic Party Sen. John Walsh 4.03%



Misc. Business

Rep. Womack had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Misc. Business sector are Business Services, Retail Sales and Non-Profit Institutions[7].

The industries categorized in the Misc. Business sector appeared in the top five industries of 15 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Misc. Business sector was 3.76 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Misc. Business sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Misc. Business partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
8
Republican Party Republican
5


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Misc. Business industries was:
Republican Party Rep. Steve Womack: 9.33 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Business Services
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Jason Chaffetz 3.74%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Gloria Negrete McLeod 3.67%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Joseph Kennedy III 3.6%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Mike Quigley 3.51%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Derek Kilmer 3.17%
Top five industry recipients: Retail Sales
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Steve Womack 9.33%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Joyce Beatty 3.92%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Justin Amash 3.24%
Top five industry recipients: Non-Profit Institutions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Donna Edwards 4.98%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Business Services
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Mike Lee (Utah) 3.62%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Cory Booker 2.57%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Mark Warner 2.04%
Top five industry recipients: Retail Sales
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. John Boozman 3.3%


Politics & Policy

Rep. Jolly had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Politics & Policy sector are Abortion Policy, Candidate Committees, Democratic/Liberal, Environment, Leadership PACs, Republican/Conservative and Women's Issues.

The industries categorized in the Politics & Policy sector appeared in the top five industries of 236 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Politics & Policy sector was 6.35 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Politics & Policy sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Politics & Policy partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
22
Republican Party Republican
22


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Politics & Policy industries was:
Republican Party Rep. David Jolly: 21.5 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Leadership PACs
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. David Jolly 15.2%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Dan Benishek 11.52%
3rd Republican Party Rep. David G. Valadao 11.46%
4th Republican Party Rep. Kerry Bentivolio 11.19%
5th Republican Party Rep. Martha Roby 10.8%
Top five industry recipients: Women's Issues
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Paul Cook 8.41%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Ann Kirkpatrick 8.31%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Allyson Schwartz 7.59%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Carol Shea-Porter 6.98%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Annie Kuster 6.07%
Top five industry recipients: Republican/Conservative
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Thomas Massie 9.68%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Tim Walberg 8.74%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Justin Amash 8.3%
4th Republican Party Rep. Tom Cotton 7.97%
5th Republican Party Rep. Keith Rothfus 7.52%
Top five industry recipients: Democratic/Liberal
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Jerry McNerney 4.95%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Kyrsten Sinema 3.41%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Raul Ruiz 3.14%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Annie Kuster 2.67%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Tammy Duckworth 2.61%
Top five industry recipients: Candidate Committees
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. David Jolly 6.01%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Carol Shea-Porter 4.43%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Bill Owens 4.41%
4th Republican Party Rep. Kerry Bentivolio 3.79%
5th Republican Party Rep. William Enyart 3.28%
Top five industry recipients: Environment
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Jerry McNerney 2.91%
Top five industry recipients: Abortion Policy/Anti-Abortion
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Chris Smith 2.88%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Issues
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Gary Miller 2.96%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Leadership PACs
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. John Walsh 11.26%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Chris Coons 6.45%
3rd Republican Party Sen. Mike Enzi 6.27%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Joe Donnelly 5.95%
5th Republican Party Sen. Jim Risch 5.57%
Top five industry recipients: Women's Issues
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Claire McCaskill 15.2%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Jeanne Shaheen 7.64%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Amy Klobuchar 5.08%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Tammy Baldwin 4.8%
5th Democratic Party Sen. Debbie Stabenow 4.07%
Top five industry recipients: Republican/Conservative
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Jeff Flake 10.63%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Ted Cruz 8.84%
3rd Republican Party Sen. Pat Toomey 4.49%
4th Republican Party Sen. Marco Rubio 3.49%
5th Republican Party Sen. Deb Fischer 3.31%
Top five industry recipients: Democratic/Liberal
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Chris Murphy 3.49%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Elizabeth Warren 2.8%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Tammy Baldwin 2.46%
4th Democratic Party Sen. Bernie Sanders 2.27%
Top five industry recipients: Candidate Committees
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Sen. Richard Burr 6.34%
2nd Republican Party Sen. Johnny Isakson 4.66%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Joe Donnelly 2.85%
Top five industry recipients: Environment
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Martin Heinrich 3.03%


Retirement

Rep. Meadows had the highest concentration.

This industry is composed of any $200+ donor who identifies as a retiree. It also includes donations made by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

The industries categorized in the Retirement sector appeared in the top five industries of 304 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Retirement sector was 5.45 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Retirement sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Retirement sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
3
Republican Party Republican
6
Independent Independent
1


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Retirement industries was:
Republican Party Rep. Mark Meadows: 14.01 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Retirement
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Mark Meadows 14.01%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Rush D. Holt, Jr. 12.58%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Scott Tipton 11.8%
4th Republican Party Rep. Virginia Foxx 11.75%
5th Republican Party Rep. Bob Goodlatte 11.3%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Retirement
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Independent Sen. Angus King 10.21%
2nd Democratic Party Sen. Tim Kaine 9.95%
3rd Democratic Party Sen. Chris Murphy 9.69%
4th Republican Party Sen. Marco Rubio 9.58%
5th Republican Party Sen. Mark Kirk 9.35%



Transportation

Rep. Duncan had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Transportation sector are Air Transport, Automotive, Railroads and Sea Transport.

The industries categorized in the Transportation sector appeared in the top five industries of 35 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Transportation sector was 5 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Transportation sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Transportation sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
6
Republican Party Republican
13


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Transportation industries was:
Republican Party Rep. John Duncan, Jr.: 14.07 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Air Transport
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. John Duncan, Jr. 9.48%
2nd Republican Party Rep. John Mica 8.88%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Tom Petri 7.17%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson 5.36%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Nick Rahall 4.6%
Top five industry recipients: Automotive
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Roger Williams 7.66%
2nd Republican Party Rep. John Campbell 6.58%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Candice Miller 6.32%
4th Democratic Party Rep. John Dingell 5.72%
5th Republican Party Rep. Billy Long 4.69%
Top five industry recipients: Railroads
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Daniel Lipinski 6.14%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Corrine Brown 4.97%
3rd Republican Party Rep. John Duncan, Jr. 4.59%
4th Republican Party Rep. Tom Petri 3.8%
5th Republican Party Rep. Lou Barletta 2.64%
Top five industry recipients: Sea Transport
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Republican Party Rep. Steve Scalise 4.62%
2nd Republican Party Rep. Don Young 4.4%
3rd Republican Party Rep. Duncan Hunter 3.19%
4th Republican Party Rep. Colleen Hanabusa 2.73%

Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Air Transport
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Jay Rockefeller 2.99%


Unions

Rep. Serrano had the highest concentration.

Industries categorized within the Unions sector are Building Trade Unions, Civil Servants/Public Officials, Misc Unions, Public Sector Unions and Transportation Unions.

The industries categorized in the Unions sector appeared in the top five industries of 150 members.

The average percentage of career contributions received from the Unions sector was 9.31 percent.

Partisan breakdown

The top five recipients of the industries comprising the Unions sector had a partisan breakdown of:

Unions sector partisan breakdown
Party Recipients
Democratic Party Democratic
18
Independent Independent
1


The member who had the highest concentration of all combined Unions industries was:
Democratic Party Rep. Jose Serrano: 32.86 percent

Representatives[15]

Top five industry recipients: Building Trade Unions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. George Miller 8.33%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Robert Brady 8.28%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Mark Pocan 7.71%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Marcy Kaptur 7.36%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Al Green 7.02%
Top five industry recipients: Industrial Unions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Marcy Kaptur 8.59%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. George Miller 7.34%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Gene Green 7.23%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Luis Gutierrez 6.87%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Al Green 6.41%
Top five industry recipients: Public Sector Unions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Jose Serrano 13.87%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Danny K. Davis 10.97%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Frederica Wilson 7.65%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard 7.53%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Chaka Fattah 7.23%
Top five industry recipients: Transportation Unions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Corrine Brown 9.11%
2nd Democratic Party Rep. Peter DeFazio 8.71%
3rd Democratic Party Rep. Jose Serrano 8.66%
4th Democratic Party Rep. Nick Rahall 8.6%
5th Democratic Party Rep. Elijah Cummings 7.92%
Top five industry recipients: Civil Servants/Public Officials
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Bill Foster 3.41%
Top five industry recipients: Misc. Unions
RankRepresentative% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Rep. Donna Edwards 3.82%


Senators[16]

Top five industry recipients: Building Trade Unions
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Joe Donnelly 3.02%
Top five industry recipients: Industrial Unions
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Independent Sen. Bernie Sanders 2.1%
Top five industry recipients: Public Sector Unions
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Independent Sen. Bernie Sanders 2%
Top five industry recipients: Transportation Unions
RankSenator% of career contributions
1st Democratic Party Sen. Mazie Hirono 2.99%

Summary

Of the 15 sectors analyzed by Ballotpedia, nine had highly partisan giving patterns, appearing primarily in either Republican or Democratic members' top five sectors. Those nine sectors are nearly split between favoring Democrats and favoring Republicans, with five sectors appearing in the top five of Republicans and four in the top five of Democrats. The most heavily Republican-giving sector is the Energy sector, with the Healthcare and Construction/Real Estate sectors also heavily favoring Republicans. On the other hand, the Unions sector favored Democrats highly, with no Republicans appearing in the top five of any industry within the sector. Democrats, however, hold 18 positions, with an independent holding a single place. Like the Unions sector, no Republicans appear in any of the top five lists for any industry within Education. Only eight Democrats received enough money from donors in that sector for it to be among their top five sectors.

Despite these highly partisan giving patterns, most sectors give substantial sums of money to members of both parties. With the exceptions of Unions and Education, every sector had at least one congressman from each party that received sufficient donations from a sector to count it among his or her top five. This could mean that donors from most sectors are hedging their bets, giving money to members of both parties. It could also mean that political ideologies are diverse enough across the country that donors are attracted to members of both parties. Regardless of which is the case, it is clear that even in a highly politicized environment, money crosses the political divide regularly.

Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

Bill sponsorship in Congress is a direct way to endorse a specific piece of legislation. FindTheBest, a research organization that has partnered with Ballotpedia on various projects, tracks the topics that members of Congress attach their names to through sponsorships. Of the 15 sectors, four of the highest recipients had direct correlations between sector donations and bill sponsorship. Below are the numbers from FindTheBest for the top recipients of the Banking, Construction/Real Estate, Defense & Foreign Policy and Healthcare sectors.

Banking

Spencer Bachus.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Spencer Bachus had the highest concentration of donations from the Banking industry: 31.48 percent.


Construction/Real Estate

Gary Miller.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Gary Miller had the highest concentration of donations from the Construction/Real Estate industry: 14.95 percent.

Defense & Foreign Policy

Howard McKeon.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Buck McKeon had the highest concentration of donations from the Defense & Foreign Policy industry: 14.99 percent.

Healthcare

Michael Burgess.jpg

Republican Party Rep. Michael Burgess had the highest concentration of donations from the Healthcare industry: 41.05 percent.

Table of contents
return to top
Key findings
Methodology and definitions
Industries: Concentration by member
Industries: Committee membership
Sectors: Concentration by sector
Sectors: Bill sponsorship
Sectors: Most invested

To gauge the investment of the different sectors, below we have pulled out a few interesting statistics:

  • The industry that appears in the most members' top five industries
  • The sector that averaged the highest percentage of members' total donations
  • The most polarized sectors

Heavily donating sectors

Lawyers & Lobbyists appeared in the top five industries of 374 members.
PGI2influence.jpg



Union contributions averaged 9.31 percent of their recipients' total career donations.
PGI2influence2.jpg

Most polarized sectors

Many of the sectors had a strong lean to one party or the other. Looking at each sector, below are the interests that trended most Democratic and most Republican:

Donation Concentration most polarized sectors.png
Democratic Party 8
Republican Party 0
Democratic Party 18
Republican Party 2
Democratic Party 18
Independent 1
Democratic Party 3
Republican Party 19
Democratic Party 4
Republican Party 18


See also

BP-Initials-UPDATED.png
Suggest a link

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Time, "The Incredible Rise in Campaign Spending," October 23, 2014
  2. OpenSecrets.org, "Politicians & Elections," accessed March 14, 2015
  3. Information is only available back to 1989 for members who were elected prior to 1990.
  4. OpenSecrets.org, "How we classify contributions," October 15, 2014
  5. 5.0 5.1 Note: Within the data, there were no other donors that were focused on the promotion of a single country.
  6. Note: Lobbyists were included in this section because lobbyists are often closely affiliated with, or a branch of, a law firm.
  7. 7.0 7.1 These are the business/sales related industries that did not fit under Banking.
  8. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Michael Burgess," accessed September 23, 2014
  9. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Scott Perry," accessed September 24, 2014
  10. Career contributions is defined as a member's donations from his or her first race to updated figures for 2014. If a member was elected prior to 1990, there is only data back to 1989.
  11. Career contributions is defined as a member's donations from his or her first race to updated figures for 2014. If a member was elected prior to 1990, there is only data back to 1989.
  12. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Matt Cartwright," accessed September 24, 2014
  13. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Jose E. Serrano," accessed September 26, 2014
  14. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Spencer Bachus," accessed September 19, 2014
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 In some cases, there were not sufficient donations for an industry to appear amongst the top five industries for any representative.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 In some cases, there were not sufficient donations for an industry to appear amongst the top five industries for any senator.