United States Senate elections in South Carolina, 2014

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U.S. Senate, South Carolina General Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngLindsey Graham Incumbent 55.3% 672,941
     Democratic Brad Hutto 37.6% 456,726
     Libertarian Victor Kocher 2.8% 33,839
     Independent Thomas Ravenel 3.9% 47,588
     N/A Write-in 0.4% 4,774
Total Votes 1,215,868
Source: South Carolina State Election Commission



CongressLogo.png

2014 U.S. Senate Elections in South Carolina

General Election Date
November 4, 2014

Primary Date
June 10, 2014

November 4 Election Winner:
Lindsey Graham Republican Party
Incumbent prior to election:
Lindsey Graham Republican Party
Lindsey Graham.jpg

Race Ratings
Cook Political Report: Solid Republican[1]

Sabato's Crystal Ball: Safe R[2]


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2014 U.S. House Elections

Flag of South Carolina.png
Voters in South Carolina elected one member to the U.S. Senate in the election on November 4, 2014. Incumbent Lindsey Graham defeated Democrat Brad Hutto, Libertarian Victor Kocher and former state treasurer of South Carolina Thomas Ravenel, a convicted felon and reality TV star, in the general election.
Candidate Filing Deadline Primary Election General Election
March 30, 2014
June 10, 2014
November 4, 2014

Primary: South Carolina is one of 14 states that uses an open primary system, in which registered voters do not have to be members of a party to vote in that party's primary.[3][4][5]

Voter registration: To vote in the primary, voters had to register by May 10, 2014. For the general election, the voter registration deadline was October 4, 2014.[6]

See also: South Carolina elections, 2014

Incumbent: Heading into the election was incumbent Lindsey Graham (R). Graham was first elected in 2002.

Candidates

General election candidates


June 10, 2014, primary results

Republican Party Republican Primary

Democratic Party Democratic Primary

Independent Third Party Candidates


Election results

General election

U.S. Senate, South Carolina General Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngLindsey Graham Incumbent 55.3% 672,941
     Democratic Brad Hutto 37.6% 456,726
     Libertarian Victor Kocher 2.8% 33,839
     Independent Thomas Ravenel 3.9% 47,588
     N/A Write-in 0.4% 4,774
Total Votes 1,215,868
Source: South Carolina State Election Commission

Republican primary

Incumbent Lindsey Graham won the Republican primary on June 10, 2014.[7]

U.S. Senate, South Carolina Republican Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngLindsey Graham Incumbent 56.4% 178,093
Lee Bright 15.4% 48,704
Richard Cash 8.3% 26,246
Det Bowers 7.3% 23,071
Nancy Mace 6.2% 19,560
Bill Connor 5.3% 16,847
Benjamin Dunn 1% 3,195
Total Votes 315,716
Source: Results via Associated Press

Democratic primary

Brad Hutto defeated Jay Stamper in the Democratic primary.[7]

U.S. Senate, South Carolina Democratic Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngBrad Hutto 76.6% 87,154
Jay Stamper 23.4% 26,579
Total Votes 113,733
Source: Results via Associated Press

Race background

Debate

Only two of the four Senate candidates met in a debate held on October 13, 2014. Libertarian Victor Kocher was not invited, and incumbent Lindsey Graham did not attend the debate because "he didn't want to be on the same stage as former state treasurer Ravenel, who left office in 2007 because of a drug charge, was convicted of a felony and has since become a reality TV star with his show Southern Charm, according to The Sun Herald. Brad Hutto (D) and Thomas Ravenel (I) each attacked Graham for not showing up to debate and for what they argued was his willingness to send U.S. troops overseas.[18]

Primary vulnerability

Graham was named by National Journal as one of the top five incumbent senators at risk of losing his or her primary election. Four of the five most vulnerable senators were Republican.[19]

AR-15 raffle

In January 2014, Lee Bright (R) announced via an email to supporters that he would raffle off an AR-15 gun on February 15, 2014. Bright wrote in the email:

"In the wake of the horrific tragedy in Newtown, Conn., gun-grabbers were sure they had the votes to ram gun control into law. Thanks to the action of Second Amendment supporters all over the country, their scheme failed — even despite my Republican primary opponent, U.S. Sen. Lindsey Graham."[20]

Bowers' controversial sermon

Bowers argued in one of his sermons delivered at Christ Church of the Carolinas that in many cases of divorce, husbands leave their wives because their wives love their children more than their husbands. In the sermon he stated, “Do you hear me ladies? It is an abominable idolatry to love your children more than you love your husband, and it will ruin your marriage. And yet you blame it on him because he ran off with some other woman! He did run off with some other woman, and you packed his bags. All of his emotional bags, you packed for him. Is that true in every case? No, but it’s true in the vast preponderance of them."[21] Bowers' full sermon can be found here.

Key votes

Below are important votes that Graham cast during the 113th Congress.

Economy

Farm bill

Yea3.png On February 4, 2014, the Democratic controlled Senate approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[22] It passed the Senate with a vote of 68-32. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that will kick in when prices drop; however, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[23] Graham joined with 19 other Republican senators in favor of the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 16, 2014, the Democratic-controlled Senate approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[24][25] The Senate voted 72-26 for the 1,582 page bill, with 17 Republicans and 55 Democrats voting in favor of the bill.[25] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[26] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts. Graham voted with the 17 Republican and the 55 Democratic members in favor of the bill.[24][25]

Government shutdown

See also:United States budget debate, 2013

Graham donated his salary to the Wounded Warriors Project while the government was shutdown.[27]

Yea3.png During the shutdown in October 2013, the Senate rejected, down party lines, every House-originated bill that stripped the budget of funding for the Affordable Care Act. A deal was reached late on October 16, 2013, just hours before the debt ceiling deadline. The bill to reopen the government, H.R. 2775, lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[28] The final vote on H.R. 2775 was 81-18, with all 18 votes against the bill from Republican members. Graham voted with the Democratic Party for the bill.[29]

No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013

Yea3.png Graham voted for H.R.325 -- No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013. The bill passed the Senate on January 31, 2013, with a vote of 64 - 34. The purpose of the bill was to temporarily suspend the debt ceiling and withhold the pay of members of Congress until a budget could be passed. The vote largely followed party lines with Democrats overwhelmingly supporting it and many Republicans in opposition to the bill.[30]

Immigration

Mexico-U.S. border

Nay3.png Graham voted against Senate Amendment 1197 -- Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border. The amendment was rejected by the Senate on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 39 - 54. The purpose of the amendment was to require the completion of 350 miles of fence described in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 before registered provisional immigrant status may be granted. It would also require 700 miles of fence be completed before the status of registered provisional immigrants may be changed to permanent resident status. The vote followed party lines.[31]

Media

Lindsey Graham


Lindsey Graham - "Fighter."

Lindsey Graham - "Fiscal."

Lindsey Graham - "Defender."

Lindsey Graham - "Opt Out."

Lindsey Graham - "Tough Questions."

Darline ads

Graham released two television ads and two radio ads featuring his younger sister, Darline Graham Nordone on May 20, 2014. Graham Nordone described how her brother Lindsey took care of her while her parents were working and after her parents died when she was only 13 years old. Darline said, “It was hard when we lost my mom and my dad. Lindsey assured me that he was going to take care of me, he was going to be there for me. He never let me down. Never. I don’t see how he did it, to take on the responsibility of raising a little sister. That came from within for Lindsey.”[32]


Lindsey Graham - "Darline 30."

Lindsey Graham - "Darline 60."

Lindsey Graham - "Darline One."

Lindsey Graham - "Darline Two."

Brad Hutto


"Brad Hutto for U.S. Senate."

Thomas Ravenel


Ravenel for Senate, "Do They Know?."

Ravenel for Senate, "Dead End Road."

Ravenel for Senate, "Fighting for Our Families."

Richard Cash


"Richard Cash for Senate Commercial 'Jailed'."

Polls

General election

General Election
Poll Lindsey Graham Brad HuttoThomas RavenelUndecided/OtherMargin of ErrorSample Size
YouGov
September 20 - October 1, 2014
44%27%8%21%+/-22,663
Winthrop Poll
September 21-28, 2014
46.3%28%8%12.2%+/-31,082
YouGov
August 18 - September 2, 2014
37%28%8%27%+/-5833
AVERAGES 42.43% 27.67% 8% 20.07% +/-3.33 1,526
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org
General election
Poll Lindsey Graham Brad HuttoThomas RavenelVictor KocherUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Voter Survey Service
July 16-20, 2014
45%33%10%4%8%+/-3.1650
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org
Election 2014: South Carolina Senate
Poll Lindsey Graham Brad HuttoOtherUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Rasmussen Reports
July 9-10, 2014
49%30%10%11%+/-4750
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org


Republican primary

Republican primary
Poll Lindsey Graham Richard CashLee BrightNancy MaceDet BowersBill ConnorBenjamin DunnOther/Someone elseWon't voteMargin of ErrorSample Size
Target Point (May 16-22, 2014) (dead link)
56%7%6%5%4%1%1%2%1%+/-2.8600
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org.
Republican primary
Poll Lindsey Graham Lee BrightNancy MaceBill ConnorRichard CashNot sureRefusedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Winthrop University (February 16-23, 2014)
45.0%8.5%3.7%3.5%2.9%34.9%1.6%+/-3.2901
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org.

Endorsements

Republican primary

South Carolina Republican Contested Primary
Endorsement/Contribution Lindsey Graham Nancy Mace Lee Bright
Republican Liberty Caucus October 16, 2013
Gov. Chris Christie (R-NJ) November 6, 2013
Rep. Steve Stockman (R-TX) January 30, 2014
National Association for Gun Rights February 24, 2014
U.S. Chamber of Commerce April 22, 2014

Lindsey Graham

Graham was endorsed by the following organizations:

  • National Right to Life and S.C. Citizens for Life.[33]

Brad Hutto

The South Carolina Democratic Party endorsed Brad Hutto.[34]

According to The State, South Carolina Democratic Party leaders could not endorse Stamper because of his "felony convictions from 2008 for selling unregistered securities in Nevada."[34]

Stamper responded to losing the endorsement to Hutto with the following comments: "The endorsement is consistent with Jaime Harrison's belief that we need to act like Republicans to be elected as Democrats. On a positive note, at least the state party is apparently no longer supporting Lindsey Graham, a departure from a year ago when it effectively endorsed him in a press release as 'one of the few federal elected officials in South Carolina who actually works to try to get things done to help our state's families and businesses.'"[34]

Campaign contributions

Candidate ballot accecss
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Find detailed information on ballot access requirements in all 50 states and Washington D.C.

Lindsey Graham

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Graham's reports.[35]

Lindsey Graham (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[36]April 15, 2013$4,412,522.84$1,173,386.93$(203,139.28)$5,382,770.49
July Quarterly[37]July 13, 2013$5,382,770.49$1,406,955.71$(479,739.23)$6,309,986.97
October Quarterly[38]October 14, 2013$6,309,986.97$1,176,424.79$(533,899.82)$69,525,101.94
Year-End[39]January 31, 2014$6,952,511$1,312,688$(625,854)$7,639,346
April Quarterly[40]April 15, 2014$7,639,346.38$873,177.74$(1,657,878.19)$6,854,645.93
July Quarterly[41]September 27, 2014$3,713,188.55$372,354.22$(1,374,368.18)$2,711,134.59
Running totals
$6,314,987.39$(4,874,878.7)

Brad Hutto

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Hutto's reports.[42]

Brad Hutto (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[43]April 10, 2014$0.00$23,485.00$(10,600.15)$12,884.85
Pre-Primary[44]May 22, 2014$12,884.85$67,336.00$(27,349.27)$52,871.58
July Quarterly[45]July 9, 2014$52,871.58$161,131.00$(162,892.90)$51,109.68
Running totals
$251,952$(200,842.32)

Victor Kocher

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Kocher's reports.[46]

Victor Kocher (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
July Quarterly[47]July 14, 2014$0.00$14,014.00$(2,887.87)$11,126.13
Running totals
$14,014$(2,887.87)

Thomas Ravenel

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Ravenel's reports.[48]

Thomas Ravenel (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
October Quarterly[49]October 14, 2014$0.00$462,680.00$(330,876.61)$131,803.39
Running totals
$462,680$(330,876.61)

Nancy Mace

Candidates for Congress were required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Mace's reports.

Nancy Mace (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
October Quarterly[50]January 7, 2014$0$141,429$(29,108)$112,321
Year-End[51]January 31, 2014$112,321$256,332$(127,455)$241,199
April Quarterly[52]April 15, 2014$241,199.52$213,873.51$(231,872.38)$223,300.65
Running totals
$611,634.51$(388,435.38)

Lee Bright

Candidates for Congress were required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Bright's reports.

Lee Bright (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
October Quarterly[53]October 15, 2013$0$102,620$(28,720)$73,899
Year-End[54]January 31, 2014$73,899$52,236$(76,677)$49,458
April Quarterly[55]April 15, 2014$49,458.78$141,168.49$(112,070.71)$78,556.56
Running totals
$296,024.49$(217,467.71)

Richard Cash

Candidates for Congress were required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Cash's reports.

Richard Cash (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
July Quarterly[56]July 15, 2013$0$275,171$(30,303)$244,867
October Quarterly[57]October 15, 2013$244,867$15,570$(22,730)$237,706
Year-End[58]January 15, 2014$237,706$76,156$(58,430)$255,432
April Quarterly[59]April 15, 2014$255,432.37$348,520.74$(139,896.33)$464,056.78
Running totals
$715,417.74$(251,359.33)

Jay Stamper

Candidates for Congress were required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Stamper's reports.

Jay Stamper (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[60]April 15, 2013$0$14,274$(13,445)$829
July Quarterly[61]July 12, 2013$829$5,233$(4,100)$1,962
October Quarterly[62]October 14, 2013$1,962$15,128$(10,511)$6,579
Year-End[63]January 14, 2014$6,579$14,230$(17,459)$3,350
April Quarterly[64]April 15, 2014$3,350.01$10,812.43$(3,905.36)$10,257.08
Running totals
$59,677.43$(49,420.36)

Election history

2008

On November 4, 2008, Graham won re-election to the United States Senate. He defeated Bob Conley in the general election.[65]

U.S. Senate, South Carolina General Election, 2008
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngLindsey Graham Incumbent 57.7% 1,076,534
     Democratic Bob Conley 42.3% 790,621
Total Votes 1,867,155

See also

External links

References

  1. Cook Political Report, "2014 Senate RACE RATINGS FOR August 15, 2014," accessed August 21, 2014
  2. Sabato's Crystal Ball, "2014 Senate Races," accessed August 21, 2014
  3. National Conference of State Legislatures Website, "State Primary Election Types," accessed January 6, 2014
  4. Fair Vote, "Congressional and Presidential Primaries: Open, Closed, Semi-Closed, and 'Top Two,'" accessed January 6, 2014
  5. Ballotpedia research conducted December 26, 2013, through January 3, 2014, researching and analyzing various state websites and codes.
  6. South Carolina State Election Commission, "South Carolina Voter Registration Information," accessed January 3, 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Associated Press, "South Carolina - Summary Vote Results," accessed June 10, 2014
  8. The State, "Ravenel makes US Senate run official," July 4, 2014
  9. Daily Caller, "Nancy Mace to announce primary challenge against Lindsey Graham," accessed August 1, 2013
  10. 10.0 10.1 Politico, "Nancy Mace makes Senate run official in South Carolina," accessed August 3, 2013
  11. CNN Politics, "Pastor joins crowded GOP race to unseat Lindsey Graham," February 4, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 SC Votes, "Primary Candidate Filings," accessed March 31, 2014
  13. Jaystamper.com, "Home," accessed May 21, 2013
  14. The State, "Brad Hutto files to run for U.S. Senate," March 28, 2014
  15. SC Votes, "General Election Candidate List," accessed April 1, 2014
  16. The State, "EXCLUSIVE: That’s how the real Thomas Ravenel rolls," accessed April 22, 2014
  17. The State, "Thomas Ravenel eyes independent Senate run if Lindsey Graham wins GOP primary," accessed May 29, 2014
  18. The Sun Herald, "Hutto, Ravenel meet in debate without Graham," accessed October 15, 2014 (dead link)
  19. National Journal, "Ranking the Top 5 Senators Vulnerable in 2014 Primaries," accessed December 31, 2013
  20. Politico, "Lindsey Graham challenger to raffle AR-15," accessed January 24, 2014
  21. Politico, "Lindsey Graham foe: Children-loving women cause divorces," accessed April 29, 2014
  22. Senate.gov, "H.R. 2642 (Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013)," accessed February 12, 2014
  23. New York Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 Politico, "Senate approves $1.1 trillion spending bill," accessed January 20, 2014
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 U.S. Senate, "January 16 Vote," accessed January 20, 2014
  26. Roll Call, "House Passes $1.1 Trillion Omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  27. Politico, "Hill pols plan to donate, halt salary," accessed October 1, 2013
  28. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  29. Senate.gov, "H.R. 2775 As Amended," accessed October 31, 2013
  30. Project Vote Smart, "HR 325 - To Ensure the Complete and Timely Payment of the Obligations of the United States Government Until May 19, 2013 - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
  31. Project Vote Smart, "S Amdt 1197 - Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
  32. Lindsey Graham, "RELEASE: New Ads Show Graham Siblings Overcame Tough Times Together," accessed June 4, 2014
  33. The State, "SC politics: Graham, challengers to meet at Columbia town hall," May 16, 2014
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 The State, "SC Democrats pick sides in US Senate primary," accessed June 2, 2014
  35. Federal Election Commission, "Graham 2014 Summary reports," accessed May 14, 2014
  36. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed August 1, 2013
  37. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed August 1, 2013
  38. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 30, 2013
  39. Federal Election Commission, "Graham Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  40. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed May 14, 2014
  41. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2014
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Hutto 2014 Summary reports," accessed April 23, 2014
  43. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 23, 2014
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Pre-Primary," accessed June 18, 2014
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Pre-Primary," accessed June 18, 2014
  46. Federal Election Commission, "Kocher 2014 Summary reports," accessed October 22, 2014
  47. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2014
  48. Federal Election Commission, "Ravenel 2014 Summary reports," accessed August 25, 2014
  49. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2014
  50. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  51. Federal Election Commission, "Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  52. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 29, 2014
  53. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  54. Federal Election Commission, "Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  55. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 29, 2014
  56. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  57. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  58. Federal Election Commission, "Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  59. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 23, 2014
  60. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  61. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  62. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed February 14, 2014
  63. Federal Election Commission, "Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  64. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 29, 2014
  65. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013