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Article XI, Montana Constitution
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| Text of Section 1:
The term "local government units" includes, but is not limited to, counties and incorporated cities and towns. Other local government units may be established by law.
| Text of Section 2:
The counties of the state are those that exist on the date of ratification of this constitution. No county boundary may be changed or county seat transferred until approved by a majority of those voting on the question in each county affected.
| Text of Section 3:
Forms of Government
(1) The legislature shall provide methods for governing local government units and procedures for incorporating, classifying, merging, consolidating, and dissolving such units, and altering their boundaries. The legislature shall provide such optional or alternative forms of government that each unit or combination of units may adopt, amend, or abandon an optional or alternative form by a majority of those voting on the question.
(2) One optional form of county government includes, but is not limited to, the election of three county commissioners, a clerk and recorder, a clerk of district court, a county attorney, a sheriff, a treasurer, a surveyor, a county superintendent of schools, an assessor, a coroner, and a public administrator. The terms, qualifications, duties, and compensation of those offices shall be provided by law. The Board of county commissioners may consolidate two or more such offices. The Boards of two or more counties may provide for a joint office and for the election of one official to perform the duties of any such office in those counties.
| Text of Section 4:
(1) A local government unit without self-government powers has the following general powers:
(a) An incorporated city or town has the powers of a municipal corporation and legislative, administrative, and other powers provided or implied by law.
(b) A county has legislative, administrative, and other powers provided or implied by law.
(c) Other local government units have powers provided by law.
(2) The powers of incorporated cities and towns and counties shall be liberally construed.
| Text of Section 5:
(1) The legislature shall provide procedures permitting a local government unit or combination of units to frame, adopt, amend, revise, or abandon a self-government charter with the approval of a majority of those voting on the question. The procedures shall not require approval of a charter by a legislative body.
(2) If the legislature does not provide such procedures by July 1, 1975, they may be established by election either:
(a) Initiated by petition in the local government unit or combination of units; or
(b) Called by the governing body of the local government unit or combination of units.
(3) Charter provisions establishing executive, legislative, and administrative structure and organization are superior to statutory provisions.
| Text of Section 6:
A local government unit adopting a self-government charter may exercise any power not prohibited by this constitution, law, or charter. This grant of self-government powers may be extended to other local government units through optional forms of government provided for in section 3.
| Text of Section 7:
(1) Unless prohibited by law or charter, a local government unit may
(a) cooperate in the exercise of any function, power, or responsibility with,
(b) share the services of any officer or facilities with,
(c) transfer or delegate any function, power, responsibility, or duty of any officer to one or more other local government units, school districts, the state, or the United States.
(2) The qualified electors of a local government unit may, by initiative or referendum, require it to do so.
| Text of Section 8:
Initiative and Referendum
The legislature shall extend the initiative and referendum powers reserved to the people by the constitution to the qualified electors of each local government unit.
| Text of Section 9:
Voter Review of Local Government
(1) The legislature shall, within four years of the ratification of this constitution, provide procedures requiring each local government unit or combination of units to review its structure and submit one alternative form of government to the qualified electors at the next general or special election.
(2) The legislature shall require an election in each local government to determine whether a local government will undertake a review procedure once every ten years after the first election. Approval by a majority of those voting in the decennial general election on the question of undertaking a local government review is necessary to mandate the election of a local government study commission. Study commission members shall be elected during any regularly scheduled election in local governments mandating their election.
- Amended with the approval of Constitutional Amendment No. 6 on November 7, 1978.
- State constitution
- Constitutional article
- Constitutional amendment
- Constitutional revision
- Constitutional convention
- Montana Judicial Branch, "Montana Constitution"
- Montana.gov, "Chapter 21: A People's Constitution (1972)"
- Montana State Legislature, "Highlights from Legislative History"
- Montana Historical Society, "The Blessings of Liberty: Montana's Constitutions"
- Montana Policy Institute, "Home"
- Beartooth NBC, "Big Sky Chronicles: Montana Constitution," (dead link)
- Montana PBS, "For This and Future Generations..."
- Elison, Larry and Fritz Snyder. (2011). The Montana State Constitution, New York, New York: Oxford University Press
- University of Montana's William J. Jameson Law Library, "Documentary History of the Ratification of the Montana Constitution"
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