Article XIII, Montana Constitution

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Montana Constitution
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Article XIII of the Montana Constitution is entitled General Provisions and consists of seven sections.

Section 1

Text of Section 1:

Nonmunicipal Corporations

(1) Corporate charters shall be granted, modified, or dissolved only pursuant to general law.

(2) The legislature shall provide protection and education for the people against harmful and unfair practices by either foreign or domestic corporations, individuals, or associations.

(3) The legislature shall pass no law retrospective in its operations which imposes on the people a new liability in respect to transactions or considerations already passed.[1]

Section 2

Text of Section 2:

Consumer Counsel

The legislature shall provide for an office of consumer counsel which shall have the duty of representing consumer interests in hearings before the public service commission or any other successor agency. The legislature shall provide for the funding of the office of consumer counsel by a special tax on the net income or gross revenues of regulated companies.[1]

Section 3

Text of Section 3:



  • Repealed by Sec. 1, Constitutional Amendment No. 16 on November 4, 1986.

Section 4

Text of Section 4:

Code of Ethics

The legislature shall provide a code of ethics prohibiting conflict between public duty and private interest for members of the legislature and all state and local officers and employees..[1]

Section 5

Text of Section 5:

Exemption Laws

The legislature shall enact liberal homestead and exemption laws..[1]

Section 6

Text of Section 6:


No perpetuities shall be allowed except for charitable purposes..[1]

Section 7

Text of Section 7:


Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in this state..[1]


See also

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