Barbara McIntyre, Durlene Davis, and Cedric McDuffie, recall, Cleveland, Texas (2011)

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A vote about whether to recall Barbara McIntyre, Durlene Davis, and Cedric McDuffie from their elected positions as members of the city council of Cleveland, Texas, took place on May 14, 2011. All three officials were recalled.[1]

Election results

The recall election took place on May 14th, 2011. Early voting for the recall election began on Monday May 2nd and ended on Tuesday May 10th.[2]

Voters chose to recall all three councilmembers on the ballot. The election results are as follows:[3]

Barbara McIntyre, Councilmember Place 2
Result Votes Percentage
Approveda Yes 593 56.6%
No 454 43.4%

Cedric McDuffie, Councilmember Place 3
Result Votes Percentage
Approveda Yes 599 57.5%
No 442 42.5%

Durlene Davis, Councilmember Place 4
Result Votes Percentage
Approveda Yes 603 57.4%
No 448 42.6%


Petitioners began circulating petitions in November 2010, claiming the council members were “inexperienced with city finance and personnel matters.”[1] Cleveland's recall effort was hoisted onto the national radar after an alleged gang-rape of an 11-year old Hispanic girl by a group of black males brought existing racial tensions in the small city to new heights.[4]

The recall effort was led by Dr. Stan Jones (a former mayor of Cleveland) and Elaine Campbell. The group began calling for a recall after the October 2010 firing of Cleveland's city manager,Phil Cook, but they claimed Cook's firing was not their motivation. Recall organizers cited the following reasons behind the recall: "council’s lack of understanding the budget – they have amended the budget twice since Oct. 1, 2010 and added a new position to the police department; behavior at council meetings that resulted in resignations from key positions; and their tendency to go around a business-like chain of command."[1]

In the midst of aggravated racial tension in Cleveland, some council members claimed the recall was motivated by racism. But recall leader Stan Jones was quoted as saying "he is tired of council members playing the "race card" while they are actually "spending money like inebriated sailors.""[4]

Recall petitions were submitted to the Cleveland City Secretary and Interim City Manager on December 3, 2010 with 340 signatures from registered Cleveland voters - 90 more than the 250 required. [5]

After receiving notice from the city manager that petitions with the required signatures had been received and verified by the city, the Cleveland City Council rejected the reports during a council meeting on January 11, 2011.[6]

The Cleveland City Council met on March 1, 2011 and approved ordinances ordering a special election for the recall of council members Barbara McIntyre, Durlene Davis, and Cedric McDuffie. The recall election took place May 14, 2011. [7]

Path to the ballot

The ability to force a recall election in Cleveland is laid out in the city's home rule charter. According to the recall rules set forth in that charter, a recall election for a city council member can be mandated if a petition is signed by at least "25 percent of the number of votes cast in the last election, or 250 (whichever is greater)...In the last city election, only 549 votes were cast."[5]

See also