Governor of Colorado
|Office website:||Official Link|
|2012-2013 FY Budget:||$34,033,530|
|Term limits:||2 terms|
|Length of term:||4 years|
|Authority:||Colorado Constitution, Article IV, Section 2|
|Assumed office:||January 11, 2011|
|Next election:||November 4, 2014|
|Last election:||November 2, 2010|
|Other Colorado Executive Offices|
|Governor • Lieutenant Governor • Secretary of State • Attorney General • Treasurer • Controller • Commissioner of Education • Agriculture Commissioner • Insurance Commissioner • Natural Resources Exec. Director • Labor Executive Director • Public Utilities Commission|
- 1 Current officeholder
- 2 Authority
- 3 Qualifications
- 4 Elections
- 5 Vacancies
- 6 Duties
- 7 Divisions
- 8 State budget
- 9 Compensation
- 10 Gubernatorial residence
- 11 Historical officeholders
- 12 History
- 13 Recent news
- 14 Contact information
- 15 See also
- 16 External links
- 17 References
Until 1967, the governor and the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado were elected on separate tickets for two-year terms. Term length for both offices was increased to four years in 1967, and in 1986 the constitution was amended to elect both on the same ticket. The two-term limit was added to the constitution in 1991.
As of July 2014, Colorado is one of 13 Democratic state government trifectas.
- See also: Current governors by party affiliation
Before becoming governor, Hickenlooper served as mayor of Denver from 2003 to 2011, during which time the city hosted the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Prior to entering public service, he operated Wynkoop Brewing Co., a Denver brewpub, which he opened in 1988. He was a geologist for Buckhorn Petroleum, a now defunct oil company, from 1981 to 1988.
The supreme executive power of the state shall be vested in the governor, who shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
All political power is vested in and derived from the people; all government, of right, originates from the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole.
|2014 • 2013 • 2012 • 2011 • 2010|
|Current Lt. Governors|
|Lt. Governor Elections|
|2014 • 2013 • 2012 • 2011 • 2010|
- at least 30 years old
- a U.S. citizen
- a resident of Colorado for at least two years on the day of the election. The standard for residency is not affected by time out of the state due to civil or military service (Article VII, Section 4)
Article III forbids any officer of the executive department from holding any legislative or judicial office.
A candidate is disqualified from holding the office of governor if he has been convicted of "embezzlement of public moneys, bribery, perjury, solicitation of bribery, or subornation of perjury"(Article XII, § 4). Additionally, any civil officer who "solicits, demands, or receives" a bribe forfeits his office and his right to hold any other office in the future, and is liable to criminal penalties (Article XII, § 6).
No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenant governor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, nor to the office of secretary of state or state treasurer unless he shall have attained the age of twentyfive years, nor to the office of attorney general unless he shall have attained the age of twentyfive years and be a licensed attorney of the supreme court of the state in good standing, and no person shall be eligible to any one of said offices unless, in addition to the qualifications above prescribed therefore, he shall be a citizen of the United States, and have resided within the limits of the state two years next preceding his election.
Colorado elects governors in federal midterm election years (e.g. 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018). Per Article IV, Section 1 of the state constitution, the gubernatorial inauguration is always set for the second Tuesday in the January following an election. Thus, January 11, 2011 and January 13, 2015 are inaugural days.
If two candidates are tied, a joint session of the legislature casts ballots to choose the winner from among the top two voter getters. If the election is contested, the legislature shall jointly resolve the manner as prescribed by law. In early 1905, the previous year's gubernatorial election was formally contested and the legislature did in fact vote to remove the candidate who had been initially declared the winner.
(1) The executive department shall include the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state treasurer, and attorney general, each of whom shall hold his office for the term of four years, commencing on the second Tuesday of January in the year 1967, and each fourth year thereafter. They shall perform such duties as are prescribed by this constitution or by law.
- See also: Colorado gubernatorial election, 2010
On November 2, 2010, John Hickenlooper won election to the office of Governor of Colorado. He defeated Tom Tancredo (ACP), Dan Maes (R), Jaimes Brown (L), Jason Clark (I) and Paul Fiorino (I) in the general election.
|Governor of Colorado, 2010|
|American Constitution Party||Tom Tancredo||36.5%||651,232|
|Election Results Via: The New York Times|
To view the electoral history dating back to 1998 for the office of Governor of Colorado, Click [show] to expand the section.
- See also: States with gubernatorial term limits
Colorado governors are restricted to two consecutive terms in office, after which they must wait one term before being eligible to run again. Term limits were added to the constitution in 1990 through the Colorado Term Limits Act.
|(2) In order to broaden the opportunities for public service and to guard against excessive concentrations of power, no governor ... shall serve more than two consecutive terms in such office. This limitation on the number of terms shall apply to terms of office beginning on or after January 1, 1991. Any person who succeeds to the office of governor or is appointed or elected to fill a vacancy in one of the other offices named in this section, and who serves at least one-half of a term of office, shall be considered to have served a term in that office for purposes of this subsection (2). Terms are considered consecutive unless they are at least four years apart.|
Removal from office
Colorado is among the 19 states that provides citizens an avenue to recall their governor. One territorial governor, Edward M. McCook, was removed by petition. No governors have been recalled since Colorado became a state in 1876. Additionally, the legislature may impeach the governor, a privilege they have never exercised.
Recalls are governed under Article XXI, Sections 1 through 3
State officials, including the governor, are subject to recall after the first six months of their term. Recall proponents must file a petition with the same officer who accepts the nominating petition for the office in question; for statewide officers, this is the Colorado Secretary of State.
The petition must have valid signatures equal to 25% of the votes cast for the incumbent in his last election. Based on the number of votes received by the governor in the 2010 election, a recall petition would require 446,933 signatures, or 25% of the 1,787,730 votes cast for the incumbent, John Hickenlooper. Additionally, the petition must contain a statement, not exceeding 200 words, stating the grounds for the recall.
Normally, the governor is the officer charged with calling a recall election after validating signatures. However, if the governor is the officer being recalled, the lieutenant governor oversees the election. The incumbent subject to recall has five days to resign before the presiding officer calls the recall election.
If the petition, once submitted, is insufficient, it may be withdrawn and, within 15 days, amended and refiled. Once determined to be sufficient, a recall petition is submitted to the lieutenant governor, who calls a recall election not less than 30 days and not more than 60 days from the date of the petition's filing. If a general election is set within 90 days, the recall election may be combined with the general election.
If the recall fails, the incumbent may not be recalled again for the remainder of his or her term. Additionally, an incumbent who survives a recall is legally entitled to reimbursement of certain expenses from the state treasury.
- See also: Gubernatorial impeachment procedures
Impeachments of civil officers are governed under Article XIII, Sections 1 and 2.
The Colorado House of Representatives has the "sole power of impeachment" and a majority of the House's members must concur to impeach.
If the House does impeach, the Colorado Senate tries all impeachments, with all Senators required to take an oath or affirmation to be impartial before the trial begins. Article XIII, Section 1 of the state constitution requires the Chief Justice of the Colorado Supreme Court be the presiding officer when the governor or lieutenant governor is on trial.
The governor and lieutenant governor are liable to impeachment for "high crimes or misdemeanors or malfeasance in office" but, if impeached, the Senate's judgment only extend to removal from office and disqualification to hold further offices. An impeached officer may still be liable for indictment, trial, and punishment by state law enforcement.
Oath of office
Civil officers, including the governor, are required to take an oath under Article XII, Section 8 before they may carry out any functions of their office. Under Article XII, Section 9, officers of the Executive Department file their oath with the Colorado Secretary of State.
Specifics of oaths and affirmations are described in the Colorado Revised Statutes, Title 24, Article 12, Sections 101-108.
- See also: How gubernatorial vacancies are filled
If the office of the governor is vacant, temporarily or permanently, for any reason, the lieutenant governor takes over all the duties and responsibilities of the office. Once the lieutenant governor assumes the governorship, he appoints a replacement for the now-empty lieutenant governorship.
If the lieutenant governor is unable to discharge the office or if both the governor's and lieutenant governor's offices are vacant, the position(s) shall be filled by the highest ranking member(s) of the General Assembly who belongs to the same party as the elected officer in question.
If the governor is unfit for office due to physical or mental illness, the office holder may deliver a written statement to the legislature declaring himself no longer able to serve, or the Colorado Supreme Court may hold a hearing to deem the office holder not physically or mentally fit for office.
Additionally, if an appointed governor serves more than half of a four year term, for purposes of applying term limits, he shall be considered to have served a full term.
The Governor is responsible for upholding the Colorado Constitution and for faithfully executing all laws (§ 2). The governor also acts as commander in chief of the state's militia/National Guard at all times, unless it has been federalized (§ 5).
Under Article II, Sections 21 and 22, the governor may only suspend habeas corpus in times of rebellion or invasion and the state's militia is always subject to civil authority.
In addition to appointing, with Senate confirmation, all state executive offices not appointed by some other means, the Governor may remove officers for malfeasance, neglect, or incompetence (§ 6). Whenever any elected office becomes vacant when the Senate is in recess, the Governor may make a recess appointment, provided he presents his nominee to the Senate when they next convene.
Other duties and privileges of the office include:
- Granting pardons for all crimes, save treason. In all pardons and reprieves, he must communicate to the legislature the details of and reasons for the action (§ 7).
- Requiring written information, given under oath, from all officers and managers of state institutions on the conditions of the offices they oversee (§ 8)
- Providing details of the expenditures of the governor's office to the legislature (§ 8)
- Convening extraordinary sessions of the House or the Senate (§ 9), and adjourning the Assembly when its members cannot agree to do so themselves (§ 10)
- Making vacancy appointments to the any court of records from a list of nominees supplied by the Supreme Court Nominating Commission (Article VI, § 20(1)) and making vacancy appointments to vacant District Attorney offices (Article VI, § 20(4))
- Declaring a state of emergency and issuing an executive order to move the seat of government, after consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the President Pro Tem of the Senate, the Speaker of the House, and the Attorney General (Article VIII, § 3)
- Appointing all field, staff, and general military officers and commissioning the officers each company selects (Article XVII, § 3)
Additionally, statutory duties and privileges of the office are described in the Colorado Revised Statutes, Title 24, Article 20, Part 1, Section 101-110.
The structure of the governor's office is partly described in the Colorado Revised Statutes, Title 24, Article 37-38.9.
The governor's office currently has 12 political and policy offices within it, in addition to the Governor's Press Office:
The cabinet of the Governor of Colorado has 28 officers. It consists of five elected officers, one member of the gubernatorial staff, and 22 gubernatorial appointees:
|Lieutenant Governor||Joseph A. Garcia||Democrat|
|Secretary of State||Scott Gessler||Republican|
|Attorney General||John Suthers||Republican|
|Chief of Staff to the Governor||Roxanne White|
|Commissioner of Agriculture||John A. Salazar|
|Executive Director of Corrections||Tom Clements|
|Commissioner of Education||Robert Hammond|
|Executive Director of Healthcare Policy and Financing||Sue Birch|
|Executive Director of Higher Education||Joseph A. Garcia|
|Executive Director of Human Services||Reggie Bicha|
|Executive Director of Labor and Employment||Ellen Golombek|
|Executive Director of Local Affairs||Reeves Brown|
|Executive Director of Military and Veterans Affairs||Major General H. Michael Edwards|
|Executive Director of Natural Resources||Mile King|
|Executive Director of Personnel and Administration||Kathy Nesbitt|
|Executive Director of Public Health and Environment||Dr. Chris Urbina|
|Executive Director of Public Safety||James Davis|
|Executive Director of Regulatory Agencies||Barbara Kelley|
|Executive Director of Revenue||Roxy Huber|
|Executive Director of Transportation||Don Hunt|
|Chief Information Officer||Kristin Russell|
|Director of the Governor's Energy Office||T.J. Deora|
|Director of State Planning and Budgeting||Henry Sobanet|
|Chief Policy and Political Director||Alan Salazar|
|Director of Homeland Security||Larry D. Trujillo|
- Partisan affiliations are provided only for elected officers
- Cabinet members are listed in descending rank
Role in state budget
- See also: Colorado state budget
- Budget instructions are sent to state agencies in April.
- Agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in August.
- Agency hearings are held in August and September.
- The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in November.
- The legislature typically adopts a budget in May for the new fiscal year beginning July 1.
In Colorado, the governor may exercise line item veto authority on the adopted budget.
The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget to the legislature, which must in turn adopt a balanced budget.
Governor's office budget
The budget for the Governor's Office in the 2012-2013 Fiscal Year was $34,033,530.
In 2013, the governor's salary remained at $90,000.
- See also: Residences of the American governors
Properly known as the Boettcher Mansion, the official gubernatorial residence is an early 20th century white marble home, built in the Roman Ionic style and located at East 8th Avenue and Logan Street on Capitol Hill in Denver.
The mansion passed through the ownership of many of Colorado's founding families, having been built by the Cheesemans between 1907-1908, upgraded by the Evans throughout the early 1920s, and finally coming to be owned by the Boettchers. It was offered to the state of Colorado as a gubernatorial residence in 1957, in accordance with the will of Edna Boettcher, and accepted on behalf of the state by Governor Stephen McNichols in 1959.
Many of the furnishings are original to the era when the mansion was a private residence. Of particular note is the Waterford chandelier in the main drawing room, which originally hung in the White House ballroom and was given to Colorado on the occasion of her statehood, in 1876, by President Chester A. Arthur.
The second floor is the private residence of the First Family of Colorado, if they so choose. The lack of both space and privacy has led to several recent governors maintaining their private homes instead. Governor Hickenlooper and Governor Owens both kept their own homes, through Governor Ritter moved into the mansion.
The main floor of the mansion is used for state occasions, is open to the public for tours, and may be rented for private events.
Colorado has had eight territorial governors and 42 state governors, for a total of 50 chief executives.
|John Hickenlooper||January 11, 2011||Elected||Democrat|
|Bill Ritter||January 9, 2007||January 11, 2011||Elected||Democrat|
|Bill Owens||January 12, 1999||January 9, 2007||Elected||Republican|
|Roy Romer||January 13, 1987||January 12, 1999||Elected||Democrat|
|Dick Lamm||January 14, 1975||January 13, 1987||Elected||Democrat|
|John David Vanderhoof||July 16, 1973||January 14, 1975||Lt. Governor filling unexpired term†||Republican|
|John Arthur Love||January 8, 1963||July 16, 1973||Elected†||Republican|
|Stephen L.R. McNichols||January 18, 1957||January 8, 1963||Elected||Democrat|
|Edwin C. Johnson||January 11, 1955||January 18, 1957||Elected||Democrat|
|Daniel I.J. Thornton||January 9, 1951||January 11, 1955||Elected||Republican|
|Walter Walford Johnson||April 15, 1950||January 9, 1951||Lt. Governor filling unexpired termΔ||Democrat|
|William Lee Knous||January 14, 1947||April 15, 1950||ElectedΔ||Democrat|
|John Charles Vivian||January 12, 1943||January 14, 1947||Elected||Republican|
|Ralph Lawrence Carr||January 10, 1939||January 12, 1943||Elected||Republican|
|Teller Ammons||January 12, 1937||January 10, 1939||Elected||Democrat|
|Ray Herbert Talbot||January 1, 1937||January 12, 1937||Lt. Governor filling unexpired term∫||Democrat|
|Edwin C. Johnson||January 10, 1933||January 1, 1937||Elected∫||Democrat|
|Billy Adams||January 11, 1927||January 10, 1933||Elected||Democrat|
|Clarence Morley||January 13, 1925||January 11, 1927||Elected||Republican|
|William Ellery Sweet||January 9, 1923||January 13, 1925||Elected||Democrat|
|Oliver Henry Shoup||January 14, 1919||January 9, 1923||Elected||Republican|
|Julius Caldeen Gunter||January 9, 1917||January 14, 1919||Elected||Democrat|
|George Alfred Carlson||January 12, 1915||January 9, 1917||Elected||Republican|
|Elias M. Ammons||January 14, 1913||January 12, 1915||Elected||Democrat|
|John F. Shafroth||January 12, 1909||January 14, 1913||Elected||Democrat|
|Henry Augustus Buchtel||January 8, 1907||January 12, 1909||Elected||Republican|
|Jesse Fuller McDonald||March 17, 1905||January 8, 1907||Lt. Governor filling unexpired term‡||Republican|
|James Hamilton Peabody||March 17, 1905||March 17, 1905||Legislative appointee‡||Republican|
|Alva Adams||January 10, 1905||March 17, 1905||Elected‡||Democrat|
|James Hamilton Peabody||January 13, 1903||January 10, 1905||Elected||Republican|
|James Bradley Orman||January 8, 1901||January 13, 1903||Elected||Democrat|
|Charles Spalding Thomas||January 10, 1899||January 8, 1901||Elected||Democrat|
|Alva Adams||January 12, 1897||January 10, 1899||Elected||Democrat|
|Albert Washington McIntire||January 8, 1895||January 12, 1897||Elected||Republican|
|Davis Hanson Waite||January 10, 1893||January 8, 1895||Elected||Populist|
|John Long Routt||January 13, 1891||January 10, 1893||Elected||Republican|
|Job Adams Cooper||January 8, 1889||January 13, 1891||Elected||Republican|
|Alva Adams||January 11, 1887||January 8, 1889||Elected||Democrat|
|Benjamin Harrison Eaton||January 13, 1885||January 11, 1887||Elected||Republican|
|James Benton Grant||January 9, 1883||January 13, 1885||Elected||Democrat|
|Frederick Walker Pitkin||January 14, 1879||January 9, 1883||Elected||Republican|
|John Long Routt||August 1, 1876||January 14, 1879||Incumbent at statehood||Republican|
‡ : The 1904 election was rife with fraud. Democrat Alva Adams, who served as the 5th and 10th Governor, was initially declared the winner, sworn in, and took office as the 14th Governor in January of 1905.
On the morning on March 17, 1905, the Republican controlled legislature declared that the election had in fact been "won" by James Hamilton Peabody, the incumbent Adams had "defeated," and declared Peabody the winner, provided he immediately resign the office.
Peabody thus served as the 13th and 15th Governor of Colorado.
Peabody assumed the office, named Jesse Fuller McDonald as his Lieutenant Governor, and promptly communicated his resignation to the Secretary of State, at which point McDonald became the 16th Governor of Colorado.
Colorado is the only state to have had three Governors serve in a single day.
∫ : Edwin C. Johnson won a U.S. Senate seat in the 1932 elections and resigned his lame duck gubernatorial office 12 days before his successor was inaugurated due to differences between the state and federal inauguration schedules. Johnson's lieutenant, Ray Herbert Talbot, served for 12 days until the scheduled inaugural day, when Governor-elect Teller Ammons was sworn in.
Δ : William Lee Knous resigned to take a judgeship on the U.S. District Court for Colorado.
† : John Arthur Love resigned to become the Director of the Office of Energy Policy.
|Governor||Assumed office||Left office||Appointed by||Party|
|John Long Routt||March 29, 1875||August 1, 1876||Ulysses S. Grant||Republican|
|Edward M. McCook||June 19, 1874||March 29, 1875||Ulysses S. Grant||Republican|
|Samuel Hitt Elbert||April 4, 1873||June 19, 1874||Ulysses S. Grant||Republican|
|Edward M. McCook||June 14, 1869||April 4, 1873||Ulysses S. Grant||Republican|
|Alexander Cameron Hunt||April 24, 1867||June 14, 1869||Andrew Johnson||Republican|
|Alexander Cummings||October 17, 1865||April 24, 1867||Andrew Johnson||Republican|
|John Evans||March 26, 1862||October 17, 1865||Abraham Lincoln||Republican|
|William Gilpin||March 25, 1861||March 26, 1862||Abraham Lincoln||Republican|
Partisan balance 1992-2013
From 1992-2013, there were Democratic governors in office for 14 years while there were Republican governors in office for eight years. During the final year (2013), Colorado was under a Democratic trifecta.
Across the country, there were 493 years of Democratic governors (44.82%) and 586 years of Republican governors (53.27%) from 1992-2013.
Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.
SQLI and partisanship
Colorado was one of eight states to demonstrate a dramatic partisan shift in the 22 years studied. A dramatic shift was defined by a movement of 40 percent or more toward one party over the course of the study period. Colorado has shifted dramatically from Republican to Democratic control.
The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Colorado state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Colorado has consistently ranked in the top-10 in the SQLI ranking during the period of the study, and also ranked in the top-5 for thirteen of the twenty years studied. The state has ranked 1st for two separate years (1997 and 2007), once under divided government and once under a Democratic trifecta. Colorado experienced its most precipitous drop in the SQLI ranking between 2009 and 2010, while still remaining in the top-10 of states. Republican trifectas occurred during the periods between 1999 and 2000 and again between 2003 and 2004, while Democratic trifectas occurred between 2007 and 2011 and again beginning in 2013 to the present. The state experienced a disruption in the Democratic trifectas between those periods when Republicans controlled the state house for two years, between 2010 and 2013.
- SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 3.25
- SQLI average with Republican trifecta: 5.50
- SQLI average with divided government: 4.69
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John Hickenlooper, Governor
136 State Capitol
Denver, CO 80203-1792
Phone: (303) 866-2471
Fax: (303) 866-2003
- Governor: John Hickenlooper (D)
- Lieutenant Governor: Joseph Garcia (D)
- Attorney General: John W. Suthers (R)
- Secretary of State: Scott Gessler (R)
- Commissioner of Agriculture: John Salazar
- Treasurer of State: Walker Stapleton (R)
- Colorado.gov, "About the Governor," accessed July 5, 2011
- Governor John Hickenlooper official site, "Offices of the Governor," accessed April 12, 2011
- Governor John Hickenlooper official site, "Cabinet," accessed April 12, 2011
- National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
- National Association of State Budget Officers "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
- Colorado Legislature Joint Budget Committee, "Appropriations Report: Fiscal Year 2012-2013," accessed May 28, 2013
- Council of State Governments, "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries," June 25, 2013
- Stateline, "On average, governors' salaries show decline in pay," April 7, 2011
State of Colorado
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Treasurer | Commissioner of Education | Commissioner of Insurance | Commissioner of Agriculture | Executive Director of Natural Resources | Executive Director of Labor and Employment | Chair of Public Utilities |