Connecticut Freedom of Information Act
- 1 Transparency report card
- 2 Features of the law
- 2.1 Declared legal intention
- 2.2 What records are covered?
- 2.3 What agencies are covered?
- 2.4 Who may request records?
- 2.5 Must a purpose be stated?
- 2.6 How can records be used?
- 2.7 Time allowed for response
- 2.8 Fees for records
- 2.9 Role of the Attorney General
- 2.10 Records commissions and ombudsmen
- 3 Open meetings
- 4 See also
- 5 External links
- 6 References
- 7 Relevant legal cases
The Connecticut Freedom of Information Act is a series of laws designed to guarantee that the public has access to public records of governmental bodies in Connecticut. The law was first enacted in 1975.
The Connecticut Open Meetings Law legislates the methods by which public meetings are conducted.
Statutes 1-200 through 1-259 define these transparency laws.
To learn more about how to make a public records request in this state, please see Connecticut FOIA procedures.
Transparency report card
A 2008 study, BGA - Alper Integrity Index, conducted by the Better Government Association and sponsored by Alper Services, ranked Connecticut #14 in the nation with an overall percentage of 57.40%.
A 2007 study, Graded state responsiveness to FOI requests, conducted by BGA and the NFOIC, gave Connecticut 53 points out of a possible 100, a letter grade of "F" and a ranking of 18 out of the 50 states.
Features of the law
- Compare States: Sunshine variations
- Click on the heading to compare your state's law to other state's transparency laws.
Declared legal intention
The Connecticut Freedom of Information Act does not contain a declared legal intention or statement of purpose.
What records are covered?
- See also: Defining public records
"Public records or files" means any recorded data or information relating to the conduct of the public's business prepared, owned, used, received or retained by a public agency, or to which a public agency is entitled to receive a copy by law or contract under section 1-218, whether such data or information be handwritten, typed, tape-recorded, printed, photostated, photographed or recorded by any other method" (Chapter 14, section 1-200).
Exemptions to open records include:
- Preliminary drafts or notes whose disclosure does not outweigh the public benefit of withholding them
- "Personnel or medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of personal privacy" (see section 14.1-210.2)
- Records of law enforcement agencies which are still currently in pre-trial or trial phase or which would place victims or culprits in danger.
- Strategy or negotiation concerning pending litigation.
- Trade Secrets
- Financial information, freely given and not required by statute
- Licensing tests and statements of personal worth.
- Collective bargaining records and reports.
- Personal information including names and addresses of students enrolled in any school
- Adoption records
- Records of complaints
- Any information that would jeopardize security at corrections facilities, infrastructure, telecommunications or the security of any individuals
- Home addresses of anyone within the Address Confidentiality Program
Connecticut has a legislatively adopted exemption for working papers, with the intention of protecting the free flow of information and opinions. The exemption covers all levels of government, including the executive, legislative, judicial and even local government.
What agencies are covered?
- See also: Defining public body
The FOIA covers almost all political bodies and institutions within Connecticut, including committees, employees and all governmental departments. The exemptions include the Division of Criminal justice and any committee composed of individuals who are outside of the government, which, through petition, has been declared exempt by the Connecticut Freedom of Information Commission (see section 14.1-201 and 1.202).
- See also: Legislatures and transparency
The Connecticut State Legislature is subject to the provisions of the Connecticut Freedom of Information Act according to Connecticut General Statutes 14.1-200.
Privatized governmental agencies
Board of Trustees of Woodstock Academy v. FOIC established that a private entity must:
- perform a public function
- receive public funding
- be controlled or managed by a public entity
- be created by a governmental entity
In order to be considered a public body and be subject to the Freedom of Information Act.
- See also: Universities and open records
The definition of public body presumably includes public universities within the state. This presumption was confirmed in Polman v. UConn School of Law, which held that the University of Connecticut School of Law was a public body. Names and addresses of students are explicitly exempted.
Who may request records?
According to Connecticut law, anyone may request public records (see section 14.1-210).
Must a purpose be stated?
- See also: States requiring a statement of purpose
There is nothing in Connecticut law that requires a purpose to be stated.
How can records be used?
- See also: Record use restrictions
There is nothing within the law that restricts the use of open records.
Time allowed for response
- See also: Request response times by state
The allotted response time for Connecticut open records requests is four days.
Fees for records
- See also: How much do public records cost?
Connecticut allows for charging fees, which include duplication fees . Fees may be exempted if it is deemed that the person making the request cannot afford them, if the request is made in the interest of the general welfare or if the person making the request is an elected public official requesting the information on behalf of his/her office (Connecticut FOIA 1-212.d).
- See also: Sunshine laws and search fees
Connecticut allows for charging fees which include the cost of employee time in searching for the requested documents.
Role of the Attorney General
- See also: Role of the Attorney General
There is currently no provision within the state open records law that empowers the State Department of Law to enforce the right of the public to access governmental records.
Records commissions and ombudsmen
- See also: State records commissions
The Connecticut public records law also requires there to be a Connecticut Freedom of Information Commission. This commission consists of five members appointed by the Governor, paid $200 per day that they take part in commission hearings or other duties.
The Commission's primary responsibility is to review allegations of FOIA violations, and to issue orders pertaining to them.
The CT FOIC saw more than 800 complaints in 2008, up from only 716 in 2007, making 2008 the busiest year since the commission's formation.
"The meetings of all public agencies, except executive sessions, as defined in subdivision (6) of section 1-200, shall be open to the public. The votes of each member of any such public agency upon any issue before such public agency shall be reduced to writing and made available for public inspection within forty-eight hours and shall also be recorded in the minutes of the session at which taken, which minutes shall be available for public inspection within seven days of the session to which they refer."
- Connecticut Freedom of Information Commission
- Connecticut FOIA procedures
- Connecticut transparency advocates
- Connecticut transparency legislation
- Private agency, public dollars-Connecticut
- Connecticut Open Meetings Law
- Chapter 14 of Connecticut law (dead link)
- Open Government Guide to Connecticut
- Connecticut on WikiFOIA
- 2008 BGA-Alper Integrity Index
- States Failing FOI Responsiveness, National Freedom of Information Coalition, October 2007
- Freedom of Information in the USA, 2002
- Connecticut FOIA
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Cite error: Invalid
- Business booming for FOI Commission, September 30, 2008
- Chapter 14, section 1-225
Relevant legal cases
- See also: Court cases with an impact on state FOIA
Here is a list of lawsuits in Connecticut (cases are listed alphabetically; to order them by year, please click the icon to the right of the "year" heading).
|Board of Trustees of Woodstock Academy v. FOIC||1980|
|Coalition to Save Horsebarn Hill v. FOIC||2002|
|Connecticut Humane Society v. FOIC||1991|
|Domestic Violence Services. v. FOIC||1998|
|Hallas v. FOIC||1989|
|Lieberman v. State Board of Labor Relations||1990|
|Shew v. FOIC||1998|
|Valvo v. Freedom of Information Commission||2010|
|Wilson v. Freedom of Information Commission||1980|
State of Connecticut
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of the State | Comptroller | Treasurer | Commissioner of Education | Commissioner of Insurance | Commissioner of Agriculture | Commissioner of Environmental Protection | Commissioner of Labor | Chairman of Public Utility Control |