Connecticut General Assembly
|Connecticut General Assembly|
|2014 session start:||February 5, 2014|
|Website:||Official Legislature Page|
|Senate President:||Nancy Wyman (D)|
|House Speaker:||J. Brendan Sharkey (D)|
|Majority Leader:|| Martin Looney (D) (Senate),|
Joe Aresimowicz (D) (House)
|Minority leader:|| John McKinney (R) (Senate),|
Lawrence Cafero (R) (House)
|Members:||36 (Senate), 151 (House)|
|Length of term:||2 years (Senate), 2 years (House)|
|Authority:||Art III, Section 1, Connecticut Constitution|
|Last Election:||November 6, 2012 |
36 seats (Senate)
151 seats (House)
|Next election:||November 4, 2014|
|Redistricting:||Connecticut Legislature has control with optional commission|
- 1 Sessions
- 2 Ethics and transparency
- 3 Membership
- 4 Legislators
- 5 Facilities
- 6 Committee system
- 7 Public participation
- 8 Senate
- 9 House of Representatives
- 10 History
- 11 External links
- 12 References
During even-numbered years, the General Assembly is in session from February to May. In odd-numbered years, when the state budget is completed, session lasts from January to June. The governor has the right to call for a special session after the end of the regular session, while the General Assembly can call for a veto session after the close in order to override gubernatorial vetoes.
During the first half of session, the House and Senate typically meet on Wednesdays only, though by the end of the session, they meet daily due to increased workload and deadlines.
As of October 2014, Connecticut is one of 13 Democratic state government trifectas.
Article III of the Connecticut Constitution establishes when the Legislature is to be in session. Section 2 of Article III states that, in odd-numbered years, the Legislature shall convene its regular session on the Wednesday after the first Monday in January. Section 2 requires regular sessions in odd-numbered years to adjourn by the Wednesday after the first Monday in June.
The Constitution does not establish when the Legislature is supposed to meet in even-numbered years, so these dates are established by law. In even-numbered years, the Legislature convenes on the Wednesday following the first Monday in February, pending the decision of the Legislature, and it must adjourn by the Wednesday after the first Monday in May.
- See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions
In 2014, the Legislature was in session from February 5 to May 7.
Major issues during the 2014 legislative session included the biennial state budget, gun control, mental health, police training and creating the Office of Early Childhood.
- See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions
In 2013, the Legislature was in session from January 9 to June 5.
Major issues during the 2013 legislative session included restrictions on gun ownership, an increase to the minimum wage, labels on genetically modified foods, and the ability for illegal immigrants to apply for driver's licenses.
- See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions
In 2012, the General Assembly was in session from February 8 to May 9.
- See also: Dates of 2011 state legislative sessions
During the 2011 legislative session, the legislature passed $1.5 billion worth of tax increases strongly pushed by Governor Dan Malloy to help close a budget gap estimated at $3.3 billion. Individual and corporate income tax rates rose, along with inheritance, alcohol, cigarette and gasoline levies. Additionally, the retail sales tax rate from 6% to 6.35%. The Republican legislative minority strongly criticized Malloy and Democratic leaders, calling their plan a "massive and unnecessary tax hike."
- See also: Dates of 2010 state legislative sessions
In 2010, the Legislature was in session from February 3rd to May 5th.
Role in state budget
- See also: Connecticut state budget
- Budget instructions are sent to state agencies in July.
- State agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in September.
- Agency hearings are held in January.
- Public hearings are held from February through June.
- The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in February.
- The legislature adopts a budget in May or June. A simple majority is required to pass a budget.
The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget. Likewise, the legislature must adopt a balanced budget.
The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative released a report in July 2013 which indicated that cost-benefit analysis in policymaking led to more effective uses of public funds. Looking at data from 2008 through 2011, the study's authors found that some states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis while others were facing challenges and lagging behind the rest of the nation. Among the challenges states faced were a lack of time, money and technical skills needed to conduct comprehensive cost-benefit analyses. Connecticut was one of 29 states with mixed results regarding the frequency and effectiveness in its use of cost-benefit analysis.
Ethics and transparency
Following the Money report
- See also: Following the Money 2014 Report
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending. According to the report, Connecticut received a grade of B and a numerical score of 83, indicating that Connecticut was "advancing" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.
Open States Transparency
The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. Connecticut was given a grade of A in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data is to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A -- Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.
Members of the General Assembly, regardless of chamber, serve two-year terms; there are no term limits imposed on them.
As with most New England state legislatures, the Connecticut General Assembly is traditionally a moderate body. Most urban and suburban areas are represented by Democrats, while many rural or more affluent areas have Republican representation. Among state legislatures, the Connecticut General Assembly is known for its good working and personal relationships between the two parties.
Political scientists consider the General Assembly to be a part-time, professionally-run state legislature. Most legislators have jobs aside from their political positions, and aside from leadership, few are present at the Capitol Monday through Friday. Legislators with more time to offer are generally placed on "A" committees, which meet Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, while others are assigned to "B" committees that meet only on Tuesdays and Thursdays. All legislators are expected to be present for "session," or days when their chambers are in session, regardless of committee assignments.
Although it is a part-time body, the legislature is known for having some of the best support services among state legislatures, including its large staff, Legislative Commissioners' Office (which helps with the writing of bills), Office of Legislative Research, Office of Fiscal Analysis, and other services available.
Legislation is introduced before each chamber by the majority or minority leader. Traditionally, the majority and minority leaders represent urban or large suburban areas, just as the Speaker of the House is usually from a city.
- See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries
As of 2013, members of the Connecticut legislature are paid $28,000 per year. They receive no per diem.
One in four Connecticut legislators do not hold a full-time job, though their position in the legislature is part-time.
When sworn in
Connecticut legislators assume office the Wednesday following the first Monday of January after their election.
Most of the General Assembly's committee and caucus meetings are held in the modern Legislative Office Building (or LOB), while the House and Senate sessions are held in the State Capitol. The two buildings are connected via an underground tunnel known as the "Concourse," which stretches underneath an off-ramp of Interstate 84. Most offices for legislators and their aides are also housed in the LOB, though some legislative leaders choose to be based out of the State Capitol itself.
Each committee has its own office space, with most being located in the LOB. A few committees, particularly select committees, have their offices in the Capitol. Committee chairs and ranking members normally choose to have their personal offices near their committee offices, rather than staying in their caucus areas.
The General Assembly is also provided with facilities such as a cafeteria, private dining room, newsstand, and library.
The General Assembly has 27 committees, all of which are joint committees; that is, their membership is comprised of House and Senate members alike. Several committees have subcommittees, each with their own chair and special focus.
Before most bills are considered in either the House or Senate, they must first go through the committee system. The primary exception to this rule is the emergency certification bill, or "e-cert," which can be passed on the floor without going through committee first. The e-cert is generally reserved for use during times of crisis, such as natural disasters or when deadlines are approaching too quickly to delay action.
Most are permanent committees, which are authorized and required by state statute to be continued each session. No separate chamber committees are established.
The twenty-seven permanent committees of the General Assembly are:
- Education Committee
- Energy and Technology
- Executive and Legislative Nominations
- Finance, Revenue and Bonding
- General Law
- Government Administration and Elections
- Higher Education and Employment Advancement
- Housing Committee
- Human Services
- Insurance and Real Estate
- Labor and Public Employees
- Legislative Management
- Planning and Development
- Program Review and Investigations
- Public Health
- Public Safety and Security
- Regulations Review
- Veterans' Affairs
Of those, the Executive and Legislative Nominations Committee, Internship Committee, Joint Committee on Legislative Management, Program Review and Investigations Committee, and Regulations Review Committee are considered bi-partisan and feature leadership from each party.
Though there are none as of the 2013 session, some committees have previously been "select" committees. Select committees are authorized to only function for a set number of years before being brought up for review. Most select committees deal with issues of major import during a particular time period and are created in response to specific problems facing the state.
Select committees that were later upgraded to standing committee status include:
Leadership and staff
Most committee chair positions are held by the ruling party, but committees considered officially bi-partisan have chairs from both the Republican and Democratic caucuses. Bi-partisan committees are ones that are mostly administrative in nature, such as the Legislative Internship Committee and the Legislative Management Committee. Most committees have ranking members, or leaders from the minority party who serve as the leaders of their party on each committee.
All committees have their own staff members. Most are led by a committee clerk and two assistant clerks. The committee clerk and one of the assistants are appointed by the majority party, while the minority party appoints the additional assistant. The exception to this rule is the Appropriations Committee, the legislature's second-largest behind the Finance, Revenue, and Bonding committee. The Appropriations Committee hires a nonpartisan senior committee administrator, who outranks the clerk and works equally with both parties.
Unlike the majority-controlled committees, nonpartisan committees only hire nonpartisan staff. Most of these staff members are researchers and analysts who deal with specific issues throughout the session.
Each committee is assigned staffers from the Office of Legislative Research, the Office of Fiscal Analysis, and the Legislative Commissioners' Office. These staffers specialize in various areas of research and legislation that pertain to the committee's mission. For example, the Transportation Committee has researchers who specialize in the state's mass transit plan and car taxes.
The majority of General Assembly proceedings are open to members of the public. Public hearings are held regularly during the session for residents to be given a chance to testify on pending legislation. Viewing areas are offered in both chambers for people who would like to observe, though the floor of each chamber is generally restricted to legislators, staff members, interns, and certain members of the media collectively known as the Capitol Press Corps. Additionally, the Connecticut Network, or CT-N, broadcasts the majority of each session for viewing on television.
Members of the public are often recognized during legislative proceedings, particularly sessions of the House. Representatives and senators can call for a "point of personal privilege" when there is no business pending on the floor, which allows them to introduce family members or residents of their districts to the rest of the membership. The entire chamber often recognizes civic and youth groups, particularly championship-winning sports teams. Some residents receive special citations from the membership as well.
The Connecticut State Senate is the upper house of the Connecticut General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The state senate comprises 36 members. Each member represents an average of 99,280 residents, as of the 2010 Census. After the 2000 Census, each member represented 94,599. Senators are elected to two-year terms without term limits. The Connecticut State Senate is one of 14 state legislative upper houses whose members serve two-year terms as opposed to four-year terms.
As in other upper houses of state and territorial legislatures and the federal U.S. Senate, the Senate is reserved with special functions such as confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to the state's executive departments, the state cabinet, commissions and boards. Unlike a majority of U.S. state legislatures, both the Connecticut House of Representatives and the State Senate vote on the composition to the Connecticut Supreme Court.
Leadership of the Senate
The Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut serves as the President of the Senate, but only casts a vote if required to break a tie. In his or her absence, the President Pro Tempore presides over the Senate. The President Pro Tempore is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the entire Senate through a Senate Resolution. The President Pro Tempore is the chief leadership position in the Senate. The Senate majority and minority leaders are elected by their respective party caucuses.
|Party||As of October 2014|
House of Representatives
The Connecticut House of Representatives is the lower house in the Connecticut General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The house is composed of 151 members representing an equal amount of districts. Each member represents an average of 23,670 residents, as of the 2010 Census. After the 2000 Census, each member represented 22,553. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits.
Leadership of the House
The Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives. The Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker is also its the chief leadership position, and controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments. Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the chamber.
|Party||As of October 2014|
Partisan balance 1992-2013
Connecticut State Senate: From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Connecticut State Senate for 20 years while the Republicans were the majority for two years. The Connecticut State Senate is 1 of 16 state senates that was Democratic for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992-2013. During the last 17 years of the study, the Connecticut senate was dominated by the Democratic party, with the final three years being Democratic trifectas.
Across the country, there were 541 Democratic and 517 Republican state senates from 1992 to 2013.
Connecticut State House of Representatives: Throughout every year from 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Connecticut State House of Representatives. The Connecticut State House is one of 18 state Houses that was Democratic for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992-2013. During the final three years Connecticut was under Democratic trifectas.
Across the country, there were 577 Democratic and 483 Republican State Houses of Representatives from 1992 to 2013.
Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.
SQLI and partisanship
The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Connecticut state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Between the years 1992 and 2005, Connecticut ranked in the top-10 in the SQLI ranking, in the top-5 for twelve of those thirteen years, and ranked 1st in 1992 and 1993. Beginning 2005, Connecticut dropped out of the top-10 and began a trend downward until hitting its lowest spot during the period of the study (33rd in 2012). Connecticut had divided government for eighteen years before having a Democratic trifecta in 2011. The state’s greatest decline in the SQLI ranking occurred between 2011 and 2012, when Connecticut dropped fourteen spots in the rankings. Connecticut has never had a Republican trifecta between 1992 and 2012.
- SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 26.00
- SQLI average with Republican trifecta: N/A
- SQLI average with divided government: 6.63
- Session Scheduling Rules website and Connecticut Constitution, Article III, Section 2
- Miami Herald, "Expected issues for 2014 Conn. legislative session," February 2, 2014
- ctmirror.org, "Winners and Losers from the 2013 legislative session," June 6, 2013
- StateScape, State Legislative Snapshot, accessed June 30, 2011
- Stateline, "Connecticut governor, lawmakers agree to package of tax hikes," April 21, 2011
- National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
- National Association of State Budget Officers "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
- Pew Charitable Trusts, "States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis," July 29, 2013
- U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
- Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
- NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013
- "One in four Conn. legislators lack a full-time job," Raising Hale, October 26, 2010
- U.S. Census Bureau, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," accessed January 6, 2014
- U.S. Census Bureau, "States Ranked by Population: 2000," April 2, 2001
- U.S. Census Bureau, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," accessed January 6, 2014
- U.S. Census Bureau, "States Ranked by Population: 2000," April 2, 2001