Edward Royce

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Edward Royce
Edward Royce.jpg
U.S. House, California, District 39
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 1993-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 21
PartyRepublican
PredecessorJerry Lewis (R)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$30.99 in 2012
First electedNovember 3, 1992
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$10,929,986
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
California State Senate
1983-1992
Education
Bachelor'sCalifornia State University-Fullerton, 1977
Personal
BirthdayOctober 12, 1951
Place of birthLos Angeles, California
Net worth$390,509
ReligionRoman Catholic
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Edward Royce (b. October 12, 1951, in Los Angeles, CA) is a Republican member of the U.S. House representing California's 39th Congressional District. Royce was first elected to the House in 1992.

Royce most recently won re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing California's 39th District. He defeated Jay Chen (D) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[1] He was displaced from the 40th District by redistricting.[2]

Royce began his political career in the California State Senate, where he served from 1983 until his election to the U.S. House in 1993.

Royce is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Royce is an average Republican member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Republican Party on the majority of bills.

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Royce's academic, professional and political career:[3]

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Royce serves on the following committees in the 113th Congress:[4][5]

2011-2012

Royce served on the following committees:[6]

  • Financial Services Committee
    • Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises
    • Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit
  • Foreign Affairs Committee
    • Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific
    • Subcommittee on Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Trade, Chair
    • Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1%) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14% of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[7] For more information pertaining to Royce's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[8]

National security

NDAA

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[9]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[10]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[11]

Economy

Farm bill

Voted "No" On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[12] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[13][14] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[14] Royce voted with 62 other Republican representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Voted "Yes" On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[15][16] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[16] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[17] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Royce voted with the majority of the Republican party in favor of the bill.[15]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "Yes" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[18] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[19] Royce voted for the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[20]

Voted "No" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[21] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Royce voted against HR 2775.[22]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[23]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[24] The vote largely followed party lines.[25]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[26]

Social issues

Abortion

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[27]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Royce voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was 1 of 85 Republicans that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[28]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Edward Royce's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Royce is a Hard-Core Conservative. Royce received a score of 17 percent on social issues and 94 percent on economic issues.[29]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[30]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Opposes Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Opposes
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Opposes Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Opposes
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Favors Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Favors Human needs over animal rights Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Strongly Favors
Support & expand free trade Favors Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Opposes
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Neutral Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Favors
Prioritize green energy Strongly Opposes Expand the military Favors
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Opposes Stay out of Iran Strongly Opposes
Privatize Social Security Strongly Favors Never legalize marijuana Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[29]

Campaign themes

2014

Royce's campaign website lists the following issues:[31]

  • Creating American Jobs
Excerpt: "Our nation is hurting. Twenty-five million Americans are either unemployed or underemployed. The big government policies of liberals in Washington have failed because they are based on the assumption that government creates jobs."
  • Reining in Washington
Excerpt: "As one of the original members of the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition, I have worked hard to cut waste and reduce the size of government. I've been honored by watchdog groups, including Citizens Against Government Waste, for my work and I will never stop battling the liberal Washington establishment over the size and scope of the federal government."
  • Healthcare Reform
Excerpt: "I am working tirelessly to advocate for real changes to our healthcare system which actually reduce costs without putting us on a path to bankruptcy. Instead of empowering Washington bureaucrats, we need to empower doctors and patients and enhance competition throughout our healthcare sector."
  • Energy Independence
Excerpt: "Nothing has hit the pocketbooks of Americans harder than the sharp increase in the price of gasoline. For every penny the price of gasoline increases, the cost to consumers goes up additional $4 million per day. Given the current state of our economy, the status quo is no longer acceptable."
  • Excellence in Education
Excerpt: "America’s future depends on an education system that produces young people who can compete in the world marketplace. We need to make sure our schools are the very best they can be. Today, much of the money we spend on education is wasted on the bureaucracy, instead of being spent in the classroom where teachers and students need it the most. We need to get more of our education dollars into the classroom."

Elections

2014

See also: California's 39th Congressional District elections, 2014

Royce is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He and Peter Anderson (D) advanced past the blanket primary on June 3, 2014, unopposed.[32] They will face off in the general election on November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: California's 39th Congressional District elections, 2012

Royce won re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing California's 39th District as a Republican.[1] He was displaced from the 40th District by redistricting. He and Jay Chen (D) advanced past the blanket primary on June 5, 2012, defeating D'Marie Mulattieri (Ind). Royce went on to defeat Chen in the general election on November 6, 2012.[33][34] Royce was considered one of 2012's vulnerable incumbents.[35]

U.S. House, California District 39 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngEd Royce Incumbent 57.8% 145,607
     Democratic Jay Chen 42.2% 106,360
Total Votes 251,967
Source: California Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
U.S. House, California District 39 Open Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngEdward R. Royce (R) Incumbent 66.3% 62,874
Green check mark transparent.pngJay Chen (D) 30% 28,457
D'Marie Mulattieri (NPP) 3.8% 3,561
Total Votes 94,892

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Royce is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Royce raised a total of $10,929,986 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 22, 2013.[46]

Edward Royce's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (California, District 39) Won $2,746,376
2010 US House (California, District 40) Won $1,797,849
2008 US House (California, District 40) Won $1,644,376
2006 US House (California, District 40) Won $1,520,392
2004 US House (California, District 40) Won $1,215,928
2002 US House (California, District 40) Won $1,100,172
2000 US House (California, District 39) Won $904,893
Grand Total Raised $10,929,986

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Royce's reports.[47]

Edward Royce (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[48]April 15, 2013$565,771.41$465,406.91$(444,406.64)$586,771.68
July Quarterly[49]July 15, 2013$586,771.68$507,972.78$(324,597.66)$770,146.80
October Quarterly[50]October 15, 2013$771,046.80$374,969.45$(115,842.71)$1,029,273.54
Year-End[51]January 31, 2014$1,029,273$358,901$(203,169)$1,185,132
April Quarterly[52]April 15, 2014$1,185,132$365,196$(147,087)$1,403,241
Pre-Primary[53]May 22, 2014$1,403,241$88,036$(86,273)$1,405,004
July Quarterly[54]July 15, 2014$1,405,004$294,241$(48,016)$1,651,229
Running totals
$2,454,723.14$(1,369,392.01)

2012

Breakdown of the source of Royce's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Royce won re-election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Royce's campaign committee raised a total of $2,746,294 and spent $4,512,336.[55] This is more than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.[56]

Cost per vote

Royce spent $30.99 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Royce's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Royce won re-election to the U.S. House in 2010. During that election cycle, Royce's campaign committee raised a total of $1,797,849 and spent $1,661,978.[57]

His top 5 contributors between 2009-2010 were:

U.S. House, California District 40, 2010 - Edward Royce Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $1,797,849
Total Spent $1,661,978
Total Raised by General Election Opponent $0
Total Spent by General Election Opponent $0
Top contributors to Edward Royce's campaign committee
Tiger Asia Management$25,700
Orange County Teachers Fed Credit Union$19,400
Credit Union National Assn$14,250
Bank of America$13,800
Edelson McGuire LLC$13,000
Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee
Insurance$208,300
Securities & Investment$160,000
Real Estate$98,750
Retired$94,000
Lawyers/Law Firms$73,050

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Royce's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $166,019 and $615,000. That averages to $390,509, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican representatives in 2012 of $7,614,097.96. Royce ranked as the 295th most wealthy representative in 2012.[58] Between 2004 and 2012, Royce's calculated net worth[59] increased by an average of 21 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[60]

Edward Royce Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$147,071
2012$390,509
Growth from 2004 to 2012:166%
Average annual growth:21%[61]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[62]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Royce is a "moderate Republican leader" as of July 2014. This was the same rating Royce received in June 2013.[63]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[64]

Royce most often votes with:

Royce least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Royce missed 331 of 14,503 roll call votes from January 1993 to July 2014. This amounts to 2.3 percent, which is better than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.[65]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Royce paid his congressional staff a total of $943,909 in 2011. He ranked 91st on the list of the highest paid Republican representative staff salaries and ranked 198th overall of the lowest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, California ranked 5th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[66]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2013

Royce ranked 41st in the conservative rankings in 2013.[67]

2012

Royce ranked 167th in the conservative rankings in 2012.[68]

2011

Royce ranked 80th in the conservative rankings in 2011.[69]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2014

Royce voted with the Republican Party 95.5 percent of the time, which ranked 60th among the 234 House Republican members as of July 2014.[70]

2013

Royce voted with the Republican Party 98.2 percent of the time, which ranked 58th among the 233 House Republican members as of June 2013.[71]

Personal

Royce has a wife, Marie.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Edward + Royce + California + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Edward Royce News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 CNN, "California Districts Race - 2012 Election Center," accessed December 1, 2012
  2. Washington Post, "California incumbents seek new districts to call home," August 11, 2011
  3. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "Edward Randall Royce," accessed November 14, 2011
  4. Politico, "House committee chairs all men," November 28, 2012
  5. CQ.com - Roll Call, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed January 18, 2013
  6. U.S. Representative Ed Royce, 40th District of California, "Committee Assignments," accessed August 1, 2011
  7. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  9. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  10. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  11. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  12. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, With clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  19. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  20. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  21. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  22. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  23. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  24. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  27. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  28. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 On The Issues, "Edward Royce Vote Match," accessed June 19, 2014
  30. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  31. Campaign website, "My Views," accessed April 24, 2014
  32. The New York Times, "California Primary Results," June 3, 2014
  33. California Secretary of State, "Official primary candidate list," accessed March 13, 2014
  34. California Secretary of State, "Unofficial election results," November 6, 2012
  35. New York Times, "House Ratings," accessed October 3, 2011
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  43. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  44. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
  45. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1992," accessed March 28, 2013
  46. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Edward Royce," accessed March 22, 2013
  47. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce Summary Report," accessed July 23, 2013
  48. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce April Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  49. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  50. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce October Quarterly," accessed October 21, 2013
  51. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce Year-End," accessed February 4, 2014
  52. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  53. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce Pre-Primary," accessed June 3, 2014
  54. Federal Election Commission, "Edward Royce July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2014
  55. Open Secrets, "Ed Royce 2012 Election Cycle," accessed February 20, 2013
  56. Open Secrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  57. Open Secrets, "Edward Royce 2010 Election Cycle," accessed November 14, 2011
  58. OpenSecrets, "Ed Royce (R-Calif), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  59. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  60. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  61. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  62. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  63. GovTrack, "Edward Royce," accessed July 21, 2014
  64. OpenCongress, "Edward Royce," accessed July 18, 2014
  65. GovTrack, "Edward Royce," accessed July 21, 2014
  66. LegiStorm, "Edward Royce," accessed August 21, 2012
  67. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 18, 2014
  68. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," February 21, 2013
  69. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  70. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  71. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
Political offices
Preceded by
Jerry Lewis
U.S. House - California
1993-Present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
California State Senate
1983-1992
Succeeded by
'