Eliot Spitzer

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Eliot Spitzer
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Governor of New York
Former officeholder
In office
January 2007-March 17, 2008 (Resignation)
PredecessorGeorge Pataki
Prior offices
New York Attorney General
Bachelor'sPrinceton University
J.D.Harvard Law School
Date of birthJune 10, 1959
Place of birthBronx, New York
Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959) is an American lawyer and former politician of the Democratic Party. He served as Governor of New York from January 2007 until his resignation on March 17, 2008 in the wake of his involvement in a high-priced prostitution ring. Prior to being elected governor, Spitzer served as New York State Attorney General.

Spitzer was born and raised in Riverdale, in the Bronx borough of New York City to real estate tycoon Bernard Spitzer and Anne Spitzer, an English literature professor.[1] He attended Princeton University for his undergraduate studies and Harvard University for law school. It was there that he met his future wife, Silda Wall. She later founded Children for Children, a non-profit organization. After earning his Juris Doctor degree, Spitzer joined the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison.

Two years later, he joined the Manhattan district attorney's office, headed by Robert M. Morgenthau, to pursue organized crime. He launched the investigation that brought down the Gambino family's control over Manhattan's garment and trucking industries. In 1992, Spitzer left to work at the law firms of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom and, later, Constantine and Partners.

In the 1998 election, Spitzer defeated incumbent Republican Dennis Vacco by a slim margin to become New York State Attorney General. His campaign was financed largely in part by a controversial multi-million dollar loan from his father. As attorney general, Spitzer prosecuted cases relating to corporate white collar crime, securities fraud, internet fraud and environmental protection. He most notably pursued cases against companies involved in computer chip price fixing, investment bank stock price inflation, and the 2003 mutual fund scandal. He also sued Richard Grasso, the former chairman of the New York Stock Exchange, claiming he had failed to fully inform the board of directors of his deferred compensation package, which exceeded $140 million.[2]

In 2006, Spitzer was elected governor of New York after defeating Republican John Faso in the November election. During his time in office, he proposed a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in New York and issued an executive order allowing illegal aliens to be issued driver's licenses, which have both attracted controversy. In July 2007, he was admonished for his administration's involvement in ordering the State Police to record the whereabouts of State Senate majority leader Joseph L. Bruno.

On March 10, 2008, The New York Times reported that Spitzer was a client of a prostitution ring under investigation by the federal government. Two days later, he announced his resignation as governor of New York, effective March 17, citing "private failings."[3][4]

Early life and background

Spitzer was born in the Bronx, the youngest of three children of Anne (née Goldhaber), a former English professor, and Bernard Spitzer, a real estate mogul.[5][6] His grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Austria.[5]

He is a graduate of Horace Mann School. After scoring 1590 (out of a possible 1600) on the SAT,[7] Spitzer attended Princeton University. He scored a perfect score on the LSAT[8] and went on to Harvard Law School, where he met and married Silda Wall on October 17 1987. Together they have three daughters: Elyssa (b. December 12, 1989), Sarabeth (b. July 23, 1992), and Jenna (b. May 23, 1994).[9]

Legal career

Upon receiving his Juris Doctor degree, Spitzer clerked for Judge Robert W. Sweet in Manhattan, then joined the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. He stayed there for less than two years, leaving to join the staff of Manhattan District Attorney Robert M. Morgenthau, where he became chief of the labor-racketeering unit and spent six years pursuing organized crime. He led the investigation that ended the Gambino crime family's control of Manhattan's trucking and garment industries.[10]

Spitzer left the District Attorney's office in 1992 to work at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, where he stayed until 1994. From 1994 to 1998 he worked at the law firm Constantine and Partners on a number of consumer rights and antitrust cases.

Political career

In 1994, Spitzer put aside his private practice to concentrate on attaining the elected office of New York State Attorney General. He lost in the 1994 election but was successfully elected in the next election in 1998. He has since become one of New York's most recognizable Democratic politicians. On November 7, 2006, he was elected Governor of New York.

Governor (2007-08)

At the traditional midnight ceremony, Spitzer was sworn in as governor of New York on January 1, 2007. A public ceremony was held at 1 p.m. on the same day which featured brass and percussion players from the Empire State Youth Orchestra[11] Bucking tradition, the ceremony was held outdoors — the first outdoor inauguration ceremony in New York for over a century.[12] After taking the oath of office, he attended a concert at the Times Union Center in his honor, headlined by James Taylor and Natalie Merchant.

Roadblocks to reform

Spitzer's reform-based platform, and his pledge "to change the ethics of Albany," hit an early roadblock when his ideas on how to fill vacancies in the executive department were defeated by the state legislature. According to the New York Constitution, it is the duty of the state legislature to fill executive vacancies. The Governor was criticized as unreasonable for admonishing the legislature when it took constitutional actions. The appointment of state assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli to succeed disgraced Alan Hevesi as Comptroller of the State of New York was a serious blow to the new governor. Spitzer had backed an outside panel to draft a list of qualified candidates. The legislature revolted when the panel failed to select one of its own.[13]

Spitzer's choice was New York City Finance Commissioner Martha Stark, who was selected by a panel that consisted of former State Comptroller Edward Regan, former State Comptroller Carl McCall and former New York City Comptroller Harrison J. Goldin. On February 7, 2007, when the Legislature voted, Stark was one of two names put into nomination, along with Assemblyman Thomas DiNapoli of Long Island, Assembly Leader Sheldon Silver's choice. The final vote was 150 for DiNapoli and 56 for Stark. Stark's main support came from Democrats in the Senate, along with Republicans in both chambers.

Spitzer traveled to the home districts of various Democratic assembly members to publicly criticize them for their vote on DiNapoli. He visited the regions of Syracuse Assemblyman William B. Magnarelli and George S. Latimer of Westchester County, and had plans to continue his pressure.[14][15] Some Assembly Democrats were alienated over the incident, and questioned Spitzer's refusal of extending special treatment to party members seeking local political appointments.[16]

One of Spitzer's key campaign pledges was to reform the state budget process. While the state did pass a budget on schedule in 2007, the ultimate results fell short of what many reformers hoped Spitzer would achieve. The New York Post opined, "Spitzer promised reform, and delivered something completely different" and termed the budget itself "bitterly disappointing."[17]

Spitzer's budget quickly turned into a deficit, as by the end of October it was projected the state would run a deficit exceeding $4 billion for the year. During Spitzer's first year the state payroll increased, aggravating budget problem.[18] Despite increasing the public sector payroll, in late 2007 New York State started leading the nation in lost jobs. The 2008-09 budget includes measures to counter financial effects of the crisis in the financial sector starting in the second half of 2007.[19]

Spitzer was criticized by members of the New York State Legislature for failing to compromise on issues during his first few months as governor. In a now infamous exchange, Spitzer told New York State Assembly Minority Leader James Tedisco: "Listen, I'm a fucking steamroller and I'll roll over you and anybody else." According to The New York Post, Spitzer confirmed the exchange the following day.[20] Spitzer's reputation as a "steamroller" was shared by a plurality of New Yorkers in a Quinnipiac University poll, but by a 3 to 1 margin they believed the tactic had been unsuccessful and had only added to political gridlock.[21]

Tedisco later accused Spitzer of cutting $300,000 of state funding for health care and education grants in the Schenectady area as retaliation for Tedisco's opposition to the Spitzer plan to allow illegal immigrants New York State driver's licenses.[22] Tedisco accused the Governor of "dirty tricks" and "bullying."[23]

In the wake of the controversy involving the "troopergate" scandal involving Bruno, Spitzer was accused of pandering to special interest groups to solidify his base of support. "The governor who took office vowing to clean up Albany has lost so much public support that he is reduced to feathering the nest of the unions and other liberals," wrote Michael Goodwin of the Daily News.[24]

Proposal to legalize same-sex marriage

In April 2007, Spitzer proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in New York. State Senate Majority Leader Joe Bruno announced his opposition to the proposal.[25] This legislation passed in the State Assembly on June 19, 2007, but died in the State Senate and was returned to the Assembly.[26]

Controversy over use of State Police for surveillance

On July 23, 2007, New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo's office admonished the Spitzer administration for ordering the State Police to keep special records of Senate majority leader Joseph L. Bruno's whereabouts when he traveled with police escorts in New York City.[27] At the direction of top officials of the Spitzer administration, the New York State Police created documents meant to cause political damage to Bruno.[28]

A 57-page report issued by the Attorney General's office concluded that Spitzer engaged in creating media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel.[29] The investigation looked into both Bruno's travel and the Senate leader's allegation that Spitzer used State Police to spy on him.[30] Cuomo concluded that "These emails show that persons in the governor's office did not merely produce records under a FOIL request, but were instead engaged in planning and producing media coverage concerning Senator Bruno's travel on state aircraft before any FOIL request was made."[31][32] It also suggests that the governor's staff lied when they tried to explain what they had done and forced the State Police to go far beyond their normal procedures in documenting Bruno's whereabouts.[33]

The report cleared Bruno of any misuse of the state's air fleet, which had been alleged.[34][35][36][28] The report criticized Spitzer's office for using State Police resources to gather information about Bruno's travel and releasing the information to the media.[35] The findings of the report were endorsed by Spitzer’s own Inspector General, Kristine Hamann.[27][35][36][30]

Spitzer responded at a July 23 press conference that "As governor, I am accountable for what goes on in the executive branch and I accept responsibility for the actions of my office"[27] and that his administration had "grossly mishandled"[27] the situation.[36] Spitzer subsequently announced that he would indefinitely suspend his communications director, Darren Dopp, and reassign another top official.[37] When questioned about his promise to bring ethical responsibility to state politics, Spitzer responded by saying "I will not tolerate this behavior,"[27] "ethics and accountability must and will remain rigorous in my administration,"[28] and that "I have always stated that I want ethics and integrity to be the hallmarks of my administration. That is why I requested that the State Inspector General review the allegations with respect to my office, and that is why we have fully cooperated with both inquiries."[34]

The investigations of the event, dubbed "Troopergate" by media outlets, have not been affected by Spitzer's resignation.[38] As of March 2008, four probes by the state Attorney General's office, the State Senate Investigations Committee, the Albany County District Attorney's Office, and the New York Commission on Public Integrity, are ongoing.[39][40]

Controversy over driver's licenses for illegal immigrants

On September 21, 2007, Spitzer issued an executive order directing that state offices allow illegal immigrants to be issued driver's licenses effective December 2007.[41][42] Applicants for driver's licenses would not be required to prove legal immigration status and would be allowed to present a foreign passport as identification.[42] After meeting with the Department of Homeland Security in October 2007, Spitzer altered the plan so that licenses issued to illegal aliens would look different from other licenses and that the new licenses would not allow access to airplanes and federal buildings.[43]

On October 21, 2007, the State Senate voted to oppose the Spitzer plan by a 39-19 vote.[44][45] Eight Democrats from moderate districts broke with Spitzer on the vote.[44][45] After the vote, The New York Times called this issue "Mr. Spitzer’s single most unpopular decision since he took office."

Following the State Senate's vote, Spitzer revised his plan again, proposing the issuance of a third type of driver's license.[46] This driver's license would be available only to United States citizens who are New York State residents, and would be valid for crossing the Canadian border.[46] Spitzer also announced that the expiration dates of temporary visas would be printed on the driver's licenses of individuals living in the country with them.[46]

On November 14, the day following the release of a poll showing the proposal as extremely unpopular with voters, Spitzer announced he would withdraw the plan, acknowledging that it would never be implemented.[47][48][49] The decision drew derision from the press, as the Associated Press termed this reversal a "surrender."[50] WCBS-TV labeled him "Governor Flip-Flop."[49] State Senator Ruben Diaz of the Bronx said he was "betrayed" by Spitzer's abandonment of the plan.[51]

Approval as Governor

As of November 13, 2007, Spitzer's approval rating as Governor was 33 percent,[52] a further decline from his 44% approval rating of October 24, 2007.[53] A later poll showed that New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg would defeat Spitzer were he to seek re-election.[54] Two polls in December 2007 showed further erosion in Spitzer's public standing.[55]

Scandal and resignation

On March 10, 2008, The New York Times reported that Spitzer had previously patronized a high-priced prostitution service called Emperors Club VIP[56] and met for over two hours with a $1,000-an-hour call girl New York City singer going by the name Ashley Alexandra Dupré (legal name Ashley Rae Maika DiPietro, born Ashley Youmans).[57] This information originally came to the attention of authorities from a federal wiretap.[58][59][60][61] Spitzer had at least seven or eight liaisons with women from the agency over six months, and paid more than $15,000.[62][63] According to published reports, investigators believe Spitzer paid up to $80,000 for prostitutes over a period of several years while he was Attorney General, and later as Governor.[64][65][66] Spitzer first drew the attention of federal investigators when his bank reported suspicious money transfers, which initially led investigators to believe that Spitzer may have been hiding bribe proceeds. The investigation of the governor led to the discovery of the prostitution ring.[67]

In the wake of the revelations, Spitzer announced on March 12 that he would resign his post as Governor effective at noon of March 17, amid threats of his impeachment by state lawmakers.[3]

"I cannot allow for my private failings to disrupt the people's work," Spitzer said at a news conference in New York City. "Over the course of my public life, I have insisted — I believe correctly — that people take responsibility for their conduct. I can and will ask no less of myself. For this reason, I am resigning from the office of governor."[64][68]

Attorney General (1999-2007)

As Attorney General, Spitzer stepped up the profile of the office. Traditionally, state attorneys general have pursued consumer rights cases, concentrating on local fraud while deferring national issues to the federal government. Breaking with this traditional deference, Spitzer took up civil actions and criminal prosecutions relating to corporate white-collar crime, securities fraud, internet fraud, and environmental protection.[69]

A number of experts, including economists, lawyers, and political analysts have commented on Spitzer's active role in public policy debates. The New York Attorney General's office has Wall Street (and thus many leading corporate and financial institutions) within its jurisdiction. Also, the New York Attorney General wields greater than usual powers of investigation and prosecution as to corporations under New York State's General Business Law. In particular, under Article 23-A, § 352 (more commonly known as the Martin Act of 1921), the New York Attorney General has the power to subpoena witnesses and company documents pertaining to investigations of fraud or illegal activity by a corporation.

Spitzer used this authority in his civil actions against corporations and criminal prosecutions against their officers. It proved its usefulness in the wake of several U.S. corporate scandals that began with the collapse of Enron in 2001. Several of these corporations, as well as the brokerage houses that sold their stock, were accused of having inflated stock values by unethical means throughout the 1990s. When inquiries into the allegations by the SEC and Congress failed to gain traction, Spitzer's office used its subpoena power to obtain corporate documents, building cases against the firms both in courtrooms and in public opinion.

Spitzer used a New York statute to allow his office to prosecute cases which have been described as within federal jurisdiction.[70][71] In January 2005, the president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce described Spitzer's approach as "the most egregious and unacceptable form of intimidation we've seen in this country in modern times."[72]

Notable cases

In addition to prosecutions and civil actions in the financial sector, Spitzer has pursued cases in both state and federal courts involving pollution, entertainment, technology, prostitution, corruption, occupational safety and health and other fields in which New York plays a part in setting and maintaining national standards of conduct.

Loan investigation

The New York State Senate Investigations committee is considering investigating a controversial multi-million dollar loan the governor’s father Bernard Spitzer gave him when he ran for attorney general in 1998, a loan the younger Spitzer has acknowledged not being truthful about.[33][73] Senate Investigations Committee Chairman George Winner told The New York Post that subpoenas should be used to find out about the loans.[74] Winner wrote to Senate Elections Committee Chairman Senator Joseph Griffo that an article profiling Spitzer in New York Magazine, "outlined what may have been a willful effort by Eliot Spitzer and his father to circumvent campaign-contribution limits in New York state law and then conceal their actions."[73] In 1998, Spitzer claimed that he secured the $5 million loan by mortgaging apartments his father had given him, but later revealed that his father was actually paying off the loans and, therefore, financing his campaign.[33][73]



On December 8, 2004, Spitzer announced his intention to seek the Democratic nomination for governor of New York. While long rumored, Spitzer's announcement was unusually early—nearly two years before the election. As a result of Spitzer's relative speed in bringing state Democrats to his side, he gained the respect of Democratic leaders nationwide. New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson dubbed Spitzer the "future of the Democratic Party" at a fund raiser held in June 2005 for Spitzer's gubernatorial campaign.[75]

In January 2006, Spitzer selected New York State Senate minority leader David Paterson as his choice for Lieutenant Governor and running mate. After announcing his candidacy, Spitzer was endorsed by numerous New Yorkers, including state Comptroller Alan Hevesi and two former New York City mayors, David Dinkins and Ed Koch. On May 30, 2006, Spitzer and Paterson won the endorsement of the New York State Democratic party.[76]A June 2006 Quinnipiac poll showed him leading Nassau county executive Thomas Suozzi 76-13 percent.[77] On July 25, 2006, he faced Suozzi in a gubernatorial debate held at Pace University in Manhattan, discussing issues such as public authorities and Medicaid.[78] When asked about marijuana, Spitzer stated that he disagrees with medicinal use of the drug, claiming that other medicines were more effective.[79] In the Democratic primary held on September 12, 2006, Spitzer handily defeated Suozzi, securing his party's nomination with 81 percent of the vote.

On October 5, Spitzer, addressing the Empire State Pride Agenda, declared that as governor he would work to legalize gay marriage in New York.[80]

Spitzer was elected Governor on November 7, 2006 with 69 percent of the vote, defeating Republican John Faso and Libertarian John Clifton, among others.


On November 5, 2002, Eliot Spitzer won re-election to the office of New York Attorney General. He defeated Dora Irizarry (R), John J. Broderick (RTL), Mary Jo Long (G) and Daniel A. Conti, Jr. (L) in the general election.

New York Attorney General, 2002
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngEliot Spitzer Incumbent 66.4% 2,744,302
     Republican Dora Irizarry 29.9% 1,234,899
     Right to Life John J. Broderick 1.9% 78,268
     Green Mary Jo Long 1.2% 50,755
     Libertarian Daniel A. Conti, Jr. 0.6% 23,213
Total Votes 4,131,437
Election Results Via: New York Board of Elections


That election of a Republican in 1994 allowed Spitzer to run again in 1998. Now more experienced in party politics, he won the Democratic primary, defeating Koppell, State Senator Catherine Abbate, local representative Jeff Orlick, and former Governor's Counsel Charles Davis. He went on to defeat the incumbent Vacco by 48.2 percent of the vote to Vacco's 47.6 percent.


In 1994, long-serving Democratic New York State Attorney General Robert Abrams decided to leave office after having unsuccessfully challenged Al D'Amato for the seat of U.S. Senator from New York in 1992. Several Democrats saw weakness in Abrams' replacement as Attorney General, G. Oliver Koppell, and ran for the party's nomination, Spitzer among them. At the time, he was young and unknown, and, despite heavy funding from his own family, his campaign ended when he placed last among four candidates for the nomination. Judge Karen Burstein won. Burstein subsequently lost to Republican Dennis Vacco in the general election, part of a Republican sweep that included the election of Governor George Pataki.


In 2002, Governing magazine named Spitzer as one of eleven "Public Officials of the Year" for his aggressive legal campaigns, particularly against corporate fraud.[81] Other honorees included Speaker John Gregg and Minority Leader Brian Bosma of the Indiana House of Representatives. Each year since 1994, Governing has selected a handful of state and local officials to honor for standout job performance. The Public Officials of the Year program "recognizes leaders from state, city and county government who exemplify the ideals of public service."[82]


  1. Lowenstein, Roger. "As Governor, What Would His Battles Be?", The New York Times, July 16, 2006. Accessed April 13, 2008. "Eliot and his two siblings grew up in the prosperous Riverdale enclave of the Bronx, fed on progressive politics and duly enrolled in private schools."
  2. Cheers on NYSE Floor, Shock in Albany: Spitzer's Fall by Chris Dolmetsch, Bloomberg, Mar. 13, 2008
  3. 3.0 3.1 Spitzer to step down by Monday CNN
  4. Spitzer's Resignation Speech: Transcript The Huffington Post, Mar. 12, 2008
  5. 5.0 5.1 Gilded Path to Political Stardom, With Detours New York Times
  6. The Ancestors of Eliot Spitzer
  7. Hakim, Danny."A Gilded Path to Political Stardom, With Detours", New York Times, October 12, 2006. Abstract accessed January 1, 2007.
  8. Healy, Patrick."An Ill-Timed Candidate Believes His Time Is Now", New York Times, October 18, 2006. accessed January 1, 2007.
  9. Man in the News; A Centrist With a Passion for Ideas: Eliot Laurence Spitzer by Terry Pristin, New York Times, Dec. 18, 1998
  10. Wall Street's Top Cop by Adi Ignatius, Time Magazine, Dec. 30, 2002
  11. Amid Champagne and Cheers, Spitzer Is Sworn in as Governor by Michael Cooper, New York Times, Jan. 01, 2001
  12. "Spitzer, Sworn in as New York Governor, Vows Historic Reform", Bloomberg, January 1, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  13. Legislators Pick a Comptroller, Defying Spitzer. by Michael Cooper, New York Times, Feb. 08, 2007
  14. Fenner, Austin and Mahoney, Joe. "Bulldog Spitzer rips pol" (dead link), New York Daily News, February 12, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  15. Hakim, Danny. "On Tour to Talk Up Budget Plan, Spitzer Stays on Attack", New York Times, February 13, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  16. Gershman, Jacob. "Democrats Deny Governor Cover" New York Sun (25 July 2007).
  17. "ELIOT'S EDUCATION", New York Post, April 3, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  18. State payroll jumps with Spitzer
  19. [2008-09 Executive Budget, Eliot Spitzer (PDF), retrieved 2008-03-14
  20. Dicker, Fredric. Full Steam Ahead for Spunky Spitz (dead link), New York Post, February 1, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  21. Spitzer Knew About Troopergate and Should Testify, New York State Voters Tell Quinnipiac University Poll; Comptroller Should Share Pension Decisions, Voters Say Quinnipiac
  22. Fredric U. Dicker,Young & Poor Hit Hardest, New York Post
  23. Tedisco Accuses Spitzer of 'Dirty Tricks,' 'Bullying' October 17, 2007
  24. Goodwin, Michael, Cornered by Troopergate, Spitzer is showing his desperation, New York Daily News.
  25. Spitzer unveils gay marriage bill; Senate leader balks, Associated Press, Apr. 27, 2007
  26. Bill Summary - A08590
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Hakim, Danny. "Spitzer’s Staff Misused Police, Report Finds", New York Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Matthews, Cara. "Cuomo: Spitzer aides used state police to try to damage Bruno", The Ithaca Journal, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  29. Cuomo criticizes Spitzer for using State Police to monitor Bruno by Tom Precious, The Buffalo News, July 23, 2007
  30. 30.0 30.1 Gormley, Michael. "Report: NY Governor's Office Leaked Data", The Guardian Unlimited, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  31. Gormley, Michael. "Spitzer aides linked to Bruno leaks", Utica Observer-Dispatch, July 24, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  32. Faiola, Anthony. "N.Y. Governor Moves to Limit Ethics Scandal", Washington Post, Page A06, July 25, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Hakim, Danny. "His Aura Faded Now, Spitzer Faces Bolder Enemies", New York Times, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Spitzer punishes aides after AG report by Melissa Mansfield, Newsday, July 23, 2007
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Gershman, Jacob. "Spitzer Faces Probe in Senate", New York Sun, July 24, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Goldenberg, Sally. "Report: Governor's office compiled, leaked data on Bruno", Staten Island Advance, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  37. Jochnowitz, Jay. "AG report faults Spitzer aides in Bruno scheme", Albany Times-Union, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  38. Freifeld, Karen. "Spitzer Troopergate Subpoenas Still Stand, Judge Told."Bloomberg. March 13, 2008.
  39. "Eliot Spitzer's tumultuous reign."Daily News. March 13, 2008
  40. Spector, Joseph. "Troopergate In Court."Journal News. March 13, 2008.
  41. Department of Motor Vehicles Changes License Policy to Include More New Yorkers and Implements New Regime of Anti-Fraud Measures to Strengthen the Security of the System Press Release, Office of the Governor of New York, Sep. 21, 2007
  42. 42.0 42.1 Spitzer grants illegal immigrants easier access to driver's licenses by Nina Bernstein, New York Times, Sep. 22, 2007
  43. Spitzer defends license plan over Democrat fears by James T. Madore, Newsday, Nov. 09, 2007
  44. 44.0 44.1 Senate Votes to Stop Spitzer Plan to Give Illegal Immigrants Driver's Licenses by Nicholas Confessore, New York Times, Oct 23, 2007
  45. 45.0 45.1 Why Some Democrats Defected on Spitzer Driver's License Plan by Nicholas Confessore, New York Times, Oct. 23, 2007
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 Visa data to be included on driver's licenses again by Nicholas Confessore, New York Times, Oct. 31, 2007
  47. Spitzer Dropping His Driver's License Plan by Devlin Barrett, New York Times, Nov. 14, 2007
  48. Clinton backs N.Y. driver's license plan for illegal immigrants by Sasha Issenberg, Boston.com, Nov. 01, 2007
  49. 49.0 49.1 Just Call Him…Gov. Flip-Flop by Marcia Kramer, WCBS-TV, Nov. 15, 2007
  50. Gov. Spitzer Surrenders on License Fight by Devlin Barrett, Associated Press, Nov. 15, 2007
  51. Hill's 'Stand?' Well, today is Thursday by Kenneth Lovett & Geoff Earle, New York Post, Nov. 15, 2007
  52. Governor Eliot Spitzer's approval rating plummets over license plan New York Daily News, Nov. 13
  53. Results of SurveyUSA News Poll #12789 SurveyUSA, Oct. 24, 2007
  54. Mike's secret bid to run vs. Spitzer nu Fredric U. Dicker & David Seifman, New York Daily News, Nov. 06, 2007
  55. Two polls show Spitzer’s public image still suffering by Kyle Miller, Legislative Gazette, Dec. 17, 2007
  56. Four Charged With Running Online Prostitution Ring by Alan Feuer, New York Times, Mar. 07
  57. Woman at the Center of Governor’s Downfall New York Times
  58. Spitzer As Client 9: Read Text Messages From Spitzer To Prostitute, The Huffington Post, Mar. 10, 2008
  59. Spitzer Missed Lesson of D.C. "Madam" by Erik Wemple, Washington City Paper, Mar. 05, 2008
  60. Spitzer apologizes to family, public WNBC, Mar. 10, 2008
  61. Online Hooker Ring Busted The Smoking Gun, Mar. 06, 2008
  62. Kessler, Robert. "Eliot Spitzer met with call girls 7 or 8 times."Newsday. March 11, 2008
  63. "GOP Pol: Resign Or Else."WNBC, March 11, 2008
  64. 64.0 64.1 Spitzer resigns amid sex scandal by Sheldon Alberts, Canwest News Service, The Gazzette, Mar. 12, 2008
  65. Disgraced NY Governor won't Need New Job Associated Press, March 12, 2008
  66. 80G 'Addicted to Love' Gov", New York Post, March 12, 2008
  67. It Wasn't the Sex; Suspicious $$ Transfers Led to Spitzer by Brian Ross, Mar. 10, 2008
  68. Text of Governor Spitzer's resignation letter
  69. Eliot Spitzer - How New York's attorney general became the most powerful man on Wall Street by Daniel Gross, Slate, Oct. 21, 2004
  70. The Sheriff Of Wall Street by Steve Kroft, CBS News, May 25, 2003
  71. Spitzer's 'federalist papers' are onerous by Raymond J. Keating, Newsday, Aug. 21, 2006
  72. U.S. group is taking on Spitzer International Herald Tribune, Jan. 06, 2005
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 Dicker, Fredric. "GOP PUTS HEAT ON ELIOT'S $5M LOAN", New York Post, July 23, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  74. State Senate GOP Seek Spitzer Loan Records, Associated Press, July 23, 2007
  75. Richardson praises Eliot Spitzer as "future" of Democratic Party Associated Press, June 02, 2005
  76. Convention Notebook; Controversy Over Ground Zero's Fate Is Front and Center in Buffalo by Danny Hakim, The New York Times, May 30, 2006
  77. Faso Convention Bubble Goes Flat In Gov Race, Quinnipiac University New York State Poll Finds; Spitzer Still Has 40-Point Lead Over Faso, Suozzi Associated Press, June 21, 2006
  78. Spitzer, Suozzi Face-Off In Sole Gubernatorial Debate by Josh Robin, NY 1 News, July 25, 2006
  79. Spitzer Chokes on Pot Deal by Geoffrey Gray, New York Magazine, Aug. 14, 2006
  80. Spitzer Vows to Push for Gay Marriage by Danny Hakim, The New York Times, Oct. 07, 2006
  81. Alan Greenblatt, Governing, "Super-Activist: Expanding the Scope of Consumer Protection," 2002
  82. Governing, "GOVERNING Announces 2012 Public Officials of the Year," October 19, 2012

External links

Biographies and profiles:


Media coverage:

Critics: Greg Palast