Emanuel Cleaver

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Emanuel Cleaver
Emanuel Cleaver.jpg
U.S. House, Missouri, District 5
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 2005-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 10
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorKaren McCarthy (D)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$5.95 in 2012
First electedNovember 2, 2004
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$4,596,544
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Mayor of Kansas City
1991-1999
Kansas City, City Council
1979-1991
Education
Bachelor'sPrairie View A&M University
Master'sSt. Paul School of Theology
Personal
BirthdayOctober 26, 1944
Place of birthWaxahachie, Texas
ProfessionPastor, radio show host
Net worth$684,005.50
ReligionMethodist
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Emanuel Cleaver campaign logo

Contents

Emanuel Cleaver II (b. October 26, 1944, in Waxahachie, TX) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Missouri's 5th Congressional District. Cleaver was first elected to the House in 2004 and is currently serving his fifth consecutive term, having won re-election on November 6, 2012, by a margin of 23.6%.[1]

Cleaver began his political career as a city council member in Kansas City in 1979 until his election as the first African-American Mayor of Kansas City, a position that he held from 1991 to 1999.[2]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Cleaver is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Cleaver is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

Biography

Born in Waxahachie, Texas, Cleaver graduated from Prairie View A&M University and received a Master of Divinity degree from St. Paul School of Theology.[2]

Career

Cleaver works as a Methodist pastor between holding political office.[2]

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Cleaver serves on the following committees:[3]

2011-2012

Cleaver served on the following committees:[4]

  • Committee on Financial Services
    • Subcommittee on Investigation and Oversight
    • Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity
    • Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit
  • Committee on Homeland Security
    • Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection
    • Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response
  • Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming

Key Votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png


The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[5] For more information pertaining to Cleaver's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[6]



National security

American response in Syria
See also: United States involvement in Syria

On August 29, 2013, more than 50 House Democrats signed a letter written by California Rep. Barbara Lee that called for a congressional resolution on strikes, and cautioned that the dire situation in Syria "should not draw us into an unwise war—especially without adhering to our constitutional requirements."[7][8] The letter also called on the Obama administration to work with the U.N. Security Council “to build international consensus” condemning the alleged use of chemical weapons. Cleaver was one of the 50 Democrats in the House to sign the letter.[7][8]

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Cleaver voted in opposition of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[9]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Yea3.png Cleaver voted in support of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[9]

CISPA (2013)

Yea3.png Cleaver voted in support of HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[10] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[9]

NDAA

Yea3.png Cleaver voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[9]

Economy


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.
Farm bill

Yea3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[11] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[12][13] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[13] Cleaver voted with 88 other Democratic representatives in favor of the bill.

Government shutdown
See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[14] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[15] Cleaver voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[16]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[17] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Cleaver voted for HR 2775.[18]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Nay3.png Cleaver voted in opposition of HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years. Cleaver was 1 of 144 Democrats who opposed the bill, while 44 voted for it.[19][9]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Nay3.png Cleaver voted in opposition of House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States. The vote largely followed party lines.[20][9]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Neutral/Abstain Cleaver did not vote on House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[21][9]

Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act

Neutral/Abstain Cleaver did not vote on HR 2009 - Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act of 2013. The bill passed through the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 232-185. The bill would prevent the IRS and Treasury Secretary from enforcing the powers provided to them in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The vote largely followed party lines.[21][9]

Social issues

Amash amendment

Yea3.png Cleaver voted in support of House Amendment 413 - Prohibits the National Security Agency from Collecting Records Under the Patriot Act. The amendment failed on July 4, 2013, by a vote of 205-217. The amendment would have prohibited the collection of records by the National Security Agency under the PATRIOT Act. Both parties were split on the vote.[9]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Cleaver voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257-167 vote on January 1, 2013.[22]

Foreign policy

Removal of troops from Afghanistan

Yea3.png Cleaver supported a resolution to withdraw U.S. troops from Afghanistan.[23]

American involvement in Libya

Yea3.png Cleaver supported a ban on using armed forces in Libya without Congressional approval in 2011.[23]

Jobs

Yea3.png Cleaver voted for raising the minimum wage to $7.25 an hour in 2007.[23]

Yea3.png Cleaver voted to extend unemployment benefits from 39 weeks to 59 weeks in 2008.[23]

Government reform

Yea3.png Cleaver supported granting Washington D.C. an Electoral vote and a vote in Congress in 2007.[23]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Cleaver voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257-167 vote on January 1, 2013.[24]

Foreign policy

Removal of troops from Afghanistan

Yea3.png Cleaver supported a resolution to withdraw U.S. troops from Afghanistan.[23]

American involvement in Libya

Yea3.png Cleaver supported a ban on using armed forces in Libya without congressional approval in 2011.[23]

Jobs

Yea3.png Cleaver voted for raising the minimum wage to $7.25 an hour in 2007.[23]

Yea3.png Cleaver voted to extend unemployment benefits from 39 weeks to 59 weeks in 2008.[23]

Government reform

Yea3.png Cleaver supported granting Washington D.C. an Electoral vote and a vote in Congress in 2007.[23]

Issues

Molotov cocktail thrown at Kansas City office

In the early morning hours of September 11, 2014, a molotov cocktail was thrown into Cleaver's Kansas City, Missouri office. Nobody was in the office at the time, and the explosive did not break, leaving no significant damage. Cleaver's chief of staff noted that it was the second such incident in the prior six years. Marcia Fudge (D-OH), chairperson of the Congressional Black Caucus, released a statement regarding the attack, saying, "The Congressional Black Caucus strongly condemns this type of vandalism targeted at Congressman Cleaver, and denounces any act of violence towards Members of Congress."[25]

Ferguson police shooting response

See also: Shooting in Ferguson, Missouri

On August 16, 2014, Cleaver stated his opposition to police militarization, claiming, "Having military style weaponry moving down the main street of a middle-American town is as un-American as a coup d’état rather than an election."[26]

Cleaver, commenting on President Obama's decision to send Eric Holder to Ferguson, said on August 19, 2014, "I don’t think the president needs to come to Ferguson. It adds another distortion. We don’t need that now. We don’t need any more people coming into Ferguson to help the poor people out during this time of trouble. What we need is a sense of calm and anything other than that is going to be dangerous."[27]

Reps. William Lacy Clay (D-MO) and Cleaver spoke with Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel on August 22, 2014, about dismantling the "1033" program run by the Defense Department, explaining, "We are pleased to report that we had a productive, expansive and very encouraging meeting with Secretary Hagel [Thursday] on our urgent concerns about the militarization of local law enforcement agencies through the distribution of surplus Department of Defense equipment via the 1033 Program. We have asked the secretary to review the program and to respond with his recommendations quickly."[28]

On The Issues Vote Match

Emanuel Cleaver's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Cleaver is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Cleaver received a score of 68 percent on social issues and 6 percent on economic issues.[29]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[30]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Strongly Opposes
Support & expand free trade Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Favors
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[29]

Elections

2014

Non-CompetitiveRace.jpg
See also: Missouri's 5th Congressional District elections, 2014

Cleaver is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He was the Democratic nomination in the primary election on August 5, 2014, against Mark Memoly, Charles Lindsey, Eric Holmes and Bob Gough. The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

U.S. House, Missouri District 5 Democratic Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngEmanuel Cleaver 82% 43,924
Mark Memoly 5.6% 2,982
Charles Lindsey 5% 2,674
Eric Holmes 4.8% 2,579
Bob Gough 2.7% 1,432
Total Votes 53,591
Source: Results via Associated Press Vote totals above are unofficial and will be updated once official totals are made available.

2012

Cleaver was seeking re-election in 2012.[31] He was re-elected on November 6, 2012.[32]

U.S. House, Missouri District 5 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngEmanuel Cleaver Incumbent 60.5% 200,290
     Republican Jacob Turk 36.9% 122,149
     Libertarian Randy Langkraehr 2.6% 8,497
     Write-in Andrew Feagle 0% 6
Total Votes 330,942
Source: Missouri Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"

Full history


Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Cleaver attends.


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Cleaver is available dating back to 2004. Based on available campaign finance records, Cleaver raised a total of $4,596,544 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[37]

Emanuel Cleaver's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Missouri, District 5) Won $1,155,849
2010 U.S. House (Missouri, District 5) Won $637,380
2008 U.S. House (Missouri, District 5) Won $554,095
2006 U.S. House (Missouri, District 5) Won $669,497
2004 U.S. House (Missouri, District 5) Won $1,579,723
Grand Total Raised $4,596,544

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Cleaver's reports.[38]

Emanuel Cleaver (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[39]July 15, 2013 (amended)$133,429.34$107,721.83$(80,786.87)$160,364.30
July Quarterly[40]July 19, 2013 (amended)$160,364.30$126,845.00$(120,947.83)$166,261.47
October Quarterly[41]October 15, 2013$166,261.47$84,225.00$(67,937.43)$152,126.61
Year-End[42]January 31, 2014$152,126.61$63,279.80$(123,056.48)$92,349.93
April Quarterly[43]April 15, 2014$92,349.93$98,489.80$(50,433.85)$140,405.88
Running totals
$480,561.43$(443,162.46)


2012

Cleaver was re-elected to the U.S. House for a fifth term in 2012. His campaign committee raised a total of $1,155,849 and spent $1,191,843.[44] This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.[45]

Cost per vote

Cleaver spent $5.95 per vote received in 2012.


2010

Cleaver was re-elected to the U.S. House for a fourth term in 2010. His campaign committee raised a total of $637,380 and spent $607,575.[46]This is less than the average $1.4 million spent by House winners in 2010.[47]

Cost per vote

Cleaver spent $5.95 per vote received in 2010.


Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Net Worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Cleaver's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $348,012 and $1,019,999. That averages to $684,005.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Cleaver ranked as the 242nd most wealthy representative in 2012.[48] Between 2004 and 2012, Cleaver's calculated net worth[49] decreased by an average of 4 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[50]

Emanuel Cleaver Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$988,150
2012$684,005
Growth from 2004 to 2012:-31%
Average annual growth:-4%[51]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[52]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Cleaver missed 328 of 7,445 roll call votes from January 2005 to July 2014, which is 4,4% of votes during that period. This is worse than the median of 2.5% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving as of July 2014.[53]

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Cleaver is a "rank-and-file Democrat" as of July 2014. He received the same ranking in May 2013.[54]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress, tracks whom from each party each member of Congress votes most and least often with.[55]

Cleaver most often votes with:

Cleaver least often votes with:


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Cleaver paid his congressional staff a total of $1,017,986 in 2011. Overall, Missouri ranked 21st in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[56]

Staff bonuses

According to an analysis by CNN, Cleaver was one of nearly 25 percent of House members who gave their staff bonuses in 2012. Cleaver's staff was given an apparent $34,458.32 in bonus money.[57]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year, National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted, as compared to other members in the previous year. More information about the analysis process can be found on the vote ratings page.

2013

Cleaver ranked 111th in the liberal rankings in 2013.[58]

2012

Cleaver ranked 36th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[59]

2011

Cleaver ranked 30th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[60]

Voting with party

July 2014

Emanuel Cleaver voted with the Democratic Party 95.3 percent of the time, which ranked 24 among the 204 House Democratic members as of July 2014.[61]

May 2013

Emanuel Cleaver voted with the Democratic Party 96.5 percent of the time, which ranked 52nd among the 201 House Democratic members as of May 2013.[62]

Personal

Cleaver and his wife Dianne raised their four children in Kansas City, where they still live.[63]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Emanuel + Cleaver + Missouri + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Emanuel Cleaver News Feed

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See also

External links

Track-at-political-tracker-com.png


Political offices
Preceded by
Karen McCarthy
United States House of Representatives - District 5
2005–Present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Mayor of Kansas City
1991-1999
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Kansas City, City Council
1979-1991
Succeeded by
'

References

  1. State of Missouri, "Nov. 6, 2012 General Election," accessed May 30, 2013
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 U.S. House of Representatives, "Emanuel Cleave official bio," accessed May 30, 2013
  3. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress"
  4. Congressman Emanuel Cleaver, II, "Committees and Caucuses," April 7, 2014
  5. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  6. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 Office of Barbara Lee, "Lee Letter to President Obama," accessed September 2, 2013
  8. 8.0 8.1 Washington Post, "More than 50 House Democrats also want Syria strike resolution," accessed September 2, 2013
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Project Vote Smart, "Emanuel Cleaver's Political Summary," accessed September 11, 2013
  10. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  11. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  12. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 NY Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  15. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  16. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  17. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  18. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  19. Congress.gov, "H.R.273 - To eliminate the 2013 statutory pay adjustment for Federal employees.," February 25, 2013
  20. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 11, 2013
  21. 21.0 21.1 Chicago Sun-Times, "How they voted," August 9, 2013
  22. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 On the Issues, "Emanuel Cleaver," accessed September 13, 2013
  24. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  25. The Hill, "Molotov cocktail thrown in Cleaver's office," September 11, 2014
  26. Fox 4 KC, "Congressman Emanuel Cleaver visits Kansas City, shares thoughts on Ferguson," August 16, 2014
  27. Politico, "Emanuel Cleaver: Ferguson looks like Fallujah," August 19, 2014
  28. Politico, "Reps push Chuck Hagel over militarization," August 22, 2014
  29. 29.0 29.1 On The Issues, "Emanuel Cleaver Vote Match," accessed June 20, 2014
  30. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  31. OpenSecrets, "Emanuel Cleaver Representative 2012," accessed January 21, 2012
  32. ABC News, "2012 General Election Results"
  33. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  34. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. OpenSecrets, "Emanuel Cleaver," accessed May 16, 2013
  38. Federal Election Commission, "Cleaver for Congress Summary reports," accessed July 22, 2013
  39. Federal Election Commission, "Cleaver for Congress April Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
  40. Federal Election Commission, "Cleaver for Congress July Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
  41. Federal Election Commission, "Cleaver for Congress October Quarterly," accessed October 25, 2013
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Cleaver for Congress Year End," accessed February 6, 2014
  43. Federal Election Commission, "Cleaver for Congress April Quarterly," accessed April 22, 2014
  44. OpenSecrets, "Emanuel Cleaver 2012 Election Data," accessed February 2013
  45. OpenSecrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  46. OpenSecrets, "Emanuel Cleaver 2010 Election Data," accessed November 8, 2011
  47. OpenSecrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  48. OpenSecrets, "Cleaver, (D-MO), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  49. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  50. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  51. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  52. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  53. GovTrack, "Emanuel Cleaver," July 28, 2014
  54. GovTrack, "Cleaver," accessed July 28, 2014
  55. OpenCongress, "Rep. Emanuel Cleaver," accessed July 29, 2014
  56. LegiStorm, "Emanuel Cleaver," accessed October 8, 2012
  57. CNN Politics, "Congressional bonuses in a time of cuts," accessed March 8, 2013
  58. National Journal, "2013 Vote Ratings," accessed July 28, 2014
  59. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  60. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  61. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  62. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  63. Cleaver for Congress, Congressman Cleaver, serving with Compassion, Civility, Courage, "About," accessed April 7, 2014