General Provisions, Kentucky Constitution
- 1 Section 224
- 2 Section 225
- 3 Section 226
- 4 Section 226a
- 5 Section 227
- 6 Section 228
- 7 Section 229
- 8 Section 230
- 9 Section 231
- 10 Section 232
- 11 Section 233
- 12 Section 233A
- 13 Section 234
- 14 Section 235
- 15 Section 236
- 16 Section 237
- 17 Section 238
- 18 Section 239
- 19 Section 240
- 20 Section 241
- 21 Section 242
- 22 Section 243
- 23 Section 244
- 24 Section 244a
- 25 Section 245
- 26 Section 246
- 27 Section 247
- 28 Section 248
- 29 Section 249
- 30 Section 250
- 31 Section 251
- 32 Section 252
- 33 Section 253
- 34 Section 254
- 35 Section 255
- 36 Section 255a
- 37 See also
- 38 External links
- 39 Additional reading
- 40 References
| Section 224
Bonds -- What Officers to Give -- Liability on
The General Assembly shall provide by a general law what officers shall execute bond for the faithful discharge of their duties, and fix the liability therein.
| Section 225
Armed Men Not to Be Brought into State -- Exception
No armed person or bodies of men shall be brought into this State for the preservation of the peace or the suppression of domestic violence, except upon the application of the General Assembly, or of the Governor when the General Assembly may not be in session.
| Section 226
State Lottery -- Charitable Lotteries and Charitable Gift Enterprises -- Other Lotteries and Gift Enterprises Forbidden
(1) The General Assembly may establish a Kentucky state lottery and may establish a state lottery to be conducted in cooperation with other states. Any lottery so established shall be operated by or on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(2) The General Assembly may by general law permit charitable lotteries and charitable gift enterprises and, if it does so, it shall:
(3) Except as provided in this section, lotteries and gift enterprises are forbidden, and no privileges shall be granted for such purposes, and none shall be exercised, and no schemes for similar purposes shall be allowed. The General Assembly shall enforce this section by proper penalties. All lottery privileges or charters heretofore granted are revoked.
- Amended with the approval of Kentucky proposes to establish a state lottery, Amendment 1 (1988) in 1992.
- Amended with the approval of Kentucky Proposed Amendment 1, Charitable Lotteries Act (1992) in 1992.
| Section 226a
Manufacture, Sale or Transportation of Intoxicating Liquors Prohibited -- Exception -- Legislature to Enforce
Repealed with the approval of Amendment in 1935.
- Amended with the approval of Amendment in 1919.
| Section 227
Prosecution and Removal of Local Officers for Misfeasance, Malfeasance, or Neglect
Judges of the County Court, Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, Coroners, Surveyors, Jailers, Assessors, County Attorneys and Constables shall be subject to indictment or prosecution for misfeasance or malfeasance in office, or willful neglect in discharge of official duties, in such mode as may be prescribed by law, and upon conviction his office shall become vacant, but such officer shall have the right to appeal to the Court of Appeals. Provided, also, that the General Assembly may, in addition to the indictment or prosecution above provided, by general law, provide other manner, method or mode for the vacation of office, or the removal from office of any sheriff, jailer, constable or peace officer for neglect of duty, and may provide the method, manner or mode of reinstatement of such officers.
- Amended with the approval of Amendment in 1919.
| Section 228
Oath of Officers and Attorneys
Members of the General Assembly and all officers, before they enter upon the execution of the duties of their respective offices, and all members of the bar, before they enter upon the practice of their profession, shall take the following oath or affirmation: I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of this Commonwealth, and be faithful and true to the Commonwealth of Kentucky so long as I continue a citizen thereof, and that I will faithfully execute, to the best of my ability, the office of .... according to law; and I do further solemnly swear (or affirm) that since the adoption of the present Constitution, I, being a citizen of this State, have not fought a duel with deadly weapons within this State nor out of it, nor have I sent or accepted a challenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons, nor have I acted as second in carrying a challenge, nor aided or assisted any person thus offending, so help me God.
| Section 229
"Treason" Defined -- Evidence Necessary to Convict
Treason against the Commonwealth shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason except on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.
| Section 230
Money Not to Be Drawn from Treasury Unless Appropriated -- Annual Publication of Accounts -- Certain Revenues Usable Only for Highway Purposes
No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury, except in pursuance of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published annually. No money derived from excise or license taxation relating to gasoline and other motor fuels, and no moneys derived from fees, excise or license taxation relating to registration, operation, or use of vehicles on public highways shall be expended for other than the cost of administration, statutory refunds and adjustments, payment of highway obligations, costs for construction, reconstruction, rights-of-way, maintenance and repair of public highways and bridges, and expense of enforcing state traffic and motor vehicle laws.
- Amended with the approval of Kentucky Highway Fund Taxes Referendum (1945) in 1945.
| Section 231
Suits Against the Commonwealth
The General Assembly may, by law, direct in what manner and in what courts suits may be brought against the Commonwealth.
| Section 232
Suits Against the Commonwealth
Manner of administering oath.
The manner of administering an oath or affirmation shall be such as is most consistent with the conscience of the deponent, and shall be esteemed by the General Assembly the most solemn appeal to God.
| Section 233
General Laws of Virginia in Force in This State until Repealed
All laws which, on the first day of June, one thousand seven hundred and ninety- two, were in force in the State of Virginia, and which are of a general nature and not local to that State, and not repugnant to this Constitution, nor to the laws which have been enacted by the General Assembly of this Commonwealth, shall be in force within this State until they shall be altered or repealed by the General Assembly.
| Section 233A
Valid or Recognized Marriage -- Legal Status of Unmarried Individuals
Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in Kentucky. A legal status identical or substantially similar to that of marriage for unmarried individuals shall not be valid or recognized.
- Amended with the approval of Kentucky Marriage Amendment (2004) on November 2, 2004.
| Section 234
Residence and Place of Office of Public Officers
All civil officers for the State at large shall reside within the State, and all district, county, city or town officers shall reside within their respective districts, counties, cities or towns, and shall keep their offices at such places therein as may be required by law.
| Section 235
Salaries of Public Officers Not to Be Changed During Term -- Deductions for Neglect
The salaries of public officers shall not be changed during the terms for which they were elected; but it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to regulate, by a general law, in what cases and what deductions shall be made for neglect of official duties. This section shall apply to members of the General Assembly also.
| Section 236
When Officers to Enter upon Duties
The General Assembly shall, by law, prescribe the time when the several officers authorized or directed by this Constitution to be elected or appointed, shall enter upon the duties of their respective offices, except where the time is fixed by this Constitution.
| Section 237
Federal Office Incompatible with State Office
No member of Congress, or person holding or exercising an office of trust or profit under the United States, or any of them, or under any foreign power, shall be eligible to hold or exercise any office of trust or profit under this Constitution, or the laws made in pursuance thereof.
| Section 238
Discharge of Sureties on Officers' Bonds
The General Assembly shall direct by law how persons who now are, or may hereafter become, sureties for public officers, may be relieved of or discharged from suretyship.
| Section 239
Disqualification from Office for Presenting or Accepting Challenge to Duel -- Further Punishment
Any person who shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, either directly or indirectly, give, accept or knowingly carry a challenge to any person or persons to fight in single combat, with a citizen of this State, with a deadly weapon, either in or out of the State, shall be deprived of the right to hold any office of honor or profit in this Commonwealth; and if said acts, or any of them, be committed within this State, the person or persons so committing them shall be further punished in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe by law.
| Section 240
Pardon of Person Convicted of Dueling
The Governor shall have power, after five years from the time of the offense, to pardon any person who shall have participated in a duel as principal, second or otherwise, and to restore him to all the rights, privileges and immunities to which he was entitled before such participation. Upon presentation of such pardon the oath prescribed in Section 228 shall be varied to suit the case.
| Section 241
Recovery for Wrongful Death
Whenever the death of a person shall result from an injury inflicted by negligence or wrongful act, then, in every such case, damages may be recovered for such death, from the corporations and persons so causing the same. Until otherwise provided by law, the action to recover such damages shall in all cases be prosecuted by the personal representative of the deceased person. The General Assembly may provide how the recovery shall go and to whom belong; and until such provision is made, the same shall form part of the personal estate of the deceased person.
| Section 242
Just Compensation to Be Made in Condemning Private Property -- Right of Appeal -- Jury Trial
Municipal and other corporations, and individuals invested with the privilege of taking private property for public use, shall make just compensation for property taken, injured or destroyed by them; which compensation shall be paid before such taking, or paid or secured, at the election of such corporation or individual, before such injury or destruction. The General Assembly shall not deprive any person of an appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporation or individual made by Commissioners or otherwise; and upon appeal from such preliminary assessment, the amount of such damages shall, in all cases, be determined by a jury, according to the course of the common law.
| Section 243
The General Assembly shall, by law, fix the minimum ages at which children may be employed in places dangerous to life or health, or injurious to morals; and shall provide adequate penalties for violations of such law.
| Section 244
Wage-earners in Industry or of Corporations to Be Paid in Money
All wage-earners in this State employed in factories, mines, workshops, or by corporations, shall be paid for their labor in lawful money. The General Assembly shall prescribe adequate penalties for violations of this section.
| Section 244a
Old Age Assistance
The General Assembly shall prescribe such laws as may be necessary for the granting and paying of old persons an annuity or pension.
| Section 245
Revision of Statutes to Conform to Constitution
Upon the promulgation of this Constitution, the Governor shall appoint three persons, learned in the law, who shall be Commissioners to revise the statute laws of this Commonwealth, and prepare amendments thereto, to the end that the statute laws shall conform to and effectuate this Constitution. Such revision and amendments shall be laid before the next General Assembly for adoption or rejection, in whole or in part. The said Commissioners shall be allowed ten dollars each per day for their services, and also necessary stationery for the time during which they are actually employed; and upon their certificate the Auditor shall draw his warrant upon the Treasurer. They shall have the power to employ clerical assistants, at a compensation not exceeding ten dollars per day in the aggregate. If the Commissioners, or any of them, shall refuse to act, or a vacancy shall occur, the Governor shall appoint another or others in his or their place.
| Section 246
Maximum Limit on Compensation of Public Officers
No public officer or employee except the Governor, shall receive as compensation per annum for official services, exclusive of the compensation of legally authorized deputies and assistants which shall be fixed and provided for by law, but inclusive of allowance for living expenses, if any, as may be fixed and provided for by law, any amount in excess of the following sums: Officers whose jurisdiction or duties are coextensive with the Commonwealth, the mayor of any city of the first class, and Judges and Commissioners of the Court of Appeals, Twelve Thousand Dollars ($12,000); Circuit Judges, Eight Thousand Four Hundred Dollars ($8,400); all other public officers, Seven Thousand Two Hundred Dollars ($7,200). Compensation within the limits of this amendment may be authorized by the General Assembly to be paid, but not retroactively, to public officers in office at the time of its adoption, or who are elected at the election at which this amendment is adopted. Nothing in this amendment shall permit any officer to receive, for the year 1949, any compensation in excess of the limit in force prior to the adoption of this amendment.
- Amended with the approval of Kentucky State and City Official Salaries Referendum (1949) in 1949.
| Section 247
Public Printing -- Contract for -- Officers Not to Have Interest in -- Governor to Approve
The printing and binding of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other public printing and binding, shall be performed under contract, to be given to the lowest responsible bidder, below such maximum and under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. No member of the General Assembly, or officer of the Commonwealth, shall be in any way interested in any such contract; and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Governor.
| Section 248
Juries -- Number of Jurors -- Three-fourths May Indict or Give Verdict
A grand jury shall consist of twelve persons, nine of whom concurring, may find an indictment. In civil and misdemeanor cases, in courts inferior to the Circuit Courts, a jury shall consist of six persons. The General Assembly may provide that in any or all trials of civil actions in the Circuit Courts, three-fourths or more of the jurors concurring may return a verdict, which shall have the same force and effect as if rendered by the entire panel. But where a verdict is rendered by a less number than the whole jury, it shall be signed by all the jurors who agree to it.
| Section 249
Employees of General Assembly -- Number and Compensation
The House of Representatives of the General Assembly shall not elect, appoint, employ or pay for, exceeding one Chief Clerk, one Assistant Clerk, one Enrolling Clerk, one Sergeant at Arms, one Doorkeeper, one Janitor, two Cloakroom Keepers and four Pages; and the Senate shall not elect, appoint, employ or pay for, exceeding one Chief Clerk, one Assistant Clerk, one Enrolling Clerk, one Sergeant at Arms, one Doorkeeper, one Janitor, one Cloakroom Keeper and three Pages; and the General Assembly shall provide, by general law, for fixing the per diem or salary of all of said employees.
| Section 250
Arbitration, Method for to Be Provided
It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to enact such laws as shall be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators, the arbitrators to be appointed by the parties who may choose that summary mode of adjustment.
| Section 251
Limitation of Actions to Recover Possession of Land Based on Early Patents
No action shall be maintained for possession of any lands lying within this State, where it is necessary for the claimant to rely for his recovery on any grant or patent issued by the Commonwealth of Virginia, or by the Commonwealth of Kentucky prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty, against any person claiming such lands by possession to a well-defined boundary, under a title of record, unless such action shall be instituted within five years after this Constitution shall go into effect, or within five years after the occupant may take possession; but nothing herein shall be construed to affect any right, title or interest in lands acquired by virtue of adverse possession under the laws of this Commonwealth.
| Section 252
Houses of Reform to Be Established and Maintained
It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by law, as soon as practicable, for the establishment and maintenance of an institution or institutions for the detention, correction, instruction and reformation of all persons under the age of eighteen years, convicted of such felonies and such misdemeanors as may be designated by law. Said institution shall be known as the "House of Reform."
| Section 253
Working of Penitentiary Prisoners -- When and Where Permitted
Persons convicted of felony and sentenced to confinement in the penitentiary shall be confined at labor within the walls of the penitentiary; and the General Assembly shall not have the power to authorize employment of convicts elsewhere, except upon the public works of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, or when, during pestilence or in case of the destruction of the prison buildings, they cannot be confined in the penitentiary.
That Section 253 of the Constitution be amended so that the Commonwealth of Kentucky may use and employ outside of the walls of the penitentiaries in such manner and means as may be provided by law, persons convicted of felony and sentenced to confinement in the penitentiary for the purpose of constructing or reconstructing and maintaining public roads and public bridges or for the purpose of making and preparing material for public roads and bridges, and that the Commonwealth of Kentucky may, by the use and employment of convict labor outside of the walls of the penitentiary by other ways or means, as may be provided by law, aid the counties for road and bridge purposes, work on the State farm or farms.
- Amended with the approval of Amendments on November 2, 1915.
| Section 254
Control and Support of Convicts -- Leasing of Labor
The Commonwealth shall maintain control of the discipline, and provide for all supplies, and for the sanitary condition of the convicts, and the labor only of convicts may be leased.
| Section 255
Frankfort is State Capital
The seat of government shall continue in the city of Frankfort, unless removed by a vote of two-thirds of each House of the first General Assembly which convenes after the adoption of this Constitution.
| Section 255a
Personal right to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife - Limitations.
The citizens of Kentucky have the personal right to hunt, fish, and harvest wildlife, using traditional methods, subject only to statutes enacted by the Legislature, and to administrative regulations adopted by the designated state agency to promote wildlife conservation and management and to preserve the future of hunting and fishing. Public hunting and fishing shall be a preferred means of managing and controlling wildlife. This section shall not be construed to modify any provision of law relating to trespass, property rights, or the regulation of commercial activities.
- Amended with the approval of Kentucky Hunting and Fishing Amendment, House Bill 1 (2012) on November 6, 2012.
- State constitution
- Constitutional article
- Constitutional amendment
- Constitutional revision
- Constitutional convention
- Kentucky Legislature, "Kentucky Constitution"
- The Kentucky Gazette, "To understand constitution, look to its history", August 3, 1999
- Ireland, Robert M. (1999). The Kentucky State Constitution: A Reference Guide, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press
- Legislative Research Commission, "Text of the Kentucky Constitutions of 1792, 1799 and 1850" (1965)
- Legislative Research Commission(February 2003) "Constitutional Background," in the Kentucky Government: Informational Bulletin No. 137 (Revised), Frankfort, Kentucky: Kentucky Legislative Research Commission
- Kleber, John E. (1992). "Constitutions" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, eds. Thomas D. Clark, Lowell H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter, Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky
- McQueen, Keven (2001). "William Goebel: Assassinated Governor," in Offbeat Kentuckians: Legends to Lunatics, ed. by Keven McQueen, Kuttawa, Kentucky: McClanahan Publishing House