Public education in Hawaii
Energy • Environment • Fracking • Public education • Higher education • School choice • Charter schools • Public pensions • State budget and finances • Taxes • Voting • Ballot access • Redistricting • Nonprofit regulation
- 1 State agencies
- 2 Regional comparison
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Academic performance
- 5 Educational choice options
- 6 Education funding and expenditures
- 7 Organizations
- 8 Taxpayer-funded lobbying
- 9 Studies and reports
- 10 School districts
- 11 Education ballot measures
- 12 Recent news
- 13 See also
- 14 External links
- 15 References
List of school districts in Hawaii
Public education in Hawaii
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Hawaii Department of Education reads:
|“||We serve our community by developing the academic achievement, character and social-emotional well-being of our students to the fullest potential. We work with partners, families and communities to ensure that all students reach their aspirations, from early learning through college, career and citizenship.||”|
The Hawaii State Board of Education has nine members, as well as a student council representative and a military liaison. The Board meets twice a month, unless special meetings are required, to formulate policy and oversee the public school and public library systems.
Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Hawaii State Department of Education adopted these standards on June 18, 2010. During the 2012-2013 school year, the standards were implemented in grades K-2 and 11-12, and during the 2013-2014 school year, they were fully implemented across all grades.
- See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states
The following chart shows how Hawaii compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.
|State||Schools||Districts||Students||Teachers||Teacher/pupil ratio||Administrator/pupil ratio||Per pupil spending|
| Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.|
National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Hawaii as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.
|Demographic Information for Hawaii's K-12 Public School System|
|Ethnicity||Students||State Percentage||United States Percentage**|
|Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students||61,959||33.91%||0.42%|
|Two or More||15,030||8.23%||2.54%|
|**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.|
Enrollments by region type
A plurality of students in Hawaii attend suburban schools. This is also the case in Washington, but in California and Oregon, students are more likely to attend city schools than suburban schools.
|Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)|
|State||City schools||Suburban schools||Town schools||Rural Schools|
|Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)|
- See also: NAEP scores by state
The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Hawaii's students scored lower than the national average in eighth grade math, fourth grade reading and eighth grade reading, but the state's fourth grade math scores were higher. Those scores were also higher than California's and Oregon's, though Washington remained highest of the compared states with 48 percent of math students in fourth grade scoring at or above proficient.
|Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013|
|Math - Grade 4||Math - Grade 8||Reading - Grade 4||Reading - Grade 8|
|NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013|
Graduation, ACT and SAT scores
|Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*|
|State||Graduation rate, 2012||Average ACT Composite, 2012||Average SAT Composite, 2013|
|Percent||Quintile ranking**||Score||Participation rate||Score||Participation rate|
| *Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).|
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express
- See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states
The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Hawaii was higher than the national average at 5.1 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4.7 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.
Educational choice options
- See also: School choice in Hawaii
Hawaii has the second highest private school attendance in the United States. Other school choice options in the state include charter schools, homeschooling, online learning and intra-district, voluntary public school open enrollment.
Education funding and expenditures
- See also: Hawaii state budget and finances
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 15.6 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 6.3 percentage points, a 28.8 percent decrease in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 21.9 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education. Over 83 percent of Hawaii's education revenue comes from state funding. Federal funding accounts for nearly 14 percent, and local funding accounts for approximately 2.5 percent.
|Comparison of financial figures for school systems|
|State||Percent of budget (2012)||Per pupil spending (2011)||Revenue sources (2011)|
|Percent federal funds||Percent state funds||Percent local funds|
| Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures |
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Hawaii totaled approximately $2.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Hawaii and surrounding states.
|Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Federal revenue||State revenue||Local revenue||Total revenue|
|Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Hawaii totaled approximately $2.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Hawaii and surrounding states.
|Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Current expenditures**||Capital outlay||Other***||Total expenditures|
| **Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.|
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
|Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Hawaii, the average salary decreased by 2.1 percent.
|Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)|
|**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."|
In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Hawaii ranked first overall, or strongest, which was in the first tier of five.
The mission statement of the Hawaii State Teachers Association reads:
|“||The mission of the Hawaii State Teachers Association is to:
- See also: Hawaii government sector lobbying
The Hawaii Board of Education does not have registered lobbyists and has stated that it does not lobby in a way that needs to be disclosed.
Studies and reports
State Budget Solutions education study
State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.
- See also: School board elections portal
School board composition
Hawaii has one school district, the Hawaii State Department of Education. The nine members on the board are appointed by the governor. There are no publicly elected members on the board. They serve three-year terms.
The Hawaii State Department of Education does not have elected school board members.
Education ballot measures
Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.
- Hawaii Acquisition of School Construction Projects, Amendment 2 (1996)
- Hawaii Appropriation Exemption for Educational Facilities Fund Amendment (2016)
- Hawaii Board of Education Amendment, Question 1 (2010)
- Hawaii Board of Regents Candidates Act, Amendment 1 (2006)
- Hawaii Federal Financial Aid, Amendment 3 (1996)
- Hawaii Governor Appointed Board of Education, Ballot Measure 3 (1994)
- Hawaii Jurisdiction over the University of Hawaii Amendment (2016)
- Hawaii Limit Board of Education Powers, Ballot Measure 4 (1994)
- Hawaii Local School Boards Amendment (2016)
- Hawaii Repeal of Regent Candidate Advisory Council Amendment (2016)
- Hawaii University of Hawaii Self-Governance, Amendment 1 (2000)
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Hawaii + Education "
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- Hawaii state budget and finances
- Hawaii Department of Education
- List of school districts in Hawaii
- School choice in Hawaii
- Charter schools in Hawaii
- Education Policy in the U.S.
- Hawaii Department of Education
- Hawaii Board of Education (dead link)
- Accountability Resource Center Hawaii
- Hawaii State Teachers Association
- National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
- ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
- United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
- United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
- Hawaii State Department of Education, "Connect with Us," accessed May 19, 2014
- Hawaii State Department of Education, "Mission," accessed May 19, 2014
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- Hawaii Department of Education, "Board of Education," accessed May 19, 2014
- Common Core: State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed July 12, 2014
- Standards Toolkit, "About the Common Core State Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
- United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
- ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
- Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
- Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
- Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
- Hawaii State Teachers Association, "About Us," accessed May 20, 2014
- Hawaii FOIA response, November 23, 2009
- Hawaii Public Schools, "Organization," accessed July 10, 2014
State of Hawaii
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Director of Finance | State Auditor | Superintendent of Education | Hawaii Director of Commerce and Consumer Affairs | Commissioner of Agriculture | Chairperson of Land and Natural Resources | Director of Labor and Industrial Relations | Chair of Public Utilities |