James Owens recall, California (1913)
James Owens was a Democratic state senator in California. In 1913, labor unions launched a recall effort against him, believing that he was not enacting the legislative agenda he had promised when he campaigned for office. He survived the recall effort with ease. Recall historians Fredrick Bird and Frances Ryan describe the recall effort as a "test of the effectiveness of the recall against an unfaithful legislator".