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Leonard Lance

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Leonard Lance
Leonard Lance.jpg
U.S. House, New Jersey, District 7
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 2009-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2017
Years in position 6
PartyRepublican
PredecessorMike Ferguson (R)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 4, 2014
Cost per vote$9.89 in 2014
First electedNovember 4, 2008
Next generalNovember 8, 2016
Campaign $$5,192,468
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
New Jersey State Senate
2003-2009
New Jersey General Assembly
1991-2003
Education
High schoolNorth Hunterdon Regional High School
Bachelor'sLehigh University
Master'sPrinceton University
J.D.Vanderbilt University
Personal
Date of birthJune 25, 1952
Place of birthEaston, Pennsylvania
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth(2012) $2,946,508.50
ReligionRoman Catholic
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Leonard Lance (b. June 25, 1952, in Easton, PA) is a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New Jersey. Lance was elected by voters from New Jersey's 7th Congressional District.[1]

Lance was first elected to the House in 2008 and is currently serving his fourth consecutive term, having won re-election to the U.S. House in 2014 to represent the 7th Congressional District of New Jersey.[2] He won the Republican nomination in the primary on June 3, 2014, and went on to defeat Janice Kovach (D) and Jim Gawron (L) in the general election on November 4, 2014.[3]

Lance previously served in the New Jersey General Assembly and the New Jersey State Senate.[4]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Lance is an average Republican member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Republican Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

Lance was born in Easton, Pennsylvania. He earned a B.A. from Lehigh University in 1970, a J.D. from Vanderbilt University in 1974 and an M.P.A. from Princeton University in 1982.[5]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Lance's academic, professional and political career:[4][5]

  • 2009-Present: U.S. Representative from New Jersey's 7th Congressional District
  • 2003-2009: Member of the New Jersey State Senate
    • 2004-2008: Minority leader of the New Jersey State Senate
  • 1991-2003: Member of the New Jersey General Assembly
  • 1983-1990: Assistant counsel for county and municipal matters to Governor Thomas H. Kean
  • 1982: Earned M.P.A. from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
  • 1977-1978: Law clerk, Warren County Court
  • 1977: Earned J.D. from Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • 1974: Earned B.A. from Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
  • 1970: Graduated from North Hunterdon Regional High School, Annandale, NJ

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2015-2016

Lance serves on the following committees:[6]

2013-2014

Lance served on the following committees:[7]

  • Energy and Commerce Committee
    • Subcommittee on Communications and Technology
    • Subcommittee on Health
    • Subcommittee on Commerce, Manufacturing and Trade Vice Chairman

2011-2012

Lance served on the following committees:[8]

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 114 out of the 3,036 introduced bills (3.8 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session.[10] For more information pertaining to Lance's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[11]

National security

NDAA

Yea3.png Lance supported HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[12]

DHS Appropriations

Yea3.png Lance supported HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[12]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Nay3.pngLance opposed House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[12]

CISPA (2013)

Yea3.png Lance supported HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill permitted federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[13] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[12]

Economy

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Yea3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[14] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[15] Lance voted to approve the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[14]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[16] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Lance voted for HR 2775.[17]

Lance formally requested on October 1, 2013, that his pay be suspended until a new spending bill had been passed.[18]

Farm Bill

See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

Yea3.png Lance supported the Farm Bill on July 11, 2013. The bill passed in a 216-208 vote.[19] The bill passed included farm policy, but did not include food stamps.[20]

Immigration


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Morton Memos Prohibition

Yea3.png Lance supported House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[21] The vote largely followed party lines.[22]

Healthcare

Repealing Obamacare

Yea3.png Lance supported all attempts to repeal or delay the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[23]

Social issues

Abortion

Yea3.png Lance supported HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196. The purpose of the bill was to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[24]

Government affairs

HR 676

See also: Boehner's lawsuit against the Obama administration

Yea3.png On July 30, 2014, the U.S. House approved a resolution 225 to 201 to sue President Barack Obama for exceeding his constitutional authority. Five RepublicansThomas Massie of Kentucky, Paul Broun of Georgia, Scott Garrett of New Jersey, Walter Jones of North Carolina and Steve Stockman of Texas—voted with Democrats against the lawsuit.[25] Lance joined the other 224 Republicans in favor of the lawsuit. All Democrats voted against the resolution.[26][27]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Lance voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was 1 of 85 Republicans that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[28]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Leonard Lance's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Lance is a Moderate Conservative. Lance received a score of 27 percent on social issues and 66 percent on economic issues.[29]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[30]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Opposes
Expand ObamaCare Opposes Comfortable with same-sex marriage Favors
Vouchers for school choice Favors Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Favors Human needs over animal rights Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Unknown
Support & expand free trade Strongly Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Opposes
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Favors
Prioritize green energy Favors Expand the military Unknown
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Opposes Stay out of Iran Opposes
Privatize Social Security Strongly Favors Never legalize marijuana Unknown
Note: Information last updated: April 19, 2015.[29] If you notice the rating has changed, email us.

Presidential preference

2012

See also: Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election

Leonard Lance endorsed Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election. [31]

Elections

2014

See also: New Jersey's 7th Congressional District elections, 2014

In 2014, Lance won re-election to the U.S. House to represent New Jersey's 7th District. Lance won the Republican nomination in the primary on June 3, 2014. He defeated Janice Kovach (D) and Jim Gawron (L) in the general election.[3] The general election took place November 4, 2014.

U.S. House, New Jersey District 7 General Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngLeonard Lance Incumbent 59.3% 104,287
     Democratic Janice Kovach 38.8% 68,232
     Libertarian Jim Gawron 2% 3,478
Total Votes 175,997
Source: New Jersey Division of Elections
U.S. House, New Jersey District 7 Republican Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngLeonard Lance Incumbent 54.4% 15,900
David Larsen 45.6% 13,308
Total Votes 29,208
Source: New Jersey Division of Elections - Official Election Results

2012

See also: New Jersey's 7th Congressional District elections, 2012

Lance ran for re-election in 2012.[32] He defeated David Larsen in the June 5 Republican primary and faced Democrat Upendra Chivukula in the November general election.[33]

The Republican primary between Larsen and Lance was a rematch of the 2010 Republican primary. In 2010, Larsen had received 31 percent of the vote, whereas Lance had received 55 percent.[34][35][36]

Larsen considered his chances better in 2012, with the redrawn 7th District including a large number of conservative voters.[37][34] There was also less primary competition in 2012, with just Lance and Larsen running for the Republican nomination.[37][38]

U.S. House, New Jersey District 7 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Upendra Chivukula 40% 123,057
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngLeonard Lance Incumbent 57.2% 175,662
     Libertarian Patrick McKnight 1.3% 4,078
     Independent Dennis Breen 1.5% 4,518
Total Votes 307,315
Source: New Jersey Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
New Jersey's 7th Congressional District Republican Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngLeonard Lance Incumbent 60.6% 23,432
David Larsen 39.4% 15,253
Total Votes 38,685

Issues

Larsen ran as a more conservative candidate than Lance, saying Lance was one of the politicians who "call themselves conservatives, but support the Obama agenda." In response, Lance highlighted his conservative votes, including those against Obamacare.[34]

Endorsements

Lance was endorsed by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie.[34]

Campaign funding

Lance vastly outraised Larsen, with over $651,228 raised compared to Larsen's $15,387.[34]

Full history


Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Lance attends.


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Lance is available dating back to 2008. Based on available campaign finance records, Lance raised a total of $5,192,468 during that time period. This information was last updated on April 16, 2015.[41]

Leonard Lance's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2014 U.S. House (New Jersey, District 7) Won $1,188,889
2012 U.S. House (New Jersey, District 7) Won $1,321,361
2010 U.S. House (New Jersey, District 7) Won $1,341,109
2008 U.S. House (New Jersey, District 7) Won $1,341,109
Grand Total Raised $5,192,468


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

2014

Lance won re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. During that election cycle, Lance's campaign committee raised a total of $1,188,889 and spent $1,031,919.[42] This is less than the average $1.45 million spent by House winners in 2014.[43]

Cost per vote

Lance spent $9.89 per general election vote received in 2014.

U.S. House, New Jersey District 7, 2014 - Leonard Lance Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $1,188,889
Total Spent $1,031,919
Total Raised by Election Runner-up $121,055
Total Spent by Election Runner-up $116,468
Top contributors to Leonard Lance's campaign committee
Merck & Co$15,000
Celgene Corp$14,950
Republican Main Street Partnership$11,000
Public Service Enterprise Group$10,998
Chubb Corp$10,250
Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee
Pharmaceuticals/Health Products$139,500
Health Professionals$95,525
Retired$38,160
Lawyers/Law Firms$37,400
Insurance$36,250

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Lance's reports.[44]

2012

Lance won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Lance's campaign committee raised a total of $1,321,362 and spent $1,334,015.[54]

Cost per vote

Lance spent $7.59 per vote received in 2012.


2010

Lance was re-elected to the U.S. House in 2010 for a second term. His campaign committee raised a total of $1,341,109 and spent $1,197,141.[55]


Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a two-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of two different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Lance's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $1,862,017 and $4,031,000. That averages to $2,946,508.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican representatives in 2012 of $7,614,097.96. Lance ranked as the 110th most wealthy representative in 2012.[56] Between 2007 and 2012, Lance's calculated net worth[57] decreased by an average of 1 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[58]

Frank LoBiondo Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2007$3,098,916
2012$2,946,508
Growth from 2007 to 2012:-5%
Average annual growth:-1%[59]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[60]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

PGI: Donation Concentration Metric

See also: The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

Filings required by the Federal Election Commission report on the industries that give to each candidate. Using campaign filings and information calculated by OpenSecrets.org, Ballotpedia calculated the percentage of donations by industry received by each incumbent over the course of his or her career (or 1989 and later, if elected prior to 1988). Lance received the most donations from individuals and PACs employed by the Pharmaceuticals/Health Products industry.

From 1995-2014, 29.97 percent of Lance's career contributions came from the top five industries as listed below.[61]

Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png
Leonard Lance Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $5,013,163
Total Spent $4,625,615
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Pharmaceuticals/Health Products$449,800
Lawyers/Law Firms$303,435
Health Professionals$282,025
Insurance$239,313
Retired$227,911
% total in top industry8.97%
% total in top two industries15.03%
% total in top five industries29.97%

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Lance was a "rank-and-file Republican" as of July 2014.[62] This was the same rating Lance received in June 2013.

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[63]

Lance most often votes with:

Lance least often votes with:


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Lance missed 2 of 4,369 roll call votes from January 2009 to July 2014. This amounts to 0.0 percent, which is better than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.[62]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Lance paid his congressional staff a total of $853,324 in 2011. Overall, New Jersey ranked 42nd in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[64]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2013

Lance ranked 211th in the liberal rankings in 2013. Although he is a Republican, Lance's liberal ranking was higher than his conservative ranking.[65]

2012

Lance ranked 175th in the conservative rankings in 2012.[66]

2011

Lance ranked 191st in the conservative rankings in 2011.[67]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2013

Lance voted with the Republican Party 89.9 percent of the time, which ranked 211th among the 234 House Republican members as of July 2014.[68]

2013

Lance voted with the Republican Party 91.4 percent of the time, which ranked 208th among the 234 House Republican members as of June 2013.[69]

Personal

Lance lists his religious affiliation as Roman Catholic.[70]

Recent news

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See also

External links

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References

  1. Politico, "2012 House Race Results," accessed November 6, 2012
  2. New Jersey Department of State, "Candidates for House of Representatives," accessed March 31, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 Politico, "2014 New Jersey House Election Results," accessed November 7, 2014
  4. 4.0 4.1 Congressman Leonard Lance, Serving New Jersey's 7th District, "Full Biography," accessed October 16, 2014
  5. 5.0 5.1 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "LANCE, Leonard, (1952 - )," accessed October 16, 2014
  6. U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Clerk, "Committee Information," accessed February 20, 2015
  7. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  8. Leonard Lance, U.S. Congress, New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District, "About," accessed November 30, 2011
  9. House Energy & Commerce Committee, "Subcommittees," accessed November 30, 2011 (dead link)
  10. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  11. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Project Vote Smart, "Representative Leonard Lance's Voting Records on National Security," accessed September 30, 2013
  13. The Library of Congress, "Bill Summary & Status - 113th Congress (2013 - 2014) - H.R.624," accessed August 27, 2013
  14. 14.0 14.1 Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  15. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  16. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  17. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  18. Washington Post, "Which lawmakers will refuse their pay during the shutdown?," accessed October 2, 2013
  19. Project Vote Smart, "Lance on agriculture," accessed September 30, 2013
  20. New York Times, "House Republicans Push Through Farm Bill, Without Food Stamps," accessed September 17, 2013
  21. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed August 28, 2013
  22. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Lance's Voting Records on Immigration," accessed September 30, 2013
  23. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Leonard Lance's Voting Records on Issue: Health and Healthcare," accessed September 30, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "Lance on abortion," accessed September 30, 2013
  25. U.S. House, "House Resolution 676," accessed July 30, 2014
  26. Yahoo News, "Suing Obama: GOP-led House gives the go-ahead," accessed July 30, 2014
  27. Washington Post, "House clears way for lawsuit against Obama," accessed July 30, 2014
  28. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 On The Issues, "Leonard Lance Vote Match," accessed April 19, 2015
  30. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers.
  31. The Hill, "2012 GOP Lawmaker Endorsements for President," accessed December 22, 2011
  32. New Jersey Star-Ledger, "Ed Potosnak no longer challenging Leonard Lance as congressional candidate," accessed January 16, 2012
  33. WYNC, "Live! NJ Election Results," accessed June 5, 2012
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 New Jersey Spotlight, "U.S.Congressional District: 7," accessed May 22, 2012
  35. New Jersey Star-Ledger, "David Larsen of Tewksbury challenging Rep. Leonard Lance for seat in Congress," accessed January 5, 2012
  36. NJPR, "Experts on NJ Redistricting," accessed October 8
  37. 37.0 37.1 Examiner, "David Larsen announces new NJ-7 Congress run," accessed February 24, 2012
  38. New Jersey Secretary of State, "2012 Primary Results," accessed July 27, 2012
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Leonard Lance," accessed April 16, 2015
  42. Open Secrets, "Leonard Lance 2014 Election Cycle," accessed April 9, 2015
  43. Open Secrets, "Winning vs. Spending," accessed April 9, 2015
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Lance 2014 Summary reports," accessed July 23, 2013
  45. FEC, "April Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  46. FEC, "July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  47. FEC, "October Quarterly," accessed October 25, 2013
  48. FEC, "Year-End Quarterly," accessed February 12, 2014
  49. FEC, "April Quarterly," accessed April 30, 2014
  50. FEC, "Pre-Primary," accessed October 23, 2014
  51. FEC, "July Quarterly," accessed October 23, 2014
  52. FEC, "October Quarterly," accessed October 23, 2014
  53. FEC, "Pre-General," accessed October 23, 2014
  54. Open Secrets, "Leonard Lance 2012 Election Cycle," accessed February 26, 2013
  55. Open Secrets, "Leonard Lance 2010 Election Data," accessed November 29, 2011
  56. Open Secrets, "Leonard Lance (R-NJ), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  57. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  58. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  59. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  60. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  61. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Leonard Lance," accessed September 25, 2014
  62. 62.0 62.1 GovTrack, "Leonard Lance," accessed July 31, 2014
  63. OpenCongress, "Leonard Lance," accessed July 31, 2014
  64. LegiStorm, "Leonard Lance," accessed October 2, 2012
  65. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 31, 2014
  66. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed March 6, 2013
  67. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  68. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  69. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  70. The Pew Forum, "The religious affiliation of each member of Congress," accessed October 16, 2014
Political offices
Preceded by
Mike Ferguson
U.S. House of Representatives - New Jersey, District 7
2009-Present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
Jack Ascherl
New Jersey State Senate - New Jersey, District 23
2003-2009
Succeeded by
Marcia Karrow
Preceded by
C. Richard Kamin
New Jersey General Assembly - New Jersey, District 23
1991-2003
Succeeded by
Michael Doherty

'