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Public education in Maryland

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K-12 Education in Maryland
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Lillian Lowery
Number of students: 854,086[1]
Number of teachers: 57,589
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:14.8
Number of school districts: 25
Number of schools: 1,451
Graduation rate: 84%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $13,871[3]
See also
Maryland Department of Education
Maryland school districts
List of school districts in Maryland
Maryland
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Maryland
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Maryland public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Maryland had 854,086 students enrolled in a total of 1,451 schools in 25 school districts. There were 57,589 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 15 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 239 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Maryland spent $13,871 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it ninth highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 84 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Maryland Superintendent of Education
Maryland school districts
List of school districts in Maryland
Public education in Maryland
School board elections portal
The Maryland State Department of Education is helmed by the Superintendent of Schools, who is appointed by the Maryland State Board of Education to four-year, renewable terms. The current Superintendent of Schools is Lillian Lowery.[6][7]

The State Board of Education is comprised of 12 members appointed by the Governor. With the exception of the student member (who serves for one year), all members serve four-year terms. Board members may serve two full terms.[7]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Maryland State Board of Education adopted the standards on June 22, 2010. Full implementation took place during the 2013-2014 academic year.[8][9]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Maryland compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Maryland 1,451 25 854,086 57,589 1:14.8 1:238.8 $13,871
Delaware 221 44 128,946 8,587 1:15 1:289.8 $12,685
New Jersey 2,596 700 1,356,431 109,719 1:12.4 1:288 $15,968
Virginia 2,170 221 1,257,883 90,832 1:13.8 1:313.2 $10,364
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Maryland as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[10]

Demographic information for Maine's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 2,989 0.35% 1.10%
Asian 50,052 5.86% 4.68%
African American 302,031 35.36% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 1,184 0.14% 0.42%
Hispanic 103,594 12.13% 24.37%
White 362,855 42.48% 51.21%
Two or more 31,381 3.67% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A majority of students in Maryland attend suburban schools. Approximately 77 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 23 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Maryland 16.9% 59.9% 5.3% 18%
Delaware 13.4% 45.2% 17.2% 24.2%
New Jersey 7.2% 80.8% 2% 10%
Virginia 23% 38.8% 6.9% 31.3%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Delaware, New Jersey, and Virginia), Maryland had the highest share of the fourth graders who scored at or above proficient in reading.[11]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Maryland 47 37 45 42
Delaware 42 33 38 33
New Jersey 49 49 42 46
Virginia 47 38 43 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Maryland and surrounding states.[11][12][13]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Maryland 84% Second 22.1 21% 1,483 73%
Delaware 80% Third 22.6 14% 1,351 100%
New Jersey 86% First 23.4 20% 1,521 78%
Virginia 83% Second 22.4 25% 1,528 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Maryland was on par with the national average at 3.3 percent in the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout rate was higher than the national average at 3.8 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[14]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Maryland

School choice options in Maryland include: charter schools and supplemental online learning programs. In addition, about 14.17 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Maryland state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.5 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 1.40 percentage points, or 6.70 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 20.9 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[15][16][17][18][19]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Maryland 19.5% $13,871 9.35% 40.99% 49.67%
Delaware 24.6% $12,685 11.24% 59.59% 29.17%
New Jersey 23.5% $15,968 5.14% 37.06% 57.8%
Virginia 16% $10,364 9.9% 37.11% 52.99%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Maryland totaled approximately $13.4 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Maryland and surrounding states.[20]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Maryland $1,255,964 $5,508,339 $6,674,775 $13,439,078
Delaware $202,501 $1,073,154 $525,263 $1,800,918
New Jersey $1,320,021 $9,521,328 $14,847,190 $25,688,539
Virginia $1,427,301 $5,351,177 $7,639,550 $14,418,028
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Maryland totaled approximately $13 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Maryland and surrounding states.[20]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Maryland $11,818,032 $989,839 $185,991 $12,993,862
Delaware $1,615,778 $184,094 $54,090 $1,853,962
New Jersey $22,686,943 $930,701 $1,393,507 $25,011,151
Virginia $12,964,134 $1,075,067 $425,378 $14,464,579
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Maryland, the average salary increased by 8.4 percent.[21]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Maryland $60,196 $68,285 $64,693 $65,265 8.4%
Delaware $60,724 $60,930 $59,779 $59,679 -1.7%
New Jersey $71,083 $69,523 $68,194 $68,797 -3.2%
Virginia $52,947 $53,388 $49,514 $49,869 -5.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Maryland ranked 23rd overall, or "average," which was in the third of five tiers.[22]

The main unions related to the Maryland school system are the Maryland State Education Association (MSEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA) and AFT Maryland. For the 2003 tax period MSEA had: $13.9 million in total revenue, $13.7 million in total expenses and $11.5 million in total assets.[23] For the same period, AFT Maryland had: $1.1 million in total revenue, $1.1 million in total expenses and $337,687 in total assets.[24]

List of local Maryland school unions:[25]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Maryland government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Maryland Association of Boards of Education.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Maryland ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked 3 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Maryland In-State Tuition Referendum, Question 4 (2012)
  2. Maryland Private School Scholarship, Question 18 (1972)
  3. Maryland Services for Private School Students, Question 14 (1974)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Maryland State Department of Education, "Superintendent's Biography," accessed May 20, 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 Maryland State Department of Education, "Maryland State Board of Education," accessed May 20, 2014
  8. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  9. Maryland State Department of Education, "Maryland's College and Career-Ready Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  10. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  12. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  14. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. 20.0 20.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  21. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  23. Center for Union Facts, "Maryland State Education Association," accessed September 22, 2009
  24. Center for Union Facts, "AFT Maryland," accessed September 22, 2009
  25. Center for Union Facts, "State of Maryland," accessed September 22, 2009