Missouri State Senate
|Missouri State Senate|
|Term limits:||2 terms (8 years)|
|2014 session start:||January 8, 2014|
|Website:||Official Senate Page|
|Senate President:||Peter Kinder (R)|
|Majority Leader:||Ron Richard (R)|
|Minority leader:||Jolie Justus (D)|
Democratic Party (9)
Republican Party (23)Vacant (2)
|Length of term:||4 years|
|Authority:||Art IV, Missouri Constitution|
|Salary:||$35,915/year + per diem|
|Last Election:||November 4, 2014 (17 seats)|
|Next election:||November 8, 2016 (17 seats)|
|Redistricting:||Missouri Legislature Commissions have control|
- 1 Sessions
- 2 Ethics and transparency
- 3 Elections
- 4 Redistricting
- 5 Senators
- 6 Senate Committees
- 7 History
- 8 External links
- 9 References
Half of the senate is up for re-election every two years.
As of November 2014, Missouri is one of 14 states that is under divided government and is therefore not one of the state government trifectas.
Article III of the Missouri Constitution establishes when the Missouri General Assembly, of which the Senate is a part is to meet. Section 20 of Article III states that the General Assembly shall convene its regular session on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January of each year. Section 20 requires the General Assembly to adjourn its regular session by May 30th.
Section 20 of Article III also allows for a special session of the General Assembly to be convened by a joint proclamation of three-fourths of the members of both houses.
- See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions
In 2014, the General Assembly was in session from January 8 through May 19.
- See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions
In 2013, the Legislature was in session from January 9 through May 30.
Major issues during the 2013 legislative session included tax credits, capital improvements, an income tax cut, and a major revision to the state's criminal code.
- See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions
In 2012, the Senate was in session from January 4 through May 30.
The budget was the main focus of the session, as the state faced a $500 million spending gap in January. The agenda at the start of the session also included economic development, Workers Compensation reforms, and overhauling public school funding. Those items joined health care exchanges, birth control, charter schools, and sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine crimes as points of contention and accomplishment over the course of the session.
In 2011, the Senate was in regular session from January 5 through May 30. Governor Jay Nixon called for a special legislative session for September 6, however, the session was called off when Republicans hesitated on a push to overhaul state tax credits and authorize several new incentive programs, including one for a China freight hub in St. Louis. Assembly members were sent home so that they might read the revised 219-page measure over the weekend. According to Senate President Pro Tem Robert Mayer, the "important" bill "needs the attention of every member of this body."
Role in state budget
- See also: Missouri state budget
- Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies in July of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year.
- State agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in October.
- Agency hearings are held from January through April. Public hearings are held in January and February.
- The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in January.
- The legislature typically adopts a budget in April or May. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The fiscal year begins July 1.
The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget. The legislature is not required to pass a balanced budget, but the governor is required to sign one.
The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative released a report in July 2013 which indicated that cost-benefit analysis in policymaking led to more effective uses of public funds. Looking at data from 2008 through 2011, the study's authors found that some states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis while others were facing challenges and lagging behind the rest of the nation. Among the challenges states faced were a lack of time, money and technical skills needed to conduct comprehensive cost-benefit analyses. Missouri was one of the 10 states that used cost-benefit analysis more than the rest of the states with respect to determining return on investment regarding state programs. In addition, these states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis with respect to large budget areas and when making policy decisions.
Ethics and transparency
Following the Money report
- See also: Following the Money 2014 Report
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending. According to the report, Missouri received a grade of C+ and a numerical score of 75, indicating that Missouri was "middling" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.
Open States Transparency
The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. Missouri was given a grade of C in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data is to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A -- Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2014
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate took place in 2014. A primary election was held on August 5, 2014, and a general election on November 4, 2014. The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was March 25, 2014.
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2012
Missouri state senators are subject to term limits and may not serve more than two four-year terms. In 2012, 9 state senators were termed-out.
The following table details the 8 districts with the smallest margin of victory in the November 6 general election.
|2012 Margin of Victory, Missouri State Senate|
|District||Winner||Margin of Victory||Total Votes||Top Opponent|
|District 1||Scott Sifton||1.8%||89,744||Jim Lembke|
|District 17||Ryan Silvey||5.6%||80,488||Sandra Reeves|
|District 3||Gary Romine||7.7%||65,719||Joseph Fallert, Jr.|
|District 25||Doug Libla||12.3%||63,670||Terry Swinger|
|District 19||Kurt Schaefer||15.8%||81,283||Mary Wynne Still|
|District 31||Ed Emery||27.6%||78,368||Charles Burton|
|District 21||David Pearce||34.9%||72,914||ElGene Ver Dught|
|District 13||Gina Walsh||63.3%||82,958||Jacquelyn Thomas|
During the 2012 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $14,925,692. The top 10 contributors were:
|2012 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Missouri Republican State Senate Campaign Committee||$645,706|
|Missouri Club For Growth||$371,665|
|Missouri Republican Party||$286,165|
|Humphreys, David Craig||$240,000|
|Missouri Democratic Party||$188,824|
|Missouri Hospital Association||$180,660|
|Sinquefield, Rex A.||$155,001|
|Dempsey For Senate||$154,125|
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2010
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate were held in Missouri on November 2, 2010. The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in these elections was March 30, 2010 and the primary Election Day was on August 3, 2010.
In 2010, the candidates for state senate raised a total of $12,861,549 in campaign contributions. The top 10 donors were:
|2010 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Majority Fund, Inc.||$707,500|
|Missouri Democratic Party||$581,925|
|Missouri Republican Party||$385,311|
|Citizens for Brad Lager||$347,000|
|Humphreys, David Craig||$277,500|
|Lamping, John T.||$180,003|
|Engler for Missouri||$171,383|
|Herzog, Stanley M.||$160,500|
|Missouri Health & Hospital Association||$153,650|
|Missouri Club for Growth||$144,000|
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2008
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 5, 2008, and a general election on November 4, 2008. A total of 17 seats were up for election.
During the 2008 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $9,291,012. The top 10 contributors were:
|2008 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Missouri Senate Republicans||$348,200|
|Missouri Democratic Party||$97,654|
|Humphreys, David Craig||$95,675|
|Missouri Healthcare Association||$85,917|
|Democratic Senatorial Committee Of Missouri||$77,625|
|Missouri Bankers Association||$68,175|
|3rd Republican Senatorial District Committee||$63,863|
|Missouri Hospital Association||$63,125|
|Citizens For Shields||$62,150|
|Elect Nodler Committee||$59,700|
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2006
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 8, 2006, and a general election on November 7, 2006. A total of 17 seats were up for election.
During the 2006 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $8,555,192. The top 10 contributors were:
|2006 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Holzknecht, Michael D||$231,910|
|Henke, Wayne J.||$101,167|
|Missouri Bankers Association||$92,550|
|23rd Republican Senatorial District Committee||$56,600|
|31st Republican Senatorial District Committee||$50,450|
|Ministers Benefit Association||$50,000|
|Missouri Hospital Association||$45,825|
|14th Republican Legislative District Committeee||$45,000|
|Missouri Democratic Party||$41,441|
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2004
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 3, 2004, and a general election on November 2, 2004. A total of 17 seats were up for election.
During the 2004 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $6,925,632. The top 10 contributors were:
|2004 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Missouri Bankers Association||$111,955|
|Missouri Association Of Trial Attorneys||$56,614|
|34th Republican Senatorial District Committee||$52,925|
|4th Democratic Senatorial District Committee||$40,400|
|Mays, Carol Jean||$33,695|
|Missouri Healthcare Association||$32,200|
|6th Republican Congressional District Committee||$30,875|
|90th Democratic Legislative District Committee||$25,850|
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2002
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 6, 2002, and a general election on November 5, 2002. A total of 17 seats were up for election.
During the 2002 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $6,170,638. The top 10 contributors were:
|2002 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Missouri Republican Party||$107,355|
|Democratic Senatorial Cmte Of Missouri||$99,000|
|Missouri Bankers Association||$94,425|
|Missouri Healthcare Association||$51,850|
|7th Republican Congressional District Cmte||$42,857|
|Missouri Association Of Trial Attorneys||$39,325|
|Missouri Democratic Party||$35,000|
- See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2000
Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 8, 2000, and a general election on November 7, 2000. A total of 17 seats were up for election.
During the 2000 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $4,329,564. The top 10 contributors were:
|2000 Donors, Missouri State Senate|
|Missouri Democratic Party||$297,815|
|Missouri Republican Party||$269,400|
|Ichord, Clara R.||$238,000|
|Howard, Jerry T.||$64,865|
|Missouri Bankers Association||$42,425|
|Gibbons For Congress||$33,203|
|8th Congressional District Republican Committee||$29,500|
|Missouri Association Of Trial Attorneys||$29,050|
|Russell, John T.||$25,000|
To be eligible to serve in the Missouri State Senate, a candidate must be:
- At least 30 years of age
- Qualified Missouri voter for three years before election
- Resident of the district which he is chosen to represent for 1 year before election
- Is not delinquent in the payment of any state income taxes, personal property taxes, real property taxes on the place of residence as stated in the declaration of candidacy
- is not a past or present corporate officer of any fee office that owes any taxes to the state.
- Has not been found guilty of or pled guilty to a felony or misdemeanor under the federal laws of the United States of America.
- Has not been convicted of or found guilty of or pled guilty to a felony under the laws of Missouri.
- In addition to any other penalties provided by law, no person may file for any office in a subsequent election until he or the treasurer of his existing candidate committee has filed all required campaign disclosure reports for all prior elections.
| How Vacancies are filled in State Legislatures |
If a vacancy occurs in the senate, the Governor must call for a special election without delay. There is no time limit specified under law. The mandate for a special election is sent to the election authority in the county that first established the legislative district.
- See also: State legislatures with term limits
The Missouri legislature is one of 15 state legislatures with term limits. Voters enacted the Missouri Term Limits Act in 1992. That initiative said that Missouri senators are subject to term limits of no more than two four-year terms, or a total of eight years.
The first year that the 1992 term limits impacted the ability of incumbents to run for office was in 2002.
- See also: Redistricting in Missouri
Legislative redistricting in Missouri is handled by two bipartisan commissions, one for each chamber, with 10 members in the Senate commission and 18 members in the House commission. The Governor selects these members from lists of nominees submitted by the state committees of the Democratic and Republican parties. Two House commission members must come from each congressional district. This differs from the congressional redistricting method, which involves the Assembly simply passing new maps as routine legislation. If a commission cannot complete the process in six months following appointment, a panel of six appellate judges takes over the process for that particular commission; it cannot interfere with one that has already finished.
Missouri received its local census data on February 24, 2011. The state's population increased by seven percent, with most growth coming in the southern half of the state. The five most populous cities showed mixed outcomes: Kansas City grew by 4.1 percent since the 2000 Census. St. Louis decreased by 8.3 percent, Springfield grew by 5.2 percent, Independence grew by 3.1 percent, and Columbia grew by 28.4 percent.
Since 1970, Missouri has had the courts involved in finishing redistricting; despite the commissions' intent, 2011 did not end that streak. Both commissions came to an impasse in mid-August 2011, and the special court panel took over. On November 30, the panel finalized a new plan.
While the House plan -- which put 34 Republicans and 23 Democrats into incumbent races -- stood, the Missouri Supreme Court rejected the Senate plan. On January 31, 2012, Governor Jay Nixon appointed a new commission for the sake of redrawing the Senate districts. The commission approved a new plan on February 23; the plan -- which weakened Republican districts around St. Louis -- was met with hostility, then a lawsuit. After hearing testimony and tweaking the map, the commission approved the map again on March 12, and the lawsuit was dropped.
- See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries
As of 2013, members of the Missouri House of Representatives are paid $35,915/year. Per diem is $104/day tied to the federal rate. Roll call is used to verify per diem.
When sworn in
Missouri legislators assume office the first day of the legislative session.
- See also: Partisan composition of state senates
|Party||As of November 2014|
List of current members
The Missouri Senate has 18 standing committees:
- Agriculture, Food Production and Outdoor Resources
- Commerce, Consumer Protection, Energy and the Environment
- Financial and Governmental Organizations and Elections
- General Laws
- Governmental Accountability and Fiscal Oversight
- Gubernatorial Appointments
- Jobs, Economic Development and Local Government
- Judiciary and Civil and Criminal Jurisprudence
- Progress and Development|Progress and Development
- Rules, Joint Rules, Resolutions & Ethics
- Seniors, Families and Pensions
- Small Business, Insurance and Industry
- Transportation and Infrastructure
- Veterans' Affairs and Health
- Ways and Means
Partisan balance 1992-2013
From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Missouri State Senate for the first 9 years while the Republicans were the majority for the last 13 years.
Across the country, there were 541 Democratic and 517 Republican state senates from 1992 to 2013.
Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.
SQLI and Partisanship
Missouri was one of eight states to demonstrate a dramatic partisan shift in the 22 years studied. A dramatic shift was defined by a movement of 40 percent or more toward one party over the course of the study period.
The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Missouri state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Missouri had Democratic trifectas from 1993-2000 and Republican trifectas from 2005-2008. Of the 22 years studied, Missouri never finished in the top-10 or bottom-10. It received its highest ranking of 13th overall in 2000, the most recent year of a Democratic trifecta. Its lowest ranking of 23rd overall occurred in 1993 and 2008, both years of which had government trifectas. In 1993 it was a Democratic trifecta, and in 2008 it was a Republican trifecta.
- SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 18.75
- SQLI average with Republican trifecta: 20.00
- SQLI average with divided government: 18.33
- U.S. Census Bureau, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," April 2011
- U.S. Census Bureau, "States Ranked by Population," April 2, 2001
- termlimits.org, "State Legislative Term Limits," accessed December 17, 2013
- KQTV, "Missouri State Legislature Begins 2014 Session," January 8, 2014
- KSMU, "Tax Cuts, Student Transfers May Dominate Missouri Legislature's 2014 Session," January 9, 2014
- KSMU, "Missouri's Legislative Session 2014 Preview," January 6, 2014
- St. Louis Post-Dispatch, "Business issues at top of Republican legislative leaders' agenda in Missouri," January 5, 2013
- St. Louis Beacon, "Missouri legislature opens, with last session's issues at top of agenda," January 4, 2012
- St. Louis Public Radio, "2012 Missouri legislative session ends," May 19, 2012
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "2011 Legislative Sessions Calendar," accessed June 6, 2014(Archived)
- STLtoday.com, "Missouri Senate puts hold on economic development bill," September 9, 2011
- Missouri House of Representatives, "House Journals - 2010 Regular Session," accessed August 4, 2014
- Missouri State Senate, "Daily Journals," accessed August 4, 2014
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
- Pew Charitable Trusts, "States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis," July 29, 2013
- U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
- Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2012 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2010 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2008 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2006 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2004 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2002 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Follow the Money, "Missouri 2000 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
- Missouri Secretary of State, "Elected Officials Qualifications," accessed December 17, 2013
- Missouri General Assembly, "Missouri Revised Statutes," accessed December 17, 2013(Referenced Statute 21.110)
- Missouri General Assembly, "Missouri Revised Statutes," accessed December 17, 2013(Referenced Statute 21.120)
- U.S. Census Bureau, "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Missouri's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting," February 24, 2011
- NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013
- Missouri State Senate, "List of Members, Officers, Committees and Rules of the Senate," accessed August 4, 2014
State of Missouri
Jefferson City (capital)
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Treasurer | State Auditor | Commissioner of Education | Director of Insurance | Director of Agriculture | Director of Natural Resources | Director of Labor & Industrial Relations | Chairman of Public Service Commission |