New York state budget
- 1 Federal Aid to State Budget
- 2 Fiscal Year 2014 State Budget
- 3 Fiscal Year 2013 State Budget
- 4 Fiscal Year 2012 State Budget
- 5 Budget transparency
- 6 Government tools
- 7 Independent transparency sites
- 8 Budget Background
- 9 Accounting principles
- 10 Stimulus
- 11 Public Employees
- 12 External links
- 13 References
|New York state budget|
|GF expenses:||$142.6 billion|
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New York's state legislature passed the $132.6 billion state budget for FY2013 on March 30, 2012, marking the second year in the row the state budget was enacted on time. The budget reduces spending cuts spending by $135 million from FY2012 in part through consolidating agencies. he passed budget can be found online.
In FY2012, New York had a total state debt of approximately $300,066,114,000 when calculated by adding the total of outstanding official debt, pension and other post-employment benefits (OPEB) liabilities, Unemployment Trust Fund loans, and the FY2013 state budget gap. The FY2013 state debt was down from the FY2012 state debt total of $305,308,390,000. New York's total state debt per capita was $15,415.52.
Federal Aid to State Budget
The chart below represents how much of the state’s budget came from the federal government. The number was the corresponding ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (if #1, the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation):
|New York||34.23% (#8)||36.37% (#13)||39.75% (#16)||40.45% (#10)|
- Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue.
Fiscal Year 2014 State Budget
Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos said Republicans planned to pass the state budget before March 28, which would make it the earliest state budget adopted in three decades. Since 1975, 30 budgets had been adopted late, after the April 1 deadline. Lawmakers enacted three budgets, including the FY2013 state budget, early.
Gov. Andrew Cuomo proposed his FY2014 state budget on Jan. 22, 2013.
The governor's proposed $142.6 billion budget was a 5.3 percent increase over the FY2013 budget, including federal funds for recovery from Hurricane Sandy and the enactment of the federal health care law. Without that federal money, the increase in state operating funds would be 1.6 percent.
Fiscal Year 2013 State Budget
The FY2013 state budget began on April 1, 2012. Lawmakers passed the $132.6 billion budget on March 30, 2012, one day before the end of the fiscal year. Gov. Andrew Cuomo, Senate Republican leader Dean Skelos and Democratic Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver negotiated much of the budget behind closed doors. The final agreement was on a $132.6 billion budget, counting federal funds. The governor vetoed more than $642,000 in items that were going to 122 local groups statewide from the budget on April 11, 2012.
The enacted budget can be found online.
The budget closed what was a $3.5 billion deficit with a tax increase on joint earners making at least $2 million annually and also in part by finding $1.14 billion in savings from consolidating agencies, purchasing and human resources.
A deficit emerged as the year went on and was pegged at $1 billion in Oct. 2012, and then after Superstorm Sandy caused $33 billion in damage, Gov. Cuomo estimated that the storm would cause "an additional $1 billion deficit on the state side, maybe higher." Comptroller DiNapoli predicted it would lead to a short-term falloff in tax revenues. 
Highlights of the budget included:
- $15 billion for NY Works which focused on infrastructure development and which Cuomo said would create thousands of jobs,
- $13.1 billion for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s five-year capital budget,
- increasing Medicaid and education spending by 4 percent;
- a 10 percent increase in the welfare grant in June;
- $743 million in new state capital projects, with $232 million set aside for bridges and highway projects.
- See also: New York public pensions
Gov. Cuomo signed the pension changes into law on March 15, 2012. The pension changes the legislature approved were less drastic than those sought by Gov. Cuomo, applying to fewer employees and saving $80 billion for the state and local governments in the next 30 years, which was less than the governor had originally hoped. The approved plan, which applies only to new employees, raises the minimum retirement for state workers from 62 to 63 and requires most workers to increase the portion of their salaries that they contribute to the pension system from the current 3 percent to as much as 6 percent for the highest earners. The reforms also include offering a 401(k)- type plan for nonunion workers earning at least $75,000 annually, but unions succeeded in keeping a 401(k)-type option out of the final deal for unionized workers.
New York's school districts would receive $20 billion in state aid for the 2012-2013 school year, an increase of about $750 million, or 3.9 percent, compared to 2011-2012. It was the first increase for education in three years, during which time school funding was cuts or remained flat. The budget included a total of $125 million to be allocated for performance grants, including $50 million in continuing payments to the school districts who would receive awards in the first round of grants, and an additional $75 million for a second round of awards to school districts.
A 2 percent cap on property tax rate growth for FY2013, however, would mean less funding for some school districts. To increase taxes at a rate beyond the cap would require the support of 60 percent of their voters to be approved under state law.
The budget proposed by the Senate Republicans did not include the creation of a health exchange that was called for by President Obama's Affordable Care Act, although Gov. Cuomo and Assembly Democrats favored the creation of one. The governor said he still wanted to include a health insurance exchange in the state budget, but that he could create an exchange by executive order.
Legislature Proposed Budget
The proposed budget from the Senate Republicans, who held a majority, can be found online. It included 4-percent increases in both school aid and health care and a nearly $2 billion deficit. The proposed budget held the annual growth in state spending to 2 percent, the same cap imposed on local governments and school districts last year.
The budget also included tax cuts that Senate leaders said would be paid for by cuts to program. The incentives include:
- 20 percent corporate tax cut worth $65 million to 200,000 small businesses;
- 10 percent tax cut for 800,000 small business filing under personal income tax status, saving employers $120 million.
The Assembly's proposed budget can be found online.
Legislators wanted to set aside $750 million of the increase for general school aid. That would leave Cuomo with $50 million for the competitive program, which was what he secured for the current fiscal year.
Governor's Proposed Budget
The Governor unveiled his proposed $132.5 billion FY2013 state budget in January 2012 and it can be found here. The budget proposal increased school aid and used $250 million of the $800 million increase for competitive grants to reward performance and innovation.
The governor's proposed budget included a new, less lucrative pension tier that would save local governments money on their contributions to the state pension system. The plan raises the retirement age for new workers to 65 from 62 and gives employees a choice of a 401(k)-type retirement plan instead of a government pension.
“The Executive Budget contains a number of projections that should be considered uncertain, not only because of a vulnerable economy, but also because of other variables,” according to Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli. One of the projections was a 5 percent increase in lottery revenue in the 2012-13 fiscal year, to nearly $2.2 billion, despite slumping sales at the time of the projection.
Under the governor's proposed budget, nonpublic schools would receive approximately $117 million, or a 13% increase, to carry out administrative duties the state requires, such as taking attendance, giving standardized tests and running immunization programs. Under the Assembly's plan, nonpublic schools would see $118 million, and the Senate's plan would give them $133 million.
A report released on August 2, 2011, by the Division of the Budget predicts a budget deficit of $4.6 billion in FY 2015. Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli said on Nov. 10, 2011, that the state's revenues would be $1.26 billion less than estimates, and spending would be $254 million more than projected over the coming three years.
Comptroller DiNapoli also warned that the Governor's proposed budget eliminated certain aspects of budget transparency. The budget would increase the governor's control over the budget process, and exempt certain agency contracts from the comptroller's review process as required by law. It would centralize all contract services in the Office of General Services. DiNapoli stated that the budget would give the governor the ability to shift spending among agencies with "minimal oversight or legislative input."
Fiscal Year 2012 State Budget
- See also: Archived New York state budgets
New York's state legislature passed the $132.5 billion state budget for FY2012 on March 31, 2011, marking the first time since 2006 that the state budget had been approved ahead of the April 1 deadline for doing so. The state's fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 30. The budget did not increase taxes or rely on borrowing. It reduced spending by 1%, but relied on spending cuts that had not yet been specified.
Gov. Cuomo missed the deadline for his midyear financial plan update for FY2012, which was due Oct. 31, 2011.  As of the end of October 2011, midway through its fiscal year, the state collected collected $584 million less in revenue than anticipated. The governor announced in Nov. 2011 that the state budget had a shortfall of $350 million.
The governor and lawmakers agreed to an overhaul of the state's income tax system in December 2011 which would generate $1.9 billion in annual revenue; a surcharge expiring at the end of 2011had been generating about $4 billion a year. Under the new plan, tax rates would range from 6.45 percent for income between $40,000 and $150,000 (for married couples) to 8.82 percent for income over $2 million. Tax brackets would be indexed to the rate of inflation and would take effect in 2012. The new top tax bracket would extend through 2014; the others would be permanent. A special session of the legislature began on Dec. 8, 2011 to vote on the changes.
The legislature passed the completed budget on March 31, 2011, marking the first time since 2006 that the budget had been passed prior to the start of the fiscal year. The budget did not raise taxes and did not rely on borrowing. It relies on spending cuts but at the time the budget was passed, lawmakers did not specify exactly what spending cuts would be made, although some cuts were made public. The enacted budget can be found here. Overall, total spending in the budget was 2.2% lower than FY2011, or $1.4 billion less, largely the result of reduced spending on public schools.
New York's Fiscal Year 2012 begins on April 1, 2011, and the state faced a budget deficit of $9 billion before passing the budget that eliminated the deficit with spending cuts. Under the agreement between the governor and lawmakers, overall spending would decrease to erase a $10 billion deficit without raising taxes. The budget caps spending on education and cuts government agencies, authorities and commissions by 20%.
According to the Division of the Budget, the budget projections were on track through the first quarter of the fiscal year. In the second quarter, however, tax revenue were nearly $400 million — or 1.2% — below forecasts. ”If these trends continue, the state may need to adjust its revenue projections downward,” said Comptroller DiNapoli.
The Civil Service Employees Association, the state's largest public-employee union representing 66,000 state workers, made a deal with Gov. Cuomo that includes a three-year wage freeze, the first furloughs ever for state workers and an increase in the amount employees must pay toward their health insurance. The employee share of health care premiums would rise to between 12 percent and 16 percent based on the employee's salary. It also includes pay raises of 2 percent in the fourth and fifth years of the contract, which must be ratified by union members. If other unions in the state ratify deals with similar concessions, the state would save $73 million in FY2012, and as much as $1.6 billion over five years. The union agreed to the plan to avoid the layoff of 9,800 state employees called for in the budget should public employee unions not make concession to save money. The budget, however, calls for $450 million in savings in pay and benefits.
The Public Employees Federation, the second-largest union of New York State employees, however, initially rejected the wage and benefits concessions with 56% voting against the contract. Shortly after learning the results of the vote, the governor's office announced that they would lay off 3,500 workers.  The union and the governor struck a last minute deal on Oct. 16, 2011, that includes only minor changes to the one the union initially rejected but avoided the 3,500 layoffs days before they were to begin. The deal calls for no salary increases for three years, with a raise of 2 percent for 2014, as well as reimbursement for nine furlough days payable at the end of the agreement, the union said. Once approved by the union’s executive board, which would consider it on Monday, he would suspend the layoffs until Nov. 4, 2011, to allow time for the federation’s 55,000 members to vote on whether to ratify the revised contract.
Fifty-nine percent of Civil Service Employees Association union members approved the deal on Aug. 15, 2011.
The Public Employees Federation, the other major union representing 56,000 state workers, would vote in September 2011 on a nearly identical contract.
Under the budget, the public schools would receive 6% less funding in the 2011-12 school year. The budget agreement kept state education spending flat at around $20 billion, but for districts that relied on the two-year surge of federal stimulus dollars, the state budget would feel like a deeper cut. School districts had warned that the cuts could force them to raise property taxes, which were already among the highest in the nation.
The final budget restored $230 million to the $23 billion allotted for state spending on K-12. The governor’s proposed property tax cap was gone, which was good news for schools in need of tax revenue. New York City schools were also particularly shortchanged because their expected allocation of state aid of $6.2 billion was cut by $840 million.
The budget limited Medicaid growth to 4%, mandates higher wages for home-health aides, and creates a new fund to help hospitals pay for the costs of treating brain-damaged babies. It caps annual Medicaid spending at $15.3 billion, reducing Medicaid spending by $2.8 billion. It capped also capped Medicaid spending at $15.9 billion in 2012-2013.
The governor created a Medicaid Redesign Team, which announced in October 2011 that it had saved nearly $600 million in savings in its first six months of existence, although the program enrollment had grown in that time period. The governor's office had said Medicaid spending was in line with projections, but had pointed to increasing enrollment as a fiscal risk. The New York Medicaid system covers 4.96 million people, almost a quarter of the total state population, as of Oct. 2011.
Courts and Corrections
The budget cut the court system by an additional $70 million, for a total of $170 million. Days after the budget was passed, the state’s chief administrative judge instructed judges to close their courtrooms one half hour early to avoid paying overtime to court personnel such as court clerks and court officers.
The budget eliminates 3,700 prison beds across the state.
On July 20, 2011, the governor's administration urged a state commission considering whether to increase the pay of New York judges to exercise restraint and "consider the state's fiscal outlook." Judges had not received a raise in 12 years and argued that they had been treated unfairly.
Other Spending Cuts
The budget includes the consolidation of the state's Banking and Insurance departments into a single agency to be known as the Department of Financial Services.
- $170 million budget reduction for the Office of Court Administration
- 10% reductions in the budgets of the executive branch, and the offices of the Attorney General and the Comptroller
- agency budget cuts of 10%, nearly across the board
- $54 million in other miscellaneous cuts
- $1 billion or more of Medicaid cuts haven't been fleshed out but exist merely as vaguely defined targets.
- $70 million in cuts to the state's court system.
The governor and Senate Republicans rejected the Assembly Democrats proposal of a special "millionaire's tax."
New York, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg strongly opposed the budget agreement and said that the spending cuts to New York City were an "outrage." Prior to the agreement, the city was planning on cutting 6,100 teachers, 20 fire companies and 100 senior centers, but believed that the agreement between the governor and legislature would require it to make additional cuts.
Governor's Proposed Budget
Gov. Andrew Cuomo presented his $132.9 billion proposed budget to the state legislature on Feb. 1, 2011. Gov. Cuomo's budget proposed cutting $1.5 billion education and $1 billion Medicaid to close a $10 billion deficit. He proposed no new or increased taxes.
Governor Cuomo said that to get the budget under control he would freeze salary increases for state employees and cap state spending as well as consolidate the number of state agencies, commissions and authorities to save 20%. Cuomo said contracts for 96% of the state workforce were up for renegotiation on April 1, the first day of fiscal year 2012, and he intended to keep them at their current levels. Cuomo said he planned to save $450 million in state employee contracts and that if he was unable to did so, he would then had to consider laying off up to 9,800 workers. State contracts with the Public Employees Federation and the Civil Service Employees Association expire at the end of March.
Gov. Cuomo, said he would cut his $179,000 salary by 5% and that he intended to reduce other salaries of the governor's staff, including the governor's secretary, counsel, director of state operations, counselor and chief of staff.
Cuomo said that he would not support increases in personal, corporate or sales taxes despite the state's large deficit. There were two minor fee increases expected to raise $19.5 million. Cuomo proposed a horse racing purse surcharge of 2.75 percent and an increase in an unexplained "clearance registrar fee," to $60 from $5. They were expected to raise $19.5 million. Cuomo proposed a horse racing purse surcharge of 2.75 percent and an increase in an unexplained "clearance registrar fee," to $60 from $5.
The 2011-12 Executive Budget Briefing Book can be found online.
Public Employee Unions and Pensions
In May 2011 the governor proposed pension reforms, including raising the minimum retirement age to 65, ending early retirement and requiring higher contributions from employees. The changes would be effective only for new employees hired after the law was passed. The plan would save $93 billion over 30 years. The Civil Service Employees Association opposed the changes.
Labor unions and Democrats had said that the governor should seek higher taxes on the wealthy to avoid cuts.
New York government spending was partially transparent and currently had several transparency resources as listed below. The first two were government sponsored, while the third was sponsored by the Empire Center.
- Open Book New York was created by State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli.
- Project Sunlight was created by State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo.
- See Through NY was created by the Empire Center for New York State Policy.
- See also: Evaluation of New York state website
The following table is helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by a state spending and transparency database:
|State Database||Searchability||Grants||Contracts||Line Item Expenditures||Dept/Agency Budgets||Public Employee Salary|
|Open Book New York|
Limitations and Suggestions for Improvements
Public employee salaries should be placed online, as should specific spending details and line-item expenditures.
Multi-Measure Budget Transparency Profile
The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois created a multi-measure transparency profile for New York, which measures state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measure both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presents four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.
U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report
- See also: Following the Money 2014 Report
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending. According to the report, New York received a grade of B+ and a numerical score of 88, indicating that New York was an "advancing" state in terms of transparency regarding state spending.
The initial phases in creating the state budget begin long before the fiscal year to which it applies. Every summer, the Division of the Budget (DOB) sends a call letter to state agencies that sets out the Governor’s priorities for the year, anticipated fiscal constraints and a schedule for submitting budget requests. The DOB is responsible for analyzing agencies' requests and aiding the Governor in creating the final state budget.
Agencies usually submit their budget requests to the DOB by early fall. The DOB and State Comptroller must release a detailed estimate of anticipated income and expenses by November 5. The DOB evaluates the budget requests in light of trends in income and spending, assesses the state’s economic situation and presents their recommendations to the Governor.
By mid-January (or February 1st following a gubernatorial election year), the Governor must submit his budget plan to the legislature along with related appropriation, revenue and budget bills. Along with the Executive Budget, the Governor must submit the State’s Five-Year Financial Plan, Five-Year Capital Program and Financing Plan, and any financial information supporting the Executive Budget. The legislature then analyzes the Governor’s proposals, holds public hearings and works with the DOB in evaluating the proposed budget measures. Both houses of the legislature must agree on the income and spending appropriations in the budget bill and submit the amended budget to the Governor for his approval. The budget was then sent to the Governor for approval, and a final state budget was created for the upcoming fiscal year.
In approving the final state budget, the Governor may use a line-item veto to cancel out specific provisions without having to veto the bill in its entirety. The state legislature can override the Governor's veto only by a 2/3 vote by the members of each house.
The New York Comptroller audits state agencies, public authorities, and all local governments in New York State, including New York City. The Comptroller's reports are published online. The State Comptroller is New York State's chief fiscal officer. The breadth and scope of its responsibilities were unique among the states including:
The Institute for Truth in Accounting (IFTA) rates New York “Tardy” in filing the state’s Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) – The annual report of state and local governmental entities. IFTA rated 22 states timely, 22 states tardy, and 6 states as worst. IFTA did not consider New York's CAFRs, and those of the other states, to be accurate representations of the state’s financial condition because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis did not include significant liabilities for the pension plans and for other post employment benefits, such as health care. New York's CAFRs were prepared and published online by the New York Comptroller. FY 2009's CAFR had been completed and publicly posted timely.
New York received $14.90 billion in federal stimulus funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act between February 2009 and June 2013.
According to 2011 Census data, the state of New York and local governments in the state employed a total of 1,345,404 people. Of those employees, 1,086,607 were full-time employees receiving a net pay of $5.97 billion per month and 258,796 were part-time employees paid $325.8 million per month.
- State Budget Solutions, New York
- 2010-11 Executive Budget
- Model transparency legislation from the American Legislative Exchange Council was available at this link.
- Empire Center for New York State Policy
- Manhattan Institute for Policy Research
- Bloomberg Businessweek "Cuomo’s $132.6 Billion Budget Approved by New York Lawmakers" March 30, 2012
- FY2013 Budget
- National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting" April 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "New York State Passes Budget" March 31, 2011
- State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' third annual State Debt Report shows total state debt over $4 trillion" Aug. 28, 2012
- State Budget Solutions “Report reveals aggregate state debt exceeds $4 trillion” Oct. 24, 2011
- State Budget Solutions "State debt more than $37,000 per private worker, $13,000 per capita" Oct. 2, 2012
- US Census Federal Aid to State and Local Governments
- Tax Foundation' "Monday Map: Federal Aid to State Budgets. Accessed October 15, 2013
- The Auburn Citizen "Eye on NY: State legislators hoping for early budget" Jan. 13, 2013
- The New York Times "Cuomo Builds Proposed Budget With Cuts, Gambling and Fees" Jan. 22, 2013
- The Wall Street Journal "NY's budget: A short course in politics, numbers" March 24, 2012
- The Wall Street Journal "With Battles Over, State Budget Set" March 27, 2012
- The New York Daily News "Gov. Cuomo trims more than $642,000 in legislative pork from state budget" April 12, 2012
- Enacted FY2013 Budget
- Businessweek "Cuomo’s New York Budget Ties School Funding to Teacher Grading" Jan. 17, 2012
- The Albany Times Union "Cuomo says Sandy adds $1B to deficit" Nov. 8, 2012
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- NY1.com "Cuomo Signs New Pension Deal Into Law" March 16, 2012
- The New York Times "New York Lawmakers Vote to Limit Public Pensions" March 15, 2012
- The Democrat and Chronicle "Some win, some lose in New York state budget deal" April 1, 2012
- The Democrat and Chronicle "Some win, some lose in New York state budget deal" April 1, 2012
- Businessweek "NY schools, taxpayers wary of tax cap budget hits" March 29, 2012
- Office of the Governor "Governor Cuomo, Majority Leader Skelos, and Speaker Silver Announce Early Passage of 2012-2013 Budget" March 30, 2012
- Businessweek "Governor, NY Legislature turn to passing budget" March 19, 2012
- The Albany Times Union "A.M. Roundup: Piecing together the budget" March 26, 2012
- Senate Proposed FY2013 Budget
- The Wall Street Journal "NY Senate pushes tax cuts, incentives in jobs bill" March 7, 2012
- Assembly Proposed FY 2013 Budget
- The Albany Times Union "Details of Cuomo's budget proposal" Jan. 18, 2012
- Bloomberg "NYC Mayor Bloomberg Backs Governor Cuomo’s Pension Overhaul" Jan. 24, 2012
- Politics on the Hudson "Some Risky Revenue In Cuomo’s State Budget Plan" Feb. 7, 2012
- The Wall Street Journal "Albany Boosts Private Schools" March 20, 2012
- WNYC.org "State budget report: $4.6 billion gap by 2015" Aug. 3, 2011
- The Ithaca Journal "State budget woes worsening, DiNapoli warns" Nov. 10, 2011
- "DiNapoli: Cuomo Risks Transparency in State Budget Proposal," Politics on the Hudson, February 7, 2012
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- International Business Times "Not There Yet: U.S. States Can't Meet Revenue Forecasts" Nov. 24, 2011
- The New York Times "Albany Tax Deal to Raise Rate for Highest Earners" Dec. 6, 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "New York’s Sluggish Tax Trends Worry DiNapoli" Oct. 19, 2011
- Bloomberg "New York State Faces $315 Million Budget Deficit on Lower Tax Collections" Nov. 1, 2010
- "New York State Mid-Year Financial Plan Update 2010-11 through 2013-14" Nov. 1, 2010
- CNN.com "N.Y. governor, legislature agree on state budget" March 28, 2011
- The New York Times "In Albany, a Labor Pact Without Attacks on Unions" Aug. 16, 2011
- The New York Times "Cuomo Secures Big Givebacks in Union Deal" June 22, 2011
- [The second-largest union of New York State employees rejected a package of wage and benefits concessions The New York Times "State Workers’ Union Rejects Contract, Risking 3,500 Layoffs" Sept. 27, 2011]
- The New York Times "Union’s Deal With Cuomo May Prevent 3,500 Layoffs" Oct. 16, 2011
- Businessweek "New York Union Deal Averts Layoffs Until Full Membership Vote" Oct. 17, 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "Cuomo, Legislature Strike a Deal on Budget" March 28, 2011
- The New York Times "Gov. Cuomo’s Budget" April 1, 2011
- Reuters "NY legislature passes $132 billion budget, no new taxes" March 31, 2011
- The Albany Times Union "Medicaid overhaul saves $600M" Oct. 6, 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "N.Y. Budget Gap Seen" Oct. 28, 2011
- The New York Times "State’s Judges Told to Shut Courtrooms Earlier to Cut Costs" April 6, 2011
- The New York Times "Caution Urged on Raises for State Judges" July 20, 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "State Budget would Change Regulatory Landscape" March 30, 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "Mayor Slams State Budget's Effects on City" March 29, 2011
- The New York Times "Bloomberg Calls State Budget Deal an ‘Outrage’" March 28, 2011
- Yahoo! News "Cuomo slashes spending, freezes taxes in NY budget" Feb. 1, 2011
- MoneyCNN.com "New governors:Budget cuts not tax hikes" Nov. 15, 2010
- CNNMoney.com "States in fiscal mess: N.Y. governor cuts his pay" Jan. 3, 2010
- phttp://www.timesunion.com/default/article/State-jobs-pacts-in-play-997843.php#ixzz1D6ARh3B8 The Albany Times-Union "State jobs pacts in play" Feb. 4, 2011]
- 2011-2012 Executive Budget Briefing Book
- NY1.com "Cuomo's Proposed Pension Reform Met With Union Backlash" May 16, 2011
- The Wall Street Journal "Budget Battles Roil Straitened States" Feb. 25, 2011
- Open Book New York
- Project Sunlight
- See Through NY
- Institute of Government and Public Affairs
- University of Illinois Transparency Profile for New York
- [ University of Illinois 50 State Transparency Comparison
- University of Illinois State Transparency Profiles
- U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
- Division of the Budget, Division of the Budget Review
- Division of the Budget, Legislative Action
- The New York Office of the State Comptroller Web site, retrieved November 2, 2009
- The Comptroller's audit reports
- Institute for Truth in Accounting, “The Truth About Balanced Budgets—A Fifty State Study,” Page 35
- New York Office of the State Comptroller Web site, retrieved November 2, 2009
- State of Indiana, “State Credit Ratings-as of June 24, 2009"
- Pew Stateline Infographic on State Credit Ratings. Accessed September 27, 2013
- Recovery, "Stimulus Spending by State"
- 2011 New York Public Employment U.S. Census Data