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Niki Tsongas

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Niki Tsongas
Niki Tsongas.jpg
U.S. House, Massachusetts, District 3
In office
October 16, 2007-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2017
Years in position 8
PredecessorJim McGovern (D)
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 4, 2014
Cost per vote$6.79 in 2012
First electedOctober 16, 2007
Next generalNovember 8, 2016
Campaign $$6,850,301
Term limitsN/A
Bachelor'sSmith College
J.D.Boston University
Date of birthApril 26, 1946
Place of birthChico, California
ProfessionAttorney, social worker
Net worth(2012) $4,550,021.50
Office website
Campaign website
Niki Tsongas (b. April 26, 1946, in Chico, CA) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Massachusetts' 3rd Congressional District. Tsongas was first elected to the House in a 2007 special election replacing Rep. Marty Meehan, who resigned to become the Chancellor of University of Massachusetts Lowell. Tsongas is currently serving her fifth consecutive term. Tsongas previously served Massachusetts' 5th Congressional District but due to 2010 redistricting, she now represents District 3.[1]

Tsongas won re-election to Massachusetts' 3rd Congressional District in 2014. She defeated challenger Roseann Ehrhard Wofford (R) in the general election.[2] She was unopposed in the primary and faced Roseann Ehrhard Wofford (R) in the general election.[3]

Prior to her congressional career, Tsongas worked in the Department of Welfare. She also opened Lowell, Massachusetts' first all-female law firm.[1]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Tsongas is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning she will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.


Tsongas was born in Chico, CA. Her father, Colonel Russell Elmer Sauvage, was an engineer in the United States Air Force and survived the devastating attacks on Pearl Harbor.[4] After finishing high school in Japan, where her father was stationed, Niki spent one year at Michigan State University before transferring to Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. She then went on to get a law degree at Boston University. In 1969, she married the late Paul Tsongas, a former Massachusetts Congressman and Senator. She has three daughters.

Tsongas worked as a social worker for the Department of Welfare before opening the first all-female law practice in Lowell, Massachusetts. From 1997 to 2009, she was Dean of External Affairs at Middlesex Community College. She has served as a member of Congress since 2007.[5]


Below is an abbreviated outline of Tsongas' academic, professional and political career:[6]

Committee assignments

U.S. House


Tsongas serves on the following committees:[7]


Tsongas served on the following committees:[8][9]


Tsongas served on the following committees:

Key votes

113th Congress


The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 114 out of the 3,036 introduced bills (3.8 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session.[12] For more information pertaining to Tsongas's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[13]

National security


Yea3.png Tsongas voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[14]

DHS Appropriations

Yea3.png Tsongas voted in support of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[14]


Farm bill

Nay3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, known as the Farm Bill.[15] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill provides for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[16][17] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[17] Tsongas voted with 102 other Democratic representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[18][19] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[19] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[20] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency, and the protection of the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Tsongas joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[18][19]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[21] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[22] Tsongas voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[23]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[24] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Tsongas voted for HR 2775.[25]

Tsongas said she "will not accept a paycheck for the duration of the government shutdown."[26]

Farm bill

See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

Nay3.png Tsongas voted against the Farm Bill on July 11, 2013. The bill passed in a 216-208 vote.[27] The bill passed included farm policy, but did not include food stamps.[28]


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Tsongas voted in opposition of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245-182 and was largely along party lines.[14]


Repealing Obamacare

Nay3.png Tsongas has voted against all attempts to repeal or delay the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[29]

Social issues


Nay3.png Tsongas voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228-196. The purpose of the bill was to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[30]

Previous congressional sessions

Tsongas voted for TARP.[31] According to a Gallup poll from September 13, 2010, 61% of Americans disapproved of TARP, while 37% approved.[32]

Tsongas also supported the auto bailout.[33] As of September 13, 2010, 56% of Americans disapproved of the auto bailout, while 43% supported it.[34]

In addition, Rep. Tsongas voted for the stimulus bill.[35] A total of 57 percent of U.S. voters believed that the stimulus had hurt the economy (36 percent) or had no impact (21 percent). Only 38 percent believed the stimulus helped the economy.[36]

Tsongas also voted in favor of the "Cash for Clunkers" bill.[37] According to a June 2009 Rasmussen Reports poll, 54% of likely U.S. voters opposed Cash for Clunkers, while 35% supported it.[38]

Tsongas supported the "Cap and Trade" bill.[39] Just after the bill’s passage, 42 percent of likely U.S. voters said that cap and trade would hurt the economy, while 19 percent believed it would help. Only 15 percent said that the bill would have no impact.[40]

Finally, Tsongas voted in favor of the health care reform bill.[41] Roughly 57% of likely voters at least somewhat favored repeal of the health care reform bill, including 46% who strongly favored repeal. About 35% of likely voters opposed repeal. A total of 51% of likely voters believed the health care reform bill will be bad for the country, while 36% believed it will be beneficial.[42]

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Tsongas voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. She was 1 of 172 Democrats that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257-167 vote on January 1, 2013.[43]


On The Issues Vote Match

Niki Tsongas's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis was conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Tsongas is a Liberal Populist. Tsongas received a score of 58 percent on social issues and 6 percent on economic issues.[44]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[45]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Unknown
Absolute right to gun ownership Opposes Human needs over animal rights Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Unknown
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Favors
Privatize Social Security Strongly Opposes Never legalize marijuana Favors
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[44]

National security

American response in Syria

See also: United States involvement in Syria

On August 29, 2013, more than 50 House Democrats signed a letter written by California Rep. Barbara Lee that called for a congressional resolution on strikes, and cautioned that the dire situation in Syria "should not draw us into an unwise war—especially without adhering to our constitutional requirements."[46][47] The letter also called on the Obama administration to work with the U.N. Security Council “to build international consensus” condemning the alleged use of chemical weapons. Tsongas was one of the 50 Democrats in the House to sign the letter.[46][47]


King Amendment

Tsongas signed a letter sent to Collin Peterson in August 2013, asking him to keep Steve King's amendment out of the final Farm Bill.[48] The "Protect Interstate Commerce Act" amendment prevents states from applying their own laws on agricultural products to agricultural products from another state.[49]. King introduced the amendment in response to a law in California, requiring a larger size cage for egg-producing chickens. King represents Iowa, which is a large egg producer.

Campaign themes


On her campaign website, Tsongas listed eight issues. They were:[50]

  • Jobs and Economy

On her website, Tsongas said, "Because this recession has affected people who never expected to need help, and I believe government can be the catalyst to jumpstarting our economy."

  • Support Troops and Veterans

On her website, Tsongas said, "Because these are the people I grew up with and as a member of the Armed Services Committee, it is my responsibility to support and protect the men and women serving on our behalf, and our veterans whose lives have been changed forever by the experience of war."

  • Deficit Reduction

On her website, Tsongas said, "As a member of the Budget Committee, I know we cannot continue to mortgage the future of our children and grandchildren by charging government expenses on the national credit card. Crafting a budget for the nation must be done responsibly and with an understanding of the long term consequences of our choices."

  • Education

On her website, Tsongas said, "I believe there are few issues as vital to our economic future as developing a trained and educated workforce."

  • Dignified Retirement

On her website, Tsongas said, "Because if you’ve worked hard your whole life like my parents did, you deserve to be able to rely on your savings, pension and the solid foundation of Social Security."

  • Energy

On her website, Tsongas said, "Because addressing climate change and reducing our dependence on foreign oil is not just about solving the global warming problem facing the next generation – it has the immediate effect of creating high paying job opportunities if we invest in alternative technologies now."

  • Hold institutions accountable

On her website, Tsongas said, "For our long-term success, we need to guarantee that financial firms have the tools they need to help grow the economy but also have the safeguards necessary to prevent another crisis."

  • Defend rights of the people

On her website, Tsongas said, "I have advocated for the extension of equal rights, the repeal of discriminatory laws like Don’t Ask Don’t Tell, the elimination of hate-motivated violence, and the improved health and well being for all, regardless of sexual orientation, gender, or expression."[50]



See also: Massachusetts' 3rd Congressional District elections, 2014

Tsongas won re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. She ran unopposed in the Democratic primary on September 9, 2014, and defeated Roseann Ehrhard Wofford (R) in the general election on November 4, 2014.[3]

U.S. House, Massachusetts District 3 General Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngNiki Tsongas Incumbent 60.3% 139,140
     Republican Ann Wofford 35.4% 81,638
     Write-in Other 0.1% 204
     Blank None 4.3% 9,843
Total Votes 230,825
Source: Massachusetts Secretary of State Official Results


See also Redistricting in Massachusetts and United States House of Representatives elections in Massachusetts, 2012

Due to redistricting, Tsongas sought re-election in the 3rd Congressional District of Massachusetts. She faced no opposition in the Democratic primary on September 6, 2012.[51]

U.S. House, Massachusetts District 3 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngNiki Tsongas Incumbent 63.3% 212,119
     Republican Jon Golnik 32.6% 109,372
     N/A All Others 0.1% 262
     N/A Blank Votes 4% 13,358
Total Votes 335,111
Source: Massachusetts Secretary of State "Return of Votes"

Full history

Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Tsongas attends.

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Tsongas is available dating back to 2008. Based on available campaign finance records, Tsongas raised a total of $6,850,301 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[55]

Niki Tsongas's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 3) Won $1,606,981
2010 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 5) Won $1,950,422
2008 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 5) Won $3,292,898
Grand Total Raised $6,850,301

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Tsongas reports.[56]

Niki Tsongas (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[57]April 15, 2013$132,330.92$82,330.55$(52,218.86)$162,442.61
July Quarterly[58]July 15, 2013$162,442.16$205,865.00$(90,440.65)$277,866.96
October Quarterly[59]October 15, 2013$277,866.96$110,748.92$(105,357.40)$283,258.48
Year-end[60]January 31, 2014$283,258$142,763$(89,754)$336,266
April Quarterly[61]April 15, 2014$336,266$134,125$(108,928)$361,463
Running totals


Tsongas won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Tsongas' campaign committee raised a total of $1,606,982 and spent $1,440,655.[62]

Cost per vote

Tsongas spent $6.79 per vote received in 2012.


Tsongas won re-election to the U.S. House in 2010. In that cycle, she raised a total of $1,950,442 and spent $1,932,912.[63]

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a two-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of two different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by, Tsongas's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $1,225,045 and $7,874,998. That averages to $4,550,021.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Tsongas ranked as the 76th most wealthy representative in 2012.[64] Between 2007 and 2012, Tsongas' calculated net worth[65] decreased by an average of 13 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[66]

Niki Tsongas Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
Growth from 2007 to 2012:-63%
Average annual growth:-13%[67]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[68]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

PGI: Donation Concentration Metric

See also: The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

Filings required by the Federal Election Commission report on the industries that give to each candidate. Using campaign filings and information calculated by, Ballotpedia calculated the percentage of donations by industry received by each incumbent over the course of his or her career (or 1989 and later, if elected prior to 1988). Tsongas received the most donations from individuals and PACs employed by the Lawyers/Law Firms industry.

From 2007-2014, 23.9 percent of Tsongas' career contributions came from the top five industries as listed below.[69]

Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png
Niki Tsongas Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $7,788,726
Total Spent $7,318,606
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$621,874
Real Estate$402,027
Women's Issues$336,946
Securities & Investment$199,594
% total in top industry7.98%
% total in top two industries13.15%
% total in top five industries23.9%


Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Tsongas was a "moderate Democratic follower," as of August 4, 2014. Tsongas was rated as a "rank-and-file Democrat" in June 2013.[70]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[71]

Tsongas most often votes with:

Tsongas least often votes with:

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Tsongas missed 183 of 5,276 roll call votes from October 2007 to August 2014, which is 3.5% of votes during that period. This is worse than the median of 2.5% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[72]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Tsongas paid her congressional staff a total of $1,079,583 in 2011. She ranked 65th on the list of the highest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 85th overall of the highest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Massachusetts ranked 2nd in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[73]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year, National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted, as compared to other members, in the previous year. More information about the analysis process can be found on the vote ratings page.


Tsongas ranked 95th in the liberal rankings in 2013.[74]


Tsongas ranked 78th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[75]


Tsongas ranked 106th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[76]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.


Tsongas voted with the Democratic Party 94.7 percent of the time, which ranked 46th among the 204 House Democratic members as of August 2014.[77]


Tsongas voted with the Democratic Party 95.6 percent of the time, which ranked 15th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[78]


Tsongas was married to Paul Tsongas, who died in 1997. She has three daughters.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Niki + Tsongas + Massachusetts + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Niki Tsongas News Feed

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See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 Campaign website, "Meet Niki," accessed September 23, 2013
  2. Politico, "House Election Results," accessed November 4, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 Politico, "2014 Massachusetts House Primaries Results," accessed September 9, 2014
  4. Official U.S. House Website, "Biography," accessed December 4, 2011
  5. Washington Post, "Who Runs Gov," accessed December 1, 2011
  6. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "TSONGAS, Nicola S. (Niki), (1946 - )," accessed February 10, 2015
  7. U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Clerk, "Committee Information," accessed February 18, 2015
  8., "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  9. U.S. House of Representatives, "Committee assignments," accessed March 31, 2014
  10. House Armed Services Committee, "Members" accessed 2012
  11. Natural Resources Committee, "Members," accessed 2012
  12. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  13. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Project Vote Smart, "Representative Niki Tsongas' Voting Records on National Security," accessed September 23, 2013
  15. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  16. Politico, "House clears Farm Bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  18. 18.0 18.1, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  20. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  21. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  23. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  24. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  25. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  26. Washington Post, "Which lawmakers will refuse their pay during the shutdown?," accessed October 2, 2013
  27. Vote Smart, "Tsongas on Farm Bill 2013," accessed September 23, 2013
  28. New York Times, "House Republicans Push Through Farm Bill, Without Food Stamps," accessed September 17, 2013
  29.,S,R,F,P#.UkCTeIakrMk Project Vote Smart, "Representative Niki Tsongas' Voting Records on Issue: Health and Healthcare," accessed September 23, 2013]
  30. Project Vote Smart, "Tsongas on abortion," accessed September 23, 2013
  31. U.S. House Clerk, "Roll Call 681," accessed October 3, 2008
  32. Gallup, "Among Recent Bills, Financial Reform a Lone Plus for Congress," accessed September 13, 2010
  33. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 690," accessed December 10, 2008
  34. Gallup, "Among Recent Bills, Financial Reform a Lone Plus for Congress," accessed September 13, 2010
  35. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 46," accessed January 28, 2009
  36. Rasmussen, "38% Say Stimulus Plan Helped Economy, 36% Say It Hurt," accessed August 24, 2010
  37. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 314," accessed June 9, 2009
  38. Rasmussen, "54% Oppose “Cash for Clunkers” Plan To Spur Purchase of Greener Cars," accessed June 23, 2009
  39. U.S. House Clerk, "Roll Call Vote on Cap and Trade Bill," accessed 2009
  40. Rasmussen, "42% Say Climate Change Bill Will Hurt The Economy," accessed June 30, 2009
  41. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 165," accessed March 21, 2010
  42. Rasmussen, "61% Favor Repeal of Healthcare Law," accessed September 20, 2010
  43. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  44. 44.0 44.1 On The Issues, "Niki Tsongas Vote Match," accessed July 1, 2014
  45. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  46. 46.0 46.1 Office of Barbara Lee, "Lee Letter to President Obama," accessed September 2, 2013
  47. 47.0 47.1 Washington Post, "More than 50 House Democrats also want Syria strike resolution," accessed September 2, 2013
  48. Vote Smart, "Letter to Ranking Member Collin Peterson, House Committee on Agriculture - Reject Rep. King's Provision on Farm Bill," accessed September 23, 2013
  49., "King Farm Bill Amendment Angers Animal Advocates," accessed September 18, 2013
  50. 50.0 50.1 Niki Tsongas for Congress, "Issues," accessed August 11, 2012
  51. Eagle Tribune, "Ex-Gov. Cellucci to chair Golnik 3rd District race," accessed January 22, 2012
  52. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  53. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  55. Open Secrets, "Niki Tsongas," accessed May 16, 2013
  56. Federal Election Commission, "Niki Tsongas Summary Report," accessed July 25, 2013
  57. Federal Election Commission, "Niki Tsongas April Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  58. Federal Election Commission, "Niki Tsongas July Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  59. Federal Election Commission, "Niki Tsongas October Quarterly," accessed October 23, 2013
  60. Federal Election Commission, "Year End Report," accessed February 17, 2014
  61. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  62. Open Secrets, " 2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
  63. Open Secrets, "Niki Tsongas 2010 Election Cycle," accessed 2010
  64. OpenSecrets, "Tsongas (D-MA), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  65. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  66. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  67. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  68. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  69., "Rep. Niki Tsongas," accessed September 24, 2014
  70. GovTrack, "Tsongas," accessed August 4, 2014
  71. OpenCongress, "Niki Tsongas," accessed August 4, 2014
  72. GovTrack, "Niki Tsongas," accessed August 4, 2014
  73. LegiStorm, "Nikki Tsongas," accessed 2012
  74. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed August 4, 2014
  75. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," accessed February 26, 2013
  76. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  77. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  78. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
Political offices
Preceded by
Jim McGovern
U.S. House of Representatives - Massachusetts District 3
Succeeded by
Preceded by
U.S. House of Representatives - Massachusetts District 5
Succeeded by
Ed Markey (D)