Public education in Oklahoma

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K-12 Education in Oklahoma
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Janet Barresi
Number of students: 666,120[1]
Number of teachers: 41,349
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:16.1
Number of school districts: 575
Number of schools: 1,774
Graduation rate: 78%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $7,587[3]
See also
Oklahoma Department of Education
Oklahoma school districts
List of school districts in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Oklahoma
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Oklahoma public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Oklahoma had 666,120 students enrolled in a total of 1,774 schools in 575 school districts. There were 41,349 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 16 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 304 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Oklahoma spent $7,587 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 49th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 78 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Oklahoma Superintendent of Public Instruction
Oklahoma school districts
List of school districts in Oklahoma
Public education in Oklahoma
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Oklahoma State Department of Education reads:[6]
Our mission at the Oklahoma State Department of Education, is to improve student success through: service to schools, parents and students; leadership for education reform; and regulation/deregulation of state and federal laws to provide accountability while removing any barriers to student success.[7]

The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief administrative official in the Department of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is elected to four-year terms. The current officeholder is Janet Barresi.[8]

The State Board of Education oversees the state's public school system. The board is comprised of seven members: the Superintendent of Public Instruction and six members appointed by the governor "with the advice and consent of the senate." Board members serve four-year terms.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. Oklahoma initially adopted the Common Core standards in 2010, but on June 5, 2014, Governor Mary Fallin signed a bill which rejected the new guidelines for math and English scheduled to go into effect in the upcoming school year. The bill was passed in the House and Senate on the final day of the 2014 session. It required the state to return to old pre-2010 standards and develop by 2016 new standards that will be subject to legislative review.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Oklahoma compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Oklahoma 1,774 575 666,120 41,349 1:16.1 1:303.6 $7,587
Arkansas 1,108 289 483,114 33,983 1:14.2 1:271.3 $9,353
Kansas 1,359 321 486,108 37,407 1:13 1:259.4 $9,498
Missouri 2,408 572 916,584 66,252 1:13.8 1:294.1 $9,410
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Oklahoma as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for Oklahoma's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 110,617 16.61% 1.10%
Asian 12,340 1.85% 4.68%
African American 65,168 9.78% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 1,833 0.28% 0.42%
Hispanic 87,496 13.14% 24.37%
White 357,497 53.67% 51.21%
Two or more 31,169 4.68% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Oklahoma attend rural schools. Approximately 59 percent of the state's students attend rural or town schools, compared to approximately 41 percent who attend city or suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Oklahoma 21.9% 19.4% 22.9% 35.8%
Arkansas 25.8% 9.6% 20.3% 44.3%
Kansas 24% 14.5% 26.6% 34.9%
Missouri 17.4% 29.9% 19.2% 33.5%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Arkansas, Kansas, and Missouri), Oklahoma has the smallest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in both math and reading.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Oklahoma 36 25 30 29
Arkansas 39 28 32 30
Kansas 48 40 38 36
Missouri 39 33 35 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Oklahoma and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Oklahoma 78% Fifth 20.7 80% 1,689 5%
Arkansas 84% Second 20.3 88% 1,697 4%
Kansas 85% Second 21.9 81% 1,752 6%
Missouri 86% First 21.6 75% 1,773 4%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Oklahoma was lower than the national average at 2.5 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.5 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Oklahoma

School choice options in Oklahoma include: charter schools, school vouchers, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 4.79 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Oklahoma state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 16.5 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is up 0.50 percentage points, or 3.1 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 16.0 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Oklahoma 16.5% $7,587 16.62% 47.01% 36.37%
Arkansas 16.3% $9,353 16.02% 51.2% 32.77%
Kansas 25.8% $9,498 11.05% 53.19% 35.76%
Missouri 22.6% $9,410 13.75% 29.33% 56.92%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Oklahoma totaled approximately $5.8 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Oklahoma and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Oklahoma $970,577 $2,745,748 $2,124,039 $5,840,364
Arkansas $834,685 $2,667,090 $1,707,234 $5,209,009
Kansas $612,100 $2,945,175 $1,979,999 $5,537,274
Missouri $1,389,362 $2,963,196 $5,749,895 $10,102,453
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Oklahoma totaled approximately $5.6 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Oklahoma and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Oklahoma $5,001,641 $510,611 $91,371 $5,603,623
Arkansas $4,495,309 $607,962 $578,992 $5,682,263
Kansas $4,584,376 $851,777 $217,901 $5,654,054
Missouri $8,664,338 $856,962 $462,300 $9,983,600
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Oklahoma, the average salary increased by 3.2 percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Oklahoma $42,772 $50,907 $45,130 $44,128 3.2%
Arkansas $45,625 $49,850 $47,085 $46,632 2.2%
Kansas $47,805 $49,804 $47,496 $47,464 -0.7%
Missouri $48,727 $48,373 $47,178 $47,517 -2.5%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Oklahoma ranked 43rd overall, or "weakest," which was in the fifth of five tiers.[23]

The main unions related to the Oklahoma school system are the Oklahoma Education Association (OEA), a part of the larger National Education Association, and AFT Oklahoma. For the 2003 tax period OEA had: $5.21 billion in total assets, $6.66 billion in total income and $6.59 billion in expenses.[24]

List of local Oklahoma school unions:[25]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Oklahoma government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Oklahoma State School Boards Association.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Oklahoma ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 30 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Oklahoma College for Women, State Question 371 (1956)
  2. Oklahoma Common School Funds, State Question 370 (1956)
  3. Oklahoma Initiative 17
  4. Oklahoma Initiative 18
  5. Oklahoma Initiative 19
  6. Oklahoma Initiative 20
  7. Oklahoma Initiative 5
  8. Oklahoma Investment of Permanent School Funds, State Question 362 (1954)
  9. Oklahoma Military Academy at Claremore, State Question 372 (1956)
  10. Oklahoma School District Bonds for Safety Facilities Amendment (2014)
  11. Oklahoma State Question 109 (1920)
  12. Oklahoma State Question 137, Public School Textbooks (1926)
  13. Oklahoma State Question 168 (1932)
  14. Oklahoma State Question 172 (1931)
  15. Oklahoma State Question 306 (1942)
  16. Oklahoma State Question 314 (1946)
  17. Oklahoma State Question 315 (1946)
  18. Oklahoma State Question 316 (1946)
  19. Oklahoma State Question 318 (1946)
  20. Oklahoma State Question 421 (1964)
  21. Oklahoma State Question 422 (1964)
  22. Oklahoma State Question 423 (1964)
  23. Oklahoma State Question 424, County School Superintendents (1964)
  24. Oklahoma State Question 639 (1991)
  25. Oklahoma State Question 671 (1996)
  26. Oklahoma State Question 680, Use of Public Resources for Private Gain (1988)
  27. Oklahoma State Question 681, Private Ownership of Government-Funded Research (1988)
  28. Oklahoma State Question 684 (2000)
  29. Oklahoma State Question 744 (2010)
  30. Oklahoma State Question 99 (1920)

Studies and reports

Oklahomans for Responsible Government report

In 2009, Oklahomans for Responsible Government (OFRG), a nonprofit founded in January 2008, released a report about the overall transparency of Oklahoma's school districts. According to the report, 79 of the state’s 531 districts (15 percent) lacked an official website.[26] Additionally, of the 471 districts with technology directors, 59 had no website. The organization maintained that it was not calling for states to establish mandates for the creation of school websites, but rather was reminding schools that according to state law they are required to post public meeting agendas. "Schools, like other public agencies, should always be on the lookout for ways to better inform taxpayers," said Brian Downs, OFRG executive director.[27]

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Oklahoma + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Oklahoma Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Oklahoma State Department of Education, "SDE Mission and Title IX Policy," accessed June 3, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Oklahoma State Department of Education, "Janet Barresi," accessed June 3, 2014
  9. Oklahoma Statutes, "Title 70, Chapter 1, Article 3, Section 3-101," accessed June 3, 2014
  10. Foxnews.com, "Oklahoma repeals Common Core education standards," June 5, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  24. Center for Union Facts, "Oklahoma Education Association," accessed August 28, 2009
  25. Center for Union Facts, "Oklahoma teachers unions," accessed August 28, 2009
  26. Associated Press, "Study by nonprofit group examines information available on Oklahoma school district Web sites," August 25, 2009
  27. The Oklahoman, "Point and click: Schools can do better job with sites," August 24, 2009