Governor of Oregon
|Office website:||Official Link|
|2011-2013 FY Budget:||$18,762,015|
|Term limits:||8 years in office during any 12 year period|
|Length of term:||4 years|
|Authority:||Oregon Constitution, Article V, Section I|
|Assumed office:||February 18, 2015|
|Next election:||November 2016 (special)|
|Last election:||November 4, 2014|
|Other Oregon Executive Offices|
|Governor • Secretary of State • Attorney General • Treasurer • Auditor • Superintendent of Education • Agriculture Commissioner • Insurance Commissioner • Natural Resources Commissioner • Labor Commissioner • Public Service Commission|
- 1 Current officeholder
- 1.1 Ethics investigation
- 1.1.1 Ethics concerns before 2014 election
- 1.1.2 Financial disclosures
- 1.1.3 Emails about Genuine Progress Indicator
- 1.1.4 Investigation by Attorney General
- 1.1.5 Speculation about resignation
- 1.1.6 Kitzhaber denies intent to resign
- 1.1.7 Sources report Kitzhaber change-of-heart
- 1.1.8 Kate Brown's February 12 statement
- 1.1.9 Legislative leaders, treasurer call for resignation
- 1.1.10 Attempted deletion of personal emails
- 1.1.11 Attorney general order for Hayes emails
- 1.1.12 February 13 resignation
- 1.1.13 Federal subpoena
- 1.1 Ethics investigation
- 2 Authority
- 3 Qualifications
- 4 Vacancies
- 5 Elections
- 6 Duties
- 7 Divisions
- 8 State budget
- 9 Compensation
- 10 Historical officeholders
- 11 Resignations from office
- 12 History
- 13 Recent news
- 14 Contact information
- 15 See also
- 16 External links
- 17 References
As of May 2015, Oregon is one of 7 Democratic state government trifectas.
The current officeholder is Kate Brown. Brown was sworn into office on February 18, 2015, to replace John Kitzhaber, who resigned from office due to an ethics scandal. She previously served as the secretary of state from 2009 to 2015. The governor's office will be up for election in 2016 with the winner serving out the remainder of a term expiring in 2018.
Learn more about how Brown came to replace Kitzhaber in 2015 by reading the Ethics investigation section below.
- See also: John Kitzhaber recall, Oregon (2015)
Secretary of State Kate Brown (D)
February 11 story
February 13 story
Governor of Oregon
Kitzhaber announced his resignation from office on February 13, 2015, effective February 18. The following sections detail the story surrounding Kitzhaber's resignation.
Ethics concerns before 2014 election
On October 13, 2014, Kitzhaber requested an investigation by the Oregon Government Ethics Commission into whether his fiancee, Cylvia Hayes, used her access to the governor's office to improve her consulting business. A story in the Willamette Week indicated that Hayes advised Kitzhaber about economic and energy issues while also providing consulting services in the same policy areas. On February 5, 2015, Kitzhaber announced that Hayes would no longer serve as a policy advisor following conflict of interest allegations. Oregon's government ethics regulations are designed to prevent conflicts of interest among public officials. Hayes did not receive payments from the state when advising Kitzhaber, but the governor's general counsel, Liani Reeves, noted that she was considered a public official due to her dual role as advisor and first lady.
Kitzhaber's aides insisted that all contracts and policy documents were reviewed prior to approval to comply with state ethics laws. Hayes stated that accusations about conflicts of interest are inaccurate and that she worked as an advisor and outside consultant to ensure "a clean economy and more sustainable future for Oregon." Dennis Richardson (R), Kitzhaber's opponent in the 2014 election, jumped on the opportunity to criticize the governor over ethics concerns, calling his administration "inept and unethical" and musing rhetorically that he might be hiding more secrets.
Three ethics complaints were filed against Kitzhaber following his October 13 request, including an October 15 complaint by the Oregon Republican Party, an October 16 complaint by state Rep. Vicki Berger (R) and an October 30 complaint by 2014 Democratic primary foe Ifeanyichukwu Diru. The seven-member ethics commission held no meetings prior to the November 4 general election. A hearing in March 2015 would have determined if the commission proceeded with a formal investigation of these complaints, though Kitzhaber's resignation cast doubt about the commission's role in future investigations.
Disclosures made to the commission in January 2015 revealed $213,000 in earnings as a consultant from 2011 to 2014, including $118,000 in unreported payments from the Clean Economy Development Center. These totals were at odds with statements made by the governor and his staff as well as federal income tax documents from that period. The editorial board of The Oregonian made national news by calling for Kitzhaber's resignation on February 4, given the paper's endorsement of the governor during his previous election bids.
Emails about Genuine Progress Indicator
On February 6, 2015, the Oregon Department of Administrative Services released emails between Hayes, Kitzhaber and department director Michael Jordan regarding a new economic policy called the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI). These emails, sent between April 2013 and April 2014, revealed Hayes' close involvement in implementing the policy. Hayes was under contract with Demos, a New York-based think tank, from June to November 2013. Hayes sent an email to Jordan requesting a meeting on May 13, 2013, to discuss challenges for the GPI, only three days after signing a contract with Demos. An email from October 30, 2013, requested $125,000 to launch the GPI and listed Hayes and Demos among the "Oregon GPI Team."
Emails from the same period showed Kitzhaber's efforts to hire Sean McGuire, an advisor under contract with Demos. McGuire had previously worked with Demos to install the GPI, a measurement of economic progress that takes into account well-being and productivity, in Maryland. On December 30, 2013, Kitzhaber lobbied Jordan to hire McGuire, indicating that he was the "best person to do this work...and we need to find a way to bring him on." McGuire was hired in spring 2014 for a one-year contract totaling $65,000, though Jordan downplayed suggestions that Kitzhaber pressured him into the decision.
Investigation by Attorney General
Oregon Attorney General Ellen Rosenblum (D) announced on February 9 that she was initiating a criminal investigation of Kitzhaber and Hayes. She announced the investigation on the same day as Kitzhaber publicly requested a criminal investigation of his administration. The attorney general's office has the ability to request records, issue subpoenas to witnesses and charge the governor and his advisors with illegal activity. Rosenblum delayed an investigation because she was concerned about her office's role as attorney for the executive branch, though former state officials argued that she is responsible for investigating corruption within the branch. Republican legislators including Ted Ferrioli support the investigation, but are arguing that a special prosecutor should be appointed to eliminate concerns about Rosenblum's objectivity in dealing with a fellow Democratic official.
On February 20, defense attorney Janet Hoffman sent a request to halt review of Kitzhaber's emails by the attorney general until she had an opportunity to evaluate the documents. Hoffman argued that the former governor's personal emails were co-mingled with official emails without his permission. She also argued that DAS did not "legitimately possess" personal emails, invalidating the documents from becoming evidence in state or federal investigations. Hoffman also requested an independent investigation into leaks of Kitzhaber's emails to Willamette Weekly and The Oregonian.
Speculation about resignation
On February 11, local and national media speculated that Kitzhaber could resign from office. The governor cancelled a Valentine's Day appearance with Tigard-based Friends of Trees on that day. The head of Friends of Trees, Scott Fogarty, noted that the plans were tentative and saw no connection with ongoing ethics concerns. Jim McDermott, an attorney representing Kitzhaber, told reporters on the 11th that the governor had no intention of resigning. Kitzhaber confirmed McDermott's statement later in the day in an interview with The Statesman Journal.
Kitzhaber denies intent to resign
Late in the day on February 11, Kitzhaber issued an official statement denying that he had any intention of resigning: "Let me be as clear as I was last week, that I have no intention of resigning as Governor of the state of Oregon."
Sources report Kitzhaber change-of-heart
On February 12, multiple outlets reported that Kitzhaber told aides on the 8th that he would resign, requested Brown's return to Salem and met with legislative leaders on the 10th before reconsidering resignation on the 11th.
Kate Brown's February 12 statement
Brown issued a statement in the mid-afternoon on February 12 saying that her return to Oregon on February 11 was requested by Kitzhaber but that when she returned and met with him, he asked her why she had returned to the state. She described this back-and-forth as "bizarre."
The following is Brown's full statement:
Late Tuesday afternoon, I received a call from the Governor while I was in Washington, DC at a Secretaries of State conference. He asked me to come back to Oregon as soon as possible to speak with him in person and alone.
I got on a plane yesterday morning and arrived at 3:40 in the afternoon. I was escorted directly into a meeting with the Governor. It was a brief meeting. He asked me why I came back early from Washington, DC, which I found strange. I asked him what he wanted to talk about. The Governor told me he was not resigning, after which, he began a discussion about transition.
This is clearly a bizarre and unprecedented situation.
Legislative leaders, treasurer call for resignation
On the same afternoon as Brown's statement, Senate President Pete Courtney (D), House Speaker Tina Kotek (D) and State Treasurer Ted Wheeler (D) called on Kitzhaber to resign from office. The trio announced their support for Kitzhaber's resignation following an emergency caucus of state Democrats. Wheeler made the following statement to The Oregonian:
It is with deep sadness that I ask Governor John Kitzhaber to resign his position as Governor of Oregon. He has accomplished many great things during his long career, and history will be kinder to him than current events suggest.
Unfortunately, the current situation has become untenable, and I cannot imagine any scenario by which things improve. Oregon deserves a Governor who is fully focused on the duties of state.
I hope the Governor will do the right thing for Oregon and its citizens. 
—The Oregonian, (2015) 
Attempted deletion of personal emails
A records request by Willamette Week and 101.9 FM KINK in Oregon found that the governor's office ordered the deletion of emails from Kitzhaber's personal account on February 5. The order, sent by executive assistant Jan Murdock, asked for all messages in Kitzhaber's personal email to be removed from servers. Several supervisors at the Department of Administrative Service's Technology Support Center refused to comply with the order. Any personal emails used to discuss government business would be considered public records according to the state's open records laws.
Attorney general order for Hayes emails
On February 12, Rosenblum ordered Hayes to deliver personal emails related to state business to The Oregonian following a public records request by the newspaper on December 29, 2014. Attorney Whitney Boise, speaking on behalf of Hayes, argued to Rosenblum that his client's emails are private because she is not a public official. This claim was rejected by Rosenblum's office, which issued the order based on the fact that Hayes worked "extensively on government matters." Hayes had to comply with the attorney general's order or seek an injunction by February 19.
February 13 resignation
Kitzhaber announced his resignation from the governor's office on the morning of Friday, February 13. His resignation became effective on Wednesday, February 18. In a statement to the media, Kitzhaber stated:
I am announcing today that I will resign as Governor of the State of Oregon.
It is not in my nature to walk away from a job I have undertaken – it is to stand and fight for the cause. For that reason I apologize to all those people who gave of their faith, time, energy and resources to elect me to a fourth term last year and who have supported me over the past three decades. I promise you that I will continue to pursue our shared goals and our common cause in another venue.
I must also say that it is deeply troubling to me to realize that we have come to a place in the history of this great state of ours where a person can be charged, tried, convicted and sentenced by the media with no due process and no independent verification of the allegations involved. But even more troubling – and on a very personal level as someone who has given 35 years of public service to Oregon – is that so many of my former allies in common cause have been willing to simply accept this judgment at its face value.
It is something that is hard for me to comprehend – something we might expect in Washington, D.C. but surely not in Oregon. I do not know what it means for our shared future but I do know that it is seriously undermining civic engagement in this state and the quality of the public discourse that once made Oregon stand out from the pack.
Nonetheless, I understand that I have become a liability to the very institutions and policies to which I have dedicated my career and, indeed, my entire adult life. As a former presiding officer I fully understand the reasons for which I have been asked to resign. I wish Speaker Kotek and President Courtney and their colleagues on both sides of the aisle success in this legislative session and beyond. And I hope that they are truly committed to carrying forward the spirit of bipartisanship and collaboration that has marked the last four years in Oregon. 
—Oregon Public Broadcasting, (2015) 
On February 12, federal prosecutors issued a subpoena to the Department of Administrative Services for emails and records from Kitzhaber, Hayes and other members of the outgoing administration. The subpoena also sought records of payments to Hayes and her firm, 3E Strategies. All subpoenaed documents were presented to a federal grand jury scheduled to convene on March 10.
Under Article V, Section I:
The cheif [sic] executive power of the State, shall be vested in a Governor...
|2015 • 2014 • 2013 • 2012 • 2011 • 2010|
|Current Lt. Governors|
|Lt. Governor Elections|
|2015 • 2014 • 2013 • 2012 • 2011 • 2010|
A candidate for the governorship must be:
- a United States citizen
- at least 30 years old
- a resident of Oregon for at least three years
The age requirements does not apply to someone who succeeds to office under Section 8a of Article V.
- See also: How gubernatorial vacancies are filled
The state of Oregon has no formal office of the lieutenant governor. Instead, the secretary of state serves as the ex officio lieutenant governor and succeeds the governor is the latter dies, resigns, is removed from office or is unable to discharge the office.
An acting governor holds the office until the governor's disability is removed or until the next biennial election, when a special election shall be held. When the treasurer or secretary of state is the acting governor, an appointment is made for someone to fill the office of the treasurer or secretary of state.
An appointed treasurer or secretary of state may not succeed to the elected governorship.
Oregon elects governors in the midterm elections, that is, even years that are not presidential election years. For Oregon, 2018, 2022, 2026, 2030 and 2034 are all gubernatorial election years. Legally, the gubernatorial inauguration is always set for the second Monday in the January following an election.
In the event of a tie, a joint session of the legislature shall cast ballots to choose from the two top vote getters. If the election is contested, the legislature shall decide the manner of addressing and settling the contest.
- See also: States with gubernatorial term limits
Oregon governors are restricted to 8 years in office during any 12 year period.
|The cheif [sic] executive power of the State, shall be vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for the term of four years; and no person shall be eligible to such office more than Eight, in any period of twelve years.|
- See also: Oregon gubernatorial election, 2014
|Governor of Oregon, 2014|
|Democratic||John Kitzhaber Incumbent||49.9%||733,230|
|Pacific Green||Jason Levin||2%||29,561|
|Election Results via Oregon Secretary of State.|
To view the electoral history dating back to 2002 for the office of Governor of Oregon, Click [show] to expand the section.
The governor is the commander-in-chief of state military (§ 9). The governor also has the power to grant pardons and reprieves and to commute sentences (§ 14). The governor may convene a special session of the state legislature (§ 12).
Additionally, the governor serves on the State Land Board which is tasked with managing state-owned lands to "obtain the greatest benefit for the people of Oregon, consistent with resource conservation and sound land management."
Other duties and privileges of the office include:
- Making periodic addresses to the General Assembly concerning and the state of the state and making recommendations on legislation (§ 11)
- Upholding and ensuring the faithful execution of all state laws (§ 10)
- Requiring written information from the head of any Administrative or Military Department on their duties and offices (§ 13)
- Vetoing bills, including enjoying a line item veto and an emergency clause veto (§ 15a). The gubernatorial veto is subject to a two-third majority override of the legislature (§ 15b)
- Making vacancies, including recess vacancies, for all offices not otherwise provided for. The appointment shall be for the remainder of the term if the next general election is within 61 days. Otherwise, a special election shall be called (§ 16)
- Issuing writs of special election for all vacancies that occur in the legislature (§ 17)
- Signing all commissions issues in the name of the state of Oregon (§ 18)
Note: Ballotpedia's state executive officials project researches state official websites for information that describes the divisions (if any exist) of a state executive office. That information for the Governor of Oregon has not yet been added. After extensive research we were unable to identify any relevant information on state official websites. If you have any additional information about this office for inclusion on this section and/or page, please email us.
Role in state budget
- See also: Oregon state budget and finances
- Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies from February through May in the year preceding the start of the new biennium.
- State agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in September.
- Agency hearings are held from September through November.
- The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in December.
- From January through June, the legislature debates and then adopts a budget. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The biennium begins July 1.
The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget proposal. Likewise, the legislature is legally required to pass a balanced budget.
Governor's office budget
The budget for the governor's office in Fiscal Year 2011-2013 was $18,762,015.
See statutes: Chapter 292, Section 311 of the Oklahoma Statutes
The governor, along with the rest of Oregon's elected executives, is entitled to an annual salary, payable monthly, in accordance with Title 28, Chapter 292, Section 311 (§ 292.311) of the Oregon Statutes. The amount of compensation the governor receives is set at $98,600 for the year beginning January 1, 2014, plus $1,000 per month regularly for miscellaneous, job-related expenses.
In 2013, the governor's salary remained at $93,600.
There have been 38 gubernatorial administrations and 37 governors of Oregon since 1859. Of the 37 officeholders, 20 were Republican, 16 were Democratic and one was an Independent.
|List of Former Officeholders from 1859-Present|
|1||John Whiteaker||1859 - 1862||Democratic|
|2||Addison C. Gibbs||1862 - 1866||Republican|
|3||George Lemuel Woods||1866 - 1870||Republican|
|4||Lafayette Grover||1870 - 1877||Democratic|
|5||Stephen Fowler Chadwick||1877 - 1878||Democratic|
|6||William Wallace Thayer||1878 - 1882||Democratic|
|7||Zenas Perry Moody||1882 - 1887||Republican|
|8||Sylvester Pennoyer||1887 - 1895||Democratic|
|9||William Paine Lord||1895 - 1899||Republican|
|10||Theodore T. Geer||1899 - 1903||Republican|
|11||George Earle Chamberlain||1903 - 1909||Democratic|
|12||Frank W. Benson||1909 - 1910||Republican|
|13||Jay Bowerman||1910 - 1911||Republican|
|14||Oswald West||1911 - 1915||Democratic|
|15||James Withycombe||1915 - 1919||Republican|
|16||Ben Olcott||1919 - 1923||Republican|
|17||Walter Marcus Pierce||1923 - 1927||Democratic|
|18||Isaac Lee Patterson||1927 - 1929||Republican|
|19||Albin Walter Norblad||1929 - 1931||Republican|
|20||Julius L. Meier||1931 - 1935||Independent|
|21||Charles Henry Martin||1935 - 1939||Democratic|
|22||Charles Arthur Sprague||1939 - 1943||Republican|
|23||Earl Wilcox Snell||1943 - 1947||Republican|
|24||John Hubert Hall||1947 - 1949||Republican|
|25||James Douglas McKay||1949 - 1952||Republican|
|26||Paul Linton Patterson||1952 - 1956||Republican|
|27||Elmo Everett Smith||1956 - 1957||Republican|
|28||Robert Denison Holmes||1957 - 1959||Democratic|
|29||Mark Odom Hatfield||1959 - 1967||Republican|
|30||Thomas Lawson McCall||1967 - 1975||Republican|
|31||Robert William Straub||1975 - 1979||Democratic|
|32||Victor G. Atiyeh||1979 - 1987||Republican|
|33||Neil Goldschmidt||1987 - 1991||Democratic|
|34||Barbara Roberts||1991 - 1995||Democratic|
|35||John Kitzhaber||1995 – 2003||Democratic|
|36||Ted Kulongoski||2003 - 2011||Democratic|
|37||John Kitzhaber||2011 – 2015||Democratic|
|38||Kate Brown||2015 - present||Democratic|
Resignations from office
There have been five governors in the state's history who resigned prior to the conclusion of their terms. The most recent case of John Kitzhaber, who resigned due to an ethics and criminal investigation concerning conflicts of interest related to his fiancee and advisor Cylvia Hayes, was the first gubernatorial resignation in Oregon since 1952. The following table details these governors and their reasons for leaving office:
|Gubernatorial resignations in Oregon history|
|Governor||Party||End of last term||Resignation year||Reason|
|Lafayette Grover||Democratic||1879||1877||Appointment to U.S. Senate|
|George Earle Chamberlain||Democratic||1911||1909||Appointment to U.S. Senate|
|James Douglas McKay||Republican||1953||1952||Federal appointment|
|John Kitzhaber||Democratic||2019||2015||Ethics and criminal investigation|
Partisan balance 1992-2013
During every year from 1992-2013 there were Democratic governors in office for Oregon. Oregon is one of seven states that were run by a Democratic governor for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992-2013. Oregon was under a Democratic trifecta for the final year of the study.
Across the country, there were 493 years of Democratic governors (44.82%) and 586 years of Republican governors (53.27%) from 1992-2013.
Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.
SQLI and partisanship
The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Oregon state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Oregon had Democratic trifectas from 2007-2010 and again in 2013. The state's lowest SQLI ranking, finishing 39th, occurred in 2005. Its highest ranking, finishing 18th, occurred in 2011. Both occurred when the government was divided.
This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term Oregon + Governor
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
Office of the Governor
160 State Capitol
900 Court Street
Salem, Oregon 97301-4047
- Oregon State Legislature, "Oregon Constitution 2014 Edition," accessed February 13, 2015
- The Oregonian, "Live updates: Kate Brown becomes Oregon governor," February 18, 2015
- Oregon Public Broadcasting, "NEWS RELEASE: Governor Kitzhaber Announces Resignation," February 13, 2015
- Governing, "Oregon Governor Says His Fiancee Will Have No Policy Role, But It Might Be Too Late," February 5, 2015
- Willamette Week, "First Lady Inc.," October 8, 2014
- KGW, "Kitzhaber requests ethics review of Cylvia Hayes," October 15, 2014
- The Oregonian, "Republican Vicki Berger filed first ethics complaint naming John Kitzhaber, Cylvia Hayes," October 16, 2014
- GoLocalPDX, "Democrat Joins with Richardson, Demands Kitzhaber Release Records," October 30, 2014
- The Oregonian, "Cylvia Hayes discloses another $118,000 for consulting fees," January 28, 2015
- The Oregonian, "John Kitzhaber must resign: Editorial," February 5, 2015
- The Oregonian, "John Kitzhaber controversy: Cylvia Hayes directed state officials on policy she was being paid to promote, emails show," February 6, 2015
- New York Times, "Oregon Bedfellows Make for Strange Politics," February 11, 2015
- Governing, "Oregon AG Launches Criminal Investigation of Gov. Kitzhaber and His Fiancee," February 10, 2015
- The Oregonian, "Kitzhaber's defense lawyer wants to block ex-governor's emails from feds," February 20, 2015
- The Oregonian, "John Kitzhaber cancels plans to attend weekend event in Tigard," February 11, 2015
- Oregon Public Broadcasting, "Lawyer: Gov. John Kitzhaber Isn't Resigning," February 11, 2015
- The Statesman Journal, "Gov. Kitzhaber says he is not resigning," February 11, 2015
- ABC News, "Oregon Gov. John Kitzhaber Says He's Not Resigning," February 11, 2015
- Governing, "Oregon Governor Planned to Resign Then Changed His Mind, Sources Say," February 12, 2015
- Herald and News, "Kitzhaber reconsiders resignation," February 12, 2015
- Politico, "Oregon secretary of state describes ‘bizarre’ John Kitzhaber meeting," February 12, 2015
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- ABC News, "Top Democrats Call on Kitzhaber to Resign Governorship," February 12, 2015
- The Statesman Journal, "Courtney, Wheeler calling for Kitzhaber to resign," February 12, 2015
- The Oregonian, "Treasurer Ted Wheeler calls for John Kitzhaber to resign," February 12, 2015
- Willamette Week, "Gov. John Kitzhaber's Office Sought To Destroy Thousands of His Emails," February 12, 2015
- The Oregonian, "Oregon attorney general orders Cylvia Hayes to disclose emails to The Oregonian/OregonLive," February 12, 2015
- Oregon Public Broadcasting, "NEWS RELEASE: Governor Kitzhaber Announces Resignation," February 13, 2015
- The Oregonian, "Federal authorities subpoena Oregon Governor John Kitzhaber records," February 13, 2015
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
- Oregon Legislative Fiscal Office, "Analysis in the 2011-13 Legislatively Adopted Budget," accessed April 10, 2013
- OregonLaws.org, "Oregon Statutes : Title 28 - Public financial administration : Chapter 292 — Salaries and Expenses of State Officers and Employees," accessed February 20, 2015
- Council of State Governments, "SELECTED STATE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICIALS: ANNUAL SALARIES," accessed December 8, 2014
- Council of State Governments, "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries," June 25, 2013
- National Governors Association, " Former governors of Oregon," accessed June 20, 2013
- National Governors Association, "Oregon: Past Governors Bios," accessed February 11, 2015
State of Oregon
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