Public education in Oregon

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K-12 Education in Oregon
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Rob Saxton
Number of students: 568,208[1]
Number of teachers: 26,791
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:21.2
Number of school districts: 221
Number of schools: 1,261
Graduation rate: 68%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $9,682[3]
See also
Oregon Department of Education
Oregon school districts
List of school districts in Oregon
Oregon
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Oregon
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Oregon public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Oregon had 568,208 students enrolled in a total of 1,261 schools in 221 school districts. There were 26,791 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 21 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 365 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Oregon spent $9,682 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 28th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 68 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Oregon Superintendent of Public Instruction
Oregon school districts
List of school districts in Oregon
Public education in Oregon
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Oregon Department of Education reads:[6]
The Oregon Department of Education fosters excellence for every learner through innovation, collaboration, leadership, and service to our education partners.[7]

The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief administrative officer of the Department of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is appointed by the governor. The current officeholder is Rob Saxton.[8]

The State Board of Education oversees public education in the state. The board is comprised of seven members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the state senate. Members are appointed to four-year terms and can serve no more than two consecutive terms. Five members are selected from the state's congressional districts and two members are selected to represent the state at-large.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Oregon State Board of Education adopted the standards on October 29, 2010. Full implementation is scheduled to be achieved in the 2014-2015 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Oregon compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Oregon 1,261 221 568,208 26,791 1:21.2 1:364.8 $9,682
California 10,170 1,187 6,287,834 268,689 1:23.4 1:389.4 $9,139
Idaho 762 149 279,873 15,990 1:17.5 1:422.5 $6,824
Washington 2,365 316 1,045,453 53,119 1:19.7 1:373.1 $9,483
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Montana as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Oregon's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 10,247 1.80% 1.10%
Asian 22,274 3.92% 4.68%
African American 14,404 2.53% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 3,690 0.65% 0.42%
Hispanic 119,790 21.08% 24.37%
White 371,294 65.34% 51.21%
Two or more 26,509 4.67% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Oregon attend city schools. Approximately 56 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 44 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Oregon 32.6% 23.3% 26.3% 17.8%
California 43.4% 39.3% 6.1% 11.3%
Idaho 27.5% 15.9% 20.8% 35.8%
Washington 29.1% 41.1% 12.3% 17.5%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (California, Idaho, and Washington), Oregon has the second smallest share of eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in math.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Oregon 40 34 33 37
California 33 28 27 29
Idaho 40 36 33 38
Washington 48 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Oregon and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Oregon 68% Fifth 21.4 38% 1,539 49%
California 78% Fourth 22.1 25% 1,505 57%
Idaho 92% Fifth 21.6 67% 1,364 99%
Washington 77% Fourth 22.9 21% 1,537 60%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Oregon was lower than the national average at 3.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout rate was higher than the national average at 3.4 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Oregon

School choice options in Oregon include: charter schools, inter-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 8.62 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Oregon state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 14.0 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 3.10 percentage points, or 18.1 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 17.1 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Oregon 14% $9,682 14% 46.07% 39.93%
California 19.9% $9,139 14.56% 55.06% 30.37%
Idaho 25.7% $6,824 13.91% 63.73% 22.36%
Washington 22.9% $9,483 11.57% 57.2% 31.23%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Oregon totaled approximately $6.1 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Oregon and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Oregon $848,637 $2,792,762 $2,420,619 $6,062,018
California $9,995,705 $37,793,351 $20,848,699 $68,637,755
Idaho $299,354 $1,371,789 $481,296 $2,152,439
Washington $1,367,629 $6,758,505 $3,690,190 $11,816,324
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Oregon totaled approximately $6.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Oregon and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Oregon $5,418,357 $461,979 $325,080 $6,205,416
California $56,784,812 $6,535,512 $3,579,908 $66,900,232
Idaho $1,867,679 $85,001 $65,674 $2,018,354
Washington $9,890,471 $1,467,334 $530,786 $11,888,591
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Oregon, the average salary increased by 1.6 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Oregon $57,856 $58,948 $58,302 $58,758 1.6%
California $65,159 $72,803 $69,672 $69,324 6.4%
Idaho $48,578 $49,404 $49,359 $49,734 2.4%
Washington $56,089 $56,578 $53,101 $53,571 -4.5%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Oregon ranked second overall, or "strongest," which was in the first of five tiers.[24]

The main unions related to the Oregon school system are the Oregon Education Association (OEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Oregon, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period OEA had: $18.85 million in total revenue, $16.32 million in total expenses and $34.59 million in total assets.[25] For the 2003 tax period AFT Oregon had: $1.25 million in total revenue, $1.30 million in total expenses and $858,259 in total assets.[26]

List of local Oregon school unions:[27]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Oregon government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Oregon School Boards Association.

Transparency

In February 2009, a group of 27 legislators introduced a bill, the "Open Books Oregon Project," that required the state to create a searchable transparency website by January 1, 2010.[28]The bill was approved by both the House and the Senate. The governor signed the bill on July 28, 2009.[29]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Oregon ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 84 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Oregon $125,000 for the University of Oregon, Measure 8 (June 1908)
  2. Oregon 5% Sales Tax for Public Schools, Measure 1 (1993)
  3. Oregon Anti-Compulsory Vaccination, Measure 7 (1920)
  4. Oregon Appointment of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Measure 1 (1952)
  5. Oregon Appropriations for the University of Oregon, Measure 36 (1912)
  6. Oregon Appropriations for the University of Oregon, Measure 37 (1912)
  7. Oregon Bonds for Education Building Program, Measure 1 (May 1964)
  8. Oregon Bonds for Educational Facilities, Measure 2 (1966)
  9. Oregon Bonds for Higher Education, Measure 3 (May 1968)
  10. Oregon Bonds for Higher Education, Measure 6 (1960)
  11. Oregon Bonds for School Districts, Measure 7 (1970)
  12. Oregon Cigarette Tax for Public Education, Measure 2 (June 1945)
  13. Oregon College Student Activity Fees, Measure 4 (January 1936)
  14. Oregon Common School Fund, Measure 1 (May 1968)
  15. Oregon Common School Fund Investments and Revenues, Measure 2 (1988)
  16. Oregon Compulsory Public Education, Measure 6 (1922)
  17. Oregon Consolidating and Moving Public Higher Education Institutions, Measure 9 (1932)
  18. Oregon Credit and Indebtedness for Higher Education Buildings, Measure 2 (1950)
  19. Oregon Distribution of Surplus Revenues to School Districts, Measure 7 (1942)
  20. Oregon Education Stability Fund, Measure 19 (2002)
  21. Oregon Educational Aid to Veterans of World War II, Measure 5 (1944)
  22. Oregon Educational Financial Aid for Veterans, Measure 8 (June 1919)
  23. Oregon Fund for Post-Secondary Education, SJR 1 (2014)
  24. Oregon Funding for Psychiatric Hospitals, Schools and Prisons, Measure 1 (June 1906)
  25. Oregon Guaranteed Bonds for School Districts, Measure 54 (1998)
  26. Oregon Guaranteed Earnings on Tuition Trust Fund, Measure 55 (1998)
  27. Oregon Higher Education Appropriations, Measure 6 (1932)
  28. Oregon Higher Education Funds, Measure 69 (May 2010)
  29. Oregon Hiring of State Judges by National Guard and State Universities, SJR 203 (2014)
  30. Oregon Increase in State Income and Corporate Taxes for Education, Measure 1 (May 1974)
  31. Oregon Investment of Higher Education Donations, Measure 4 (1970)
  32. Oregon Limits on School District Property Taxes, Measure 2 (May 1987)
  33. Oregon Lottery Bonds for Public Schools, Measure 52 (1997)
  34. Oregon Lottery Revenues for Education, Measure 21 (May 1995)
  35. Oregon Maintain Funding for Schools and Community Colleges, Measure 15 (1994)
  36. Oregon Merged School Tax Bases, Measure 2 (1990)
  37. Oregon Military Service Requirements for College Degrees, Measure 4 (1936)
  38. Oregon Modification of School Finance System, Measure 5A (May 1990)
  39. Oregon New Building Appropriation for the University of Oregon, Measure 2 (1913)
  40. Oregon New Property Tax Bases for Schools, Measure 10 (1970)
  41. Oregon Oil and Gas Taxes for School Fund, Measure 3 (1980)
  42. Oregon Private Investment in Public University Technology, Measure 10 (May 2002)
  43. Oregon Prohibition of Property Taxes for Education, Measure 9 (1972)
  44. Oregon Prohibition of Public School Instruction on Homosexual Behaviors, Measure 9 (2000)
  45. Oregon Property Tax for School Support, Measure 4 (1950)
  46. Oregon Public School English Immersion, Measure 58 (2008)
  47. Oregon Public School Funding and Equalization, Measure 1 (2000)
  48. Oregon Qualifications to Vote in School Elections, Measure 5 (1948)
  49. Oregon Repeal Election of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Measure 1 (1980)
  50. Oregon Repeal of School District Reorganization, Measure 9 (1962)
  51. Oregon Required Testing of Public School Students, Measure 42 (1996)
  52. Oregon Revision of Taxes for Education, Measure 1 (May 1973)
  53. Oregon Rural School Districts, Measure 3 (1946)
  54. Oregon Sales Tax Increase for Education, Measure 5 (May 1934)
  55. Oregon Sales Tax for Education and Other Tax Reductions, Measure 1 (September 1985)
  56. Oregon School District Reorganization, Measure 11 (1952)
  57. Oregon School District Tax Base Limitations, Measure 3 (May 1974)
  58. Oregon School District Tax Base Limits, Measure 1 (May 1989)
  59. Oregon School Property Tax Equalization, Measure 6 (May 1970)
  60. Oregon State Normal School at Ashland, Measure 21 (1910)
  61. Oregon State Normal School at Ashland, Measure 7 (1914)
  62. Oregon State Normal School at Monmouth, Measure 10 (1910)
  63. Oregon State Normal School at Pendleton, Measure 5 (1916)
  64. Oregon State Normal School at Seaside, Measure 5 (1926)
  65. Oregon State Normal School at Weston, Measure 19 (1910)
  66. Oregon State Normal School at Weston, Measure 9 (1914)
  67. Oregon State Normal School in Eastern Counties, Measure 6 (1926)
  68. Oregon State Normal Schools in Southern and Eastern Oregon, Measure 1 (1918)
  69. Oregon State Proceeds from Forfeited Property, Measure 1 (June 1989)
  70. Oregon State University Repair Fund, Measure 1 (1913)
  71. Oregon Superintendent of Public Instruction, Measure 2 (May 1966)
  72. Oregon Tax Levies for Large School Districts, Measure 2 (June 1927)
  73. Oregon Tax Revenues for Public School Fund, Measure 8 (1944)
  74. Oregon Tax for Portland School District, Measure 2 (1926)
  75. Oregon Tax for School Support Fund, Measure 9 (1946)
  76. Oregon Tax for University and Agricultural College, Measure 10 (1912)
  77. Oregon Taxes for Educational Aid for Veterans, Measure 7 (May 1920)
  78. Oregon Taxes for Elementary Schools, Measure 8 (May 1920)
  79. Oregon Taxes for Higher Education, Measure 6 (May 1920)
  80. Oregon Taxes for School for the Blind, Measure 9 (May 1920)
  81. Oregon Teacher Pay Determined by Student Learning, Measure 95 (2000)
  82. Oregon Teachers Performance Pay, Measure 60 (2008)
  83. Oregon Utilization of Education Fund Principle, Measure 13 (2002)
  84. Oregon Veterans' Fund to Common School Fund, Measure 2 (1952)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Oregon + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Oregon Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Oregon Department of Education, "Home page," accessed June 3, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Oregon Department of Education, "Office of Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction," accessed June 3, 2014
  9. Oregon Department of Education, "About the Oregon State Board of Education," accessed June 3, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Oregon Department of Education, "Common Core Standards - District Resources," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Center for Union Facts, "Oregon Education Association," accessed March 27, 2010
  26. Center for Union Facts, "AFT Oregon," accessed March 27, 2010
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Oregon teachers unions," accessed March 27, 2010
  28. USA Today, "States put spending details online," February 23,2009
  29. The Oregonian, "House Bill 2500," accessed March 27, 2010