Redistricting in Idaho
|Process:||Idaho Redistricting Commission|
|Deadline:||90 days after commission formed or when census was received (whichever is later)|
|Total Seats to be Drawn|
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- 1 Process
- 2 Leadership
- 3 Census results
- 4 Congressional Maps
- 5 Legislative Maps
- 6 Legal Issues
- 7 Citizen activism
- 8 Timeline
- 9 History
- 10 Constitutional explanation
- 11 See also
- 12 External links
- 13 References
This page is about redistricting in Idaho.
Idaho did not gain or lose any seats from the reapportionment after the 2010 census. The state population increased by 274,000 residents, or about 21 percent. Tom Stuart, a former Boise Democratic commissioner, has referred to reapportionment as "the purest form of political blood sport."
The Idaho Commission on Reapportionment is responsible for redistricting. This is one of 9 commissions nationwide that is responsible for redistricting. Idaho's redistricting commission is comprised of 6 members, chosen as follows:
- 1 Appointed by each of the highest ranking Republican and Democratic leaders in the House
- 1 Appointed by each of the highest ranking Republican and Democratic leaders in the Senate
- 1 Appointed by the Chair of the Idaho Republican Party
- 1 Appointed by the Chair of the Idaho Democratic Party
The commission must follow certain legal principles in redrawing state maps. These principles include preserving counties, communities, and local precincts. Specifically, legislative districts may not divide counties to protect an incumbent or party. In addition, the commission must draw between 30 and 35 districts total. The complete set of guidelines can be found here.
The commission has 90 days to complete its work. If unable to agree to a plan by that time, the matter goes to the Idaho Supreme Court.
August 2011 hearing regarding Idaho's redistricting, specifically relating to population adjustments in districts.
House and Senate leaders, along with party chairmen, chose three Democrats and three Republicans to serve on the redistricting commission.
Democrats made their three appointments to the commission on April 22, 2011. They were as follows:
- Allen Andersen (appointed by the Senate Minority Leader)
- Julie Kane (appointed by the House Minority Leader)
- Larry Grant (appointed by the Idaho State Democratic Chair)
Republican made their three appointments to the commission on May 27, 2011. They were as follows:
- Lorna Finman (appointed by House Speaker)
- Evan Frasure (appointed by Senate President Pro Tempore)
- Lou Esposito (appointed by the Idaho State Republican Chair)
The Idaho Commission on Reapportionment held 14 public hearings across the state. The final meeting was held on July 14. Co-chair Evan Frasure expressed confidence about the process, stating, "It's been an absolute pleasure getting to know all the commissioners... I think we have an excellent chance of getting this thing wrapped up rapidly without all the drama that you normally see." Video of the meetings can be found here.
New commission formed
Following the failure of the Commission to meet their deadline a new six-member panel was formed to take up the task. Idaho Secretary of State Ben Ysursa told Democratic and Republican leaders to appoint new members by September 14 in order to start meetings the following week. However, the deadline was pushed back when officials said they could not act that quickly, while the State Constitution provides them 15 days to make such appointments. The panel convened on September 28 and had a deadline of December 13.
Democrats announced their three selections for the new commission on September 20. Senate President Pro Tempore Brent Hill named his selection on September 26, while Republicans named their other two choices the following day.
Members were as follows:
- Ron Beitelspacher, Co-Chair, former state Senator from 1980 to 1992 (appointed by Democratic Party Chair)
- Elmer Martinez, former state Representative from 2001 to 2005 (appointed by Senate Minority Leader)
- Shauneen Grange, staff member of the 2001 Redistricting Commission (appointed by House Minority Leader)
- Dolores Crow, Co-Chair, former state legislator (appointed by Speaker of the House)
- Sheila Olsen, widow of former state GOP chair (appointed by Senate Majority Leader)
- Randy Hansen, former state legislator (appointed by GOP party Chair)
First commission agrees on maps
In a joint statement by state Democrats and Republicans, the members of the first incarnation of the redistricting committee reached an agreement on new congressional and legislative maps on September 23 - nearly three weeks after their deadline. However, following a conference with the Idaho Attorney General and the two party chairs, Secretary of State Ben Ysursa said that the maps, C-38 and L-83, had no legal standing and could only be a recommendation to the new commission.
Four members of the original commission presented their maps to the newly formed commission on September 28. Former GOP Commissioner Lou Esposito said, "We hope that you will seriously consider that baton that we're passing off to you."
Following the state Supreme Court's declaration that the legislative map was unconstitutional on January 18, 2012, Secretary of State Ben Ysursa (R) announced he would reconvene the commission. House Speaker Lawerence Denney (R) and GOP party Chair Norm Semanko said they wanted to replace the members they appointed to the commission, Dolores Crow and Randy Hansen respectively, before it reconvened. Despite an opinion from the Idaho Attorney General’s office stating such an action would be illegal, Denney and Semanko fired their appointees on January 23 and appointed new members in their place.
Crow and Hansen refused to resign and Ysursa said they could not be forced off the panel as that would be "against the concept of an independent commission." In turn, Denny and Semanko sued Ysursa, arguing they did have such authority and Ysursa was illegally blocking their demands by refusing to declare two vacancies on the commission. The state Supreme Court refused to hear the appeal, saying Denny and Semanko did not properly make their case, stating, "Petitioners failed to file a brief showing a clear right to the relief sought under statute or constitution of the state of Idaho."
Thus, when the commission reconvened on January 26, Crow and Hansen continued to serve.
New map passed
After two days, the reconvened commission passed a new map by a 6-0 vote on January 27. The map, L93, split only 7 counties. Chairman Ron Beitelspacher said he was unhappy with the size of three of the districts, but noted there was little they could do due to the restrictions from the court and the odd shape of the state.
Initially it looked as though Twin Falls County might launch a lawsuit against the map, but ultimately decided against the move, calling the plan "substantially better" than the first. Under the new map, the county was split into three districts.
On March 9, 2011, the Census Bureau shipped Idaho's local census data to the governor and legislative leaders. This data guided redistricting for state and local offices. The data is publicly available for download.
City/County population changes
Three of Idaho's 44 counties - Kootenai, Canyon, and Ada - combined to account for almost two-thirds of the state's population growth from 2000-2010. This growth mainly took place in the suburbs, which, according to Boise State University political scientist Gary Moncrief, might not change state politics much since these areas tend to be conservative. However, farmers fear that shifts away from rural areas will decrease their representation.
The ideal population for each new state legislative district was 44,788. These tables show the change in population in the five largest cities and counties in Idaho from 2000-2010:
Partisan impact of population shifts
Of Idaho's 35 districts, 13 of these were larger than the 44,788 resident "ideal district." In these 13 districts, voters elected 39 Republicans and zero Democrats in the last election. In addition, all of the nine districts where Democrats held seats were under the target population. To balance these districts, lawmakers would likely have to shift excess residents from Republican districts to Democratic ones, further weakening Idaho's few Democratic majorities.
While Idaho did not gain or lose any Congressional seats, the boundary between the 1st and 2nd Districts needed to be redrawn. Following the 2000 census, the districts were redrawn so that each had approximately 645,000 people. Since then the 1st District saw rapid growth and by 2010 was estimated to have approximately 100,000 more residents than the 2nd.
Commissioners deadlock on process
In July, members of the Idaho Redistricting Commission deadlocked over whether to settle Congressional maps before proceeding to legislative redistricting. Republicans on the Commission wanted to finalize US House maps before moving forward. Democrats said they were not yet ready to make a final decision. Prior to the deadlock, the Commission had whittled the set of proposed maps down to five. Votes to pass four of these maps failed; they could be re-introduced. Republicans contended that Democrats wanted to delay the vote on Congressional maps in order to use it as leverage later in the process. Ultimately, the commission was forced to continue the process and discuss state legislative maps. However, Congressional maps were still under discussion.
- All the proposed plans can be viewed here.
On October 17, the commission adopted a new congressional map by a vote of 4-2, with Democrat Ron Beitelspacher crossing the aisle to side with the Republicans. Following the vote, he acknowledged the map was not his first choice, explaining, "I can count. It didn't appear to me there would be a change. If no votes are going to be changed, there wasn't a point to me sitting here wasting the people's money."
Under the new map, Idaho's two congressional districts once again split Ada County, home to Boise. Democrats were pushing to include all of the county in the first congressional district, but Republicans would not go along with it.
Districts would have to be significantly redrawn on the state level. Massive growth led to vastly uneven districts. For example, House Majority Leader Mike Moyle's district included over 80,000 residents, while District 8 was down to 36,000 residents. Each redrawn district would be home to around 45,500 people.
Idaho PTV report on how the second commission completed the redistricting process in only 2 weeks.
In an attempt to engage citizens in the redistricting process, Idaho purchased an online redistricting tool from the Caliper software company that allowed anyone to draw maps as long as they had a broadband connection. Kristin Ford, Idaho’s legislative librarian and redistricting liaison, said, “We’re hoping to let citizens have input and make sure the people making the decisions have been able to hear from them in a meaningful kind of way."
Commission at odds over state law
Democrats on the Idaho Redistricting Commission argued that a 2009 state law governing redistricting is unconstitutional. The law mandates that legislative districts can only include multiple counties if those counties are linked by state highways. Democrats argued that this would needlessly split counties, but Republicans contended that following the law would result in a sound map that protects voters.
Commissioners release maps
Each party on Idaho’s bi-partisan redistricting commission released its legislative redistricting proposals. Since the committee was not permitted to consider legislator residence, both plans paired a large number of incumbents. The Republican proposal drew 41 legislators into districts with other incumbents, 32 Republicans and 9 Democrats. The Democratic proposal drew 32 legislators into districts with other incumbents, 26 Republicans and 6 Democrats. Some critics alleged that the GOP plan was designed to target moderate-Republicans who opposed Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Luna’s (R) education reform plan. Republican Commissioner Lou Esposito rejected the suggestion, saying that he didn’t look at the impact on incumbents until after the plan was drafted. Five of the “targeted” senators would have also faced an incumbent under the Democratic plan.
Commission makes progress, adjourns
On August 17, the Idaho Commission on Reapportionment adjourned until August 30, 2011. The commission cited progress on the maps despite the continuing disagreement over a state law that requires certain districts to have connecting roads.
- The Republican plan, LD47, can be found here.
- The Democratic plan, LD46, can be found here.
- All legislative plans, including earlier drafts, can be found here.
Reconvenes, deadline looming
The commission reconvened on August 30, a week before the deadline to reach a consensus on new maps. If the six member commission could agree on a plan by then, it would go to the state Supreme Court, who could send it right back to the commission. The court could also choose to appoint a special master to draw the maps or draw the maps themselves. The commission met every day until the deadline, including Labor Day.
Misses deadline, headed to court
The commission failed to agree to a new map of the state's legislative districts by the 5 p.m. deadline on September 6 and headed to court. The commission worked all through the long Labor Day weekend in search of a compromise, but by just after 2:30 p.m. Republican Co-Chairman Evan Frasure suggested they adjourn for good, saying, "I am giving up hope." While the commissioners were going through their last minute efforts, Secretary of State Ben Ysursa (R) was working on the lawsuit against them, drawn up by Attorney General Lawrence Wasden's (R) office.
Frasure's doctors said the redistricting work had taken a bad toll on his health and advised him against continuing to work on the process.
New commission begins deliberations
Following the formation of a reformed commission on redistricting, the six new members held a number of public hearings throughout the state during early October. This was the first formal chance citizens had to respond to L-83, the plan agreed to by the first commission after the deadline. The commission began its deliberations on October 11, and had all-day meetings scheduled through the rest of the month.
On October 14 the redistricting commission unanimously adopted a plan for the new legislative districts, formally known as L-87. The plan had 11 county splits, something that was a point of contention during the first commission. However, Republican Commissioner Dolores Crow said they were necessary in order to preserve communities of interest.
"Only God could make one that would make everybody happy. And I'm not God. I believe we covered all the angles possible to cover. We did what was necessary for the state and national constitutions," Crow stated.
The new map put a number of incumbents into the same districts, forcing them to run against one another. Seven of the 35 districts included more than two House incumbents, who all had to battle for two seats.
Failure of first commission
On September 7, 2011, Secretary of State Ben Ysursa filed a lawsuit in state Supreme Court against the redistricting commission asking the court to order the commission to reconvene with 60 days to finish their job. The same day Republican Commissioners Evan Frasure, Lorna Finman and Lou Esposito filed suit against the commission, asking the court to adopt their proposed congressional map C38 and order the commission to reconvene for three days.
Additionally the GOP commissioners asked the court to clarify which took precedent - the constitutional provision that counties should not be split, or the state law stating districts should only include multiple counties if they are linked by state highways. Ysursa also asked for clarification on the hierarchy of what they should legally consider.
In a brief ruling on September 9, the court dismissed both lawsuits, stating that they had no legal authority at that point. Supreme Court Clerk Stephen Kenyon explained, "Unless the commission adopts a plan, the statutes and Idaho Constitution do not give the Idaho Supreme Court jurisdiction to act." However, the ruling said that the court would hear cases challenging the 2002 maps and their effect on the 2012 primary and general elections.
Twin Falls County suit
On November 16, 2011, Twin Falls County filed suit in Idaho Supreme Court against the new legislative redistricting map for what they said was an unconstitutional division of 11 counties. They were joined by the counties of Kootenai, Owyhee and Teton, along with several cities. Under the new map Twin Falls County was split into three districts, something they said put voters at a disadvantage.
Twin Falls County Prosecutor Grant Loebs offered an alternative map that was said to create districts which kept more counties intact and was more uniform in population than the current map. The map they submitted split only 6 counties, as opposed to the current map which divided 11. The petition argued that cities shouldn't be considered communities of interest. “Cities change constantly, they grow and they expand, whereas county borders are fixed and never change. So that's part of the problem with saying that cities are a community of interest,” Loeb stated.
The Idaho Supreme Court heard oral arguments in the case on January 5, 2012. Before the court, Loebs stated that, per the state constitution, counties can only be split if necessary to meet the federal one-person, one-vote requirement. Loebs said his plan split just five counties, showing that the other splits were unnecessary and made the map unconstitutional.
Idaho Deputy Attorney General Brian Kane argued that the redistricting commission had some discretion in the matter. "The goal should be: 'What is the best defensible plan?" he said. The court took the arguments under advisement and said they would issue a written ruling soon, but did not state when that would be. Candidate filing begins on February 27.
Maps thrown out
In a 4-1 decision the Idaho Supreme Court sided with Twin Falls, throwing out the map on January 18, 2012. The justices said they could not declare a map constitutional that split 12 of the state's 44 counties, more than was necessary to meet federal standards.
Secretary of State Ben Ysursa said he would reconvene the redistricting commission as soon as possible. Court officials said the decision rendered all other pending redistricting lawsuits moot.
Northern counties lawsuit
In late November, seven North Idaho counties were said to be planning a second lawsuit to challenge the new legislative map. Attorney Christ Troupis explained these counties sought a different map than the one pushed for in the Twin Falls suit, "They would prefer to have a plan that doesn’t necessarily split the least number of counties, but effectively and appropriately represents the interests of all of its citizens and makes sure that nobody’s disenfranchised, and to do that, you have to split some counties.” The counties were Bonner, Boundary, Benewah, Lewis, Idaho, Shoshone and Clearwater.
The suit was filed the second week in December by attorney Christ Troupis on behalf of Boundary, Bonner, Benewah, Shoshone, Clearwater, Idaho and Lewis counties. It asked the court to adopt either the North Idaho portion of L-82, a plan drawn up by the first commission, or L-76, which divides only five counties. According to the complaint, the current plan, L-87, hurt the seven counties, creating oddly shaped districts.
Affidavits by Speaker of the House Lawerence Denney and Lou Espositio, a member of the first redistricting commission, criticized the second commission, with Denney stating his belief that the state Supreme Court was wrong to order a second commission. The suit also criticized the lawsuit brought by the state's four other counties, which argued that counties were unnecessarily split.
The case became moot when the state Supreme Court ruled the maps were invalid in the Twin Falls case on January 18, 2012.
The Idaho Hispanic Caucus Institute for Research and Education held several informational meetings on redistricting around the state during the week of July 4. The schedule can be found here.
On June 7, 2011, the Idaho Secretary of State formally convened the Commission. The Commission had until September 4 (90 days) to submit a map approved by at least 4 of the 6 members. However, the Commission planned to submit its maps earlier and aimed for July 27.
The first Idaho State Legislature met in 1890. They reapportioned the state only to have the plan declared unconstitutional by the state Supreme Court in 1893. The Senate was reapportioned in 1895 to provide each county with one senator, rather than determining representation by population as the state had done originally. The House was to be apportioned by population, but ended up largely broken down by counties as well, leading to a fair amount of unequal representation.
This would be a contentious issue for many years and led citizens in the early 1960s to bring suit, arguing counties with urban centers were underrepresented. The case, Hearne v. Smylie, would eventually reach the U.S. Supreme Court. Reapportionment came to a head during the 1964 legislative session, with a major division between urban and rural counties.
In December 1965, a district court struck down the one senator per county provision as unconstitutional per the protection clause. This led the 1966 legislature to pass a plan dividing the state into 35 districts with roughly equal populations. The plan, which was upheld by the court, provided that each district would have one senator and two representatives.
The Idaho Constitution was amended in 1994 to establish a bipartisan Commission on Redistricting, which first convened to redraw the boundaries following the 2000 census.
Deviation from "Ideal Districts"
|2000 Population Deviation|
|State House Districts||9.70%|
|State Senate Districts||9.70%|
|Under federal law, districts may vary from an 'Ideal District' by up to 10%, though the lowest number achievable is preferred. 'Ideal Districts' are computed through simple division of the number of seats for any office into the population at the time of the Census.|
There were three lawsuits related to the Idaho 2000 census redistricting process.
- Smith v. Idaho Commission on Redistricting, 2001 Op. No. 95, 136 Idaho 542, 38 P.3d 121 (Idaho Nov. 29, 2001) : Petitioners challenged the legislative redistricting plan by the Idaho Commission on Redistricting, arguing that it "impermissibly divided counties to create districts, separated communities with common interests into separate districts, created districts with too large a population disparity, and was enacted without following appropriate procedures." The court found the plan in violation of Equal Protection Clause and remanded it to the Commission.
- Bingham County v. Comm’n for Reapportionment, 2002 Opinion No. 30, 137 Idaho 870, 55 P.3d 863 (Idaho Mar. 1, 2002) : The Commission adopted a new plan on January 8, 2002, but the Court once again sent it back, directing the Commission to adopt a new plan. The Court found that policies were not applied consistently throughout the state and that it violated the Idaho Constitution.
- Bonneville County v. Ysursa, 2005 Opinion No. 138, 142 Idaho 464, 129 P.3d 1213 (Idaho Dec. 28, 2005) : The Commission adopted another new plan in March 2002. It was challenged by a number of voters, counties, and state representatives on the grounds of violating one person, one vote requirements as well as state constitutional and statutory requirements for district-drawing. In December 2005, these challenges were rejected by the Court.
The Idaho Constitution provides the authority for the reapportionment commission in Section 2 of Article III, as amended in 1994. Prior to that, the legislature was in charge of drawing districts.
The state Constitution set up the original Senate and House districts in Article XIX, which is entitled Apportionment.
- State Legislative and Congressional Redistricting after the 2010 Census
- State-by-state redistricting procedures
- Idaho Legislature, Redistricting Committee
- Idaho Legislature, Maptitude Public Redistricting Software
- Idaho Mountain Express, "Idaho 4th in growth since 2000," December 24, 2010
- My San Antonio, "Idaho embarks on 'purest political blood sport'" February 20, 2011
- Deseret News, "Growth means redistricting in Idaho," February 20, 2011
- Spokesman-Review, "Dems name redistricting commissioners," April 22, 2011
- Spokesman-Review, "Dems name redistricting commissioners," May 27, 2011
- The Spokesman-Review, "Redistricting: ‘Excellent chance of getting this thing wrapped up without drama’," July 13, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Idaho's new redistricting panel to meet in 2 weeks," September 13, 2011
- Spokesman Review, "New redistricters sworn in, have first unanimous vote - on co-chairs," September 28, 2011
- Idaho State Journal, "Democrats announce their second redistricting commissioners," September 20, 2011
- Houston Chronicle, "GOP names 1 Idaho redistricting commissioner," September 26, 2011
- Magic Valley Times, "Twin Falls Car Dealer, Former Lawmaker Appointed to New Redistricting Panel," September 27, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Idaho's redistricting commission to hold hearings next week," September 29, 2011
- Idaho Press Tribune, "Redistricting commission reaches map agreement," September 24, 2011
- The Spokesman Review, "Last-ditch Idaho redistricting deal was too late," September 26, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Former Idaho redistricting commissioners urge new panel to consider their belated deal," September 28, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Idaho redistricting: When no good deed goes unpunished," January 20, 2012
- Newsradio 1310, "Randy Hansen, Delores Crow Kicked off Redistricting Commission," January 23, 2012
- Idaho Statesman, "GOP officials sue Ysursa over Idaho redistricting," January 24, 2012
- Idaho Stateman, "Idaho Supreme Court says GOP officials can't fire redistricting commissioners," January 25, 2012
- Local News 8, "Idaho Redistricting Panel Agrees 6-0 On New Map," January 27, 2012
- Times News Magic Valley, "Twin Falls County Won't Challenge New Redistricting Map," January 30, 2012
- PR Newswire, "Census Bureau Ships Local 2010 Census Data to Idaho," March 9, 2011
- Spokesman-Review, "Census brings Idaho political power shift," March 10, 2011
- Capital Press, "Power may shift to cities," May 19, 2011
- U.S. Census Bureau, "Idaho Custom tables 2010," accessed March 10, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Who will ‘win’ in redistricting? Do the math." April 23, 2011
- Lewiston Tribune, "Redistricting rumors," January 7, 2011
- The Lewiston Tribune Online, "Dems balk at completing congressional redistricting," July 19, 2011
- The Spokesman Review, "Redistricters: ‘This state has changed’," August 15, 2011
- Idaho Press-Tribune, "Idaho redistricters vote 4-2 for congressional map," October 17, 2011
- Spokesman-Review, "Idaho adopts new congressional districts," October 17, 2011
- Spokesman Review, "New districts now ‘the law of the land’," October 18, 2011
- Stateline, "The rise of do-it-yourself redistricting," February 3, 2011
- The Republic, "ID Democrats call 2009 redistricting law unconstitutional, GOP tells rivals to stop lawyering," July 26, 2011
- Mountain Express, "Republicans release redistricting map," August 3, 2011
- The Spokesman-Review, "Redistricters cite progress, wrap up for now," August 17, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Idaho remappers set meetings for Labor Day and Tuesday -- deadline day," August 30, 2011
- Times-News Magic Valley, "Redistricting Commissioners Will Likely Work Through Labor Day," August 31, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "GOP Idaho redistricting co-chairman: 'I am giving up hope'," September 6, 2011
- Idaho Statesman, "Ysursa ready for court Wednesday should Idaho redistricters fail today," September 6, 2011
- Houston Chronicle, "Idaho redistricting panel misses deadline," September 6, 2011
- The Spokesman Review, "Eye on Boise: Redistricting whirlwind continues," October 9, 2011
- The Spokesman Review, "Redistricters finish whirlwind hearings, start deliberations tomorrow," October 10, 2011
- The Republic, "Idaho redistricting panel adopts legislative map, plans to meet Monday on congressional plan," October 14, 2011
- Boise Weekly, "Commission Agrees on New Districts; Incumbents Will Need to Face Off," October 14, 2011
- Spokesman-Review, "7 new Idaho House districts pit incumbents," October 14, 2011
- Idaho Stateman, "Ysursa files redistricting case in Supreme Court, GOP commissioners sue themselves," September 7, 2011
- Magic Valley Times News, "Secretary of State's Office Files Suit Over Gridlocked Redistricting Work," September 8, 2011
- Houston Chronicle, "Idaho Supreme Court tosses redistricting lawsuits," September 9, 2011
- The Republic, "Twin Falls, others file redistricting lawsuit aiming to overturn new political boundaries," November 16, 2011
- Times-News Magic Valley, "Taking a Second Look at the Redistricting Suit," November 17, 2011
- The Spokesman Review, "Redistricting challengers submit own map, dividing only six counties," November 21, 2011
- The Spokesman-Review, "Idaho Supreme Court sets redistricting arguments for Jan. 5," November 28, 2011
- The Republic, "Idaho high court hears arguments on new redistricting boundaries in dispute over split county," January 5, 2012
- Idaho Press-Tribune, "Justices invalidate Idaho's new redistricting map," January 18, 2012
- The Spokesman-Review, "Second lawsuit could challenge Idaho district plan," November 23, 2011
- The Spokesman Review, "New Idaho redistricting challenge calls for return of 1st commission," December 7, 2011
- Idaho State Legislature, State Redistricting Statutes, Accessed July 8, 2011
- Idaho State Legislature, "Redistricting in Idaho, Frequently Asked Questions," accessed July 8, 2011
- Magic Valley Times News, "Redistricting commission has an "ambitious goal" as it holds hearing tonight in Twin Falls," June 29, 2011
- Policy Archive, "Reapportionment Politics: The History of Redistricting in the 50 States," Rose Institute of State and Local Government, January 1981 (pg.93-97)
- Idaho Legislature, "Redistricting Commission - Historical Summary
- National Conference of State Legislatures, “Redistricting 2000 Population Deviation Table”, accessed February 1, 2011
- Minnesota State Senate, "2000 Redistricting Case Summaries"