Redistricting in Maryland

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Maryland

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General information
Process:   Legislative
Deadline:   1st Day of 2012 Session
Total seats to be drawn
Congress:   8
State Senate:   47
State House:   141
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This page is about redistricting in Maryland. In the wake of the 2010 Census, Maryland adopted new boundaries for the state's 8 new Congressional districts on October 20, 2011. The state adopted a new map for the nearly 200 state legislative districts on February 24, 2012.[1]

Process

Figure 1: This map shows the Maryland Congressional Districts after the 2000 census.

Maryland employs two distinct processes for legislative and Congressional redistricting. With respect to Congressional redistricting, the Maryland General Assembly bears primary responsibility, proposing and passing the redistricting plan as ordinary legislation. As such, the Governor of Maryland has the power to veto the plan. For legislative redistricting, the Governor is responsible for drafting plans and submitting the new maps to the General Assembly. The Governor appoints an advisory commission to assist in this task. Once the Governor submits a plan, chamber leadership must introduce the plan as a joint resolution. The General Assembly may then adopt the plan or pass another. If a plan is not adopted by the 45th day of the session, the Governor's plan becomes law.[2]

Leadership

2011 advisory committee membership

2011 membership on the Governor's Redistricting Advisory Committee included:[3]

  • Chair, Jeanne D. Hitchcock, Esq., Secretary of Appointments
  • Thomas Mike Miller, Jr., Senate President
  • Michael E. Busch, Speaker of the House
  • James King, Former House Member
  • Richard Stewart, President and CEO, Montgomery Mechanical Services Incorporated

2001 advisory committee membership

2001 membership on the Governor's Redistricting Advisory Committee included:

  • Secretary of State, John T. Willis , Chair
  • Senate President, Thomas V. Mike Miller
  • Speaker of the House of Delegates, Michael Erin Busch
  • Montgomery County Commissioner, Isiah Legget
  • Worcester County Commissioner, Louise L. Gulyas

Public hearings

The Redistricting Advisory Committee held 13 public hearings between July 23 and December 22 across the state.[4]

2010 Census results

At 9 percent, Maryland's overall growth was just below the national average. Within the state, the white population shrank by 128,000 residents while minority populations, especially Hispanics, grew. The percent of Marylanders that were Hispanic doubled to 8 percent of the total state population. The portion identified as white fell from 62 percent to 55 percent. Minority growth among blacks and Asians occurred largely in the suburbs of Washington, DC.

Some counties also experienced individual growth rates that dwarfed the state and national averages, reaching as high as 28 percent[5] Other, including Baltimore County, shrank.

Counting prison inmates

Governor O'Malley signed a bill requiring prison inmates to be counted at their last known address prior to incarceration in April of 2010 - the first of its kind in the U.S. Backed by 13 Senators and over 80 Delegates, the "No Representation without Population Act" presented itself as a remedy to rural counties, which housed most of Maryland's prisons, having artificially high population counts. However, the federal government stopped the law’s implementation a year later.[6]

Various Maryland agencies signed off on adjustments made to population figures after the February 2011 delivery of Census data.[7] However, when the state asked prison officials to provide detailed information on the previous addresses of current inmates, the Federal Bureau of Prisons refused, citing privacy violations. Maryland immediately appealed directly to the U.S. Justice Department in a bid to get that information.

If Maryland's Department of Planning, which led the appeal, successfully implemented its plan, rural counties would have lost population compared to the official counts. Somerset County's official population figure would drop 10 percent, while Allegany and Washington Counties would each lose around 3 percent. The winners in such a scenario would be the counties that were home to many current inmates, such as Baltimore City.[8]

Congressional maps

Initial Speculation: Democrats may weaken Republican seats

As attention turned to the 2011 summer redistricting process, media reports focused on Maryland's two Republican Congressmen, specifically to Andy Harris of the 1st Congressional District. Asked in April 2011 if the Democratically dominated state legislature would target Harris, Maryland U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer answered in the affirmative, saying, "I think there's an opportunity there. I think the answer to that is yes."[9]

Harris replied by saying, "I'm waiting, like everyone else, to see what the powers that be in Annapolis [will do with the maps]...I spend my time taking care of my district."[10]

Others speculated that the Republican-leaning 6th Congressional District might be a target for redistricting. Democrats may be able to shift Republican areas from the 6th to the 1st, concentrating Republicans in the 1st and weakening them in the 6th.[11] Another potential approach, some speculated, was to move Democratic voters from Montgomery County (the county includes parts of Districts 4 & 8) into District 6. Rep. Roscoe Bartlett (R) currently represents District 6 and is serving his ninth term in Congress.[12] During a July 2011 public hearing, several Democrats argued for the latter approach.[13]

Fifth Congressional District Most Overpopulated

Given new population data from the 2010 Census, Congressman Steny Hoyer's (D) district was the most overpopulated in the state. This data indicated strong growth in Maryland's DC suburbs. Rep. Elijah Cummings's (D) district was the most underpopulated. Ultimately, Hoyer's District 5 seat needed to shed around 47,000 residents.[14]

GOP Alternative Redistricting Plan

The Maryland GOP released a "good-government" redistricting plan aimed at creating districts which would do "what is best for Maryland residents, not career politicians." Specifically, the plan aimed at creating compact, contiguous districts and a third minority-majority district. In a more partisan move, the plan paired Democratic Congressmen Dutch Ruppersberger and John Sarbanes in the same district. However, only one of the advisory commission's members was a Republican.[15] The full plan can be found here.

Democratic Alternative Redistricting Plans

The Baltimore Sun obtained copies of two maps being considered by Democrats near the end of September 2011. Assistant professor of political science at St. Mary's College of Maryland Todd Eberly was critical of both proposals. "One thing's clear: There is nothing about reflecting population change. There is no attempt to respect existing boundaries or neighborhoods. It's totally about maximizing Democratic votes, nothing else," he said.[16]

Committee Proposal

The Governor’s Redistricting Advisory Committee released its recommended map on October 3, 2011. Republicans criticized the proposal for separating like-minded communities while joining areas with few commonalities. After the 2010 elections, Democrats held a 6-2 advantage in the U.S. House of Representatives, and the party would have preferred to create a 7-1 seat advantage after the 2012 elections. The proposed map added traditionally Democratic voters to the 6th District, represented by Rep. Roscoe Bartlett (R), who had served since 1992.[17]

A few Democrats were also critical of the addition of conservative areas to the African-American majority 4th District, then represented by Donna Edwards, a black woman.[18] She stated, “I understand and share the political interests that are at stake, both nationally and in our state. Nonetheless, I cannot support this plan in its current form given that minority representation interests appear to have been sacrificed for these political interests.”[19] Montgomery County Council President Valerie Ervin (D) said the proposal "looked like gerrymandering" and "African American voters were taken for granted once again."[20]

The newly formed Detroit-based Fannie Lou Hamer Political Action Committee[21] threatened to file suit against the state if the plan was enacted, alleging racial gerrymandering. A spokesman for the PAC said they were working with the GOP to create a third African-American majority district.[22]

Meanwhile, members of Maryland's Tea Party movement rallied on October 18 in Annapolis to protest the proposal.[23]

The public had seven days to comment on the proposal prior to its introduction to the legislature.

Special Session Actions

Republican state Delegate Michael Hough announced on October 12 that he would be introducing “The Maryland Fair Representation Congressional Plan” during the special session. The plan included three minority districts, echoing the desires of the Fannie Lou Hamer Political Action Committee.[24]

Hough stated, "The Maryland Fair Representation Congressional Plan does not divide minority populations and geographic areas and will therefore provide accurate and fair representation for all the citizens of Maryland. The plan put forward by the Governor's Council is simply a partisan gerrymandered mess that divides communities and disenfranchises voters across the state."[21]

The special session began on October 17. Delegate Hough and Sen. E. J. Pipkin introduced the map endorsed by the Hamer PAC, which would create the third majority minority district while combining all rural areas in the state. Fellow Republicans Sen. Nancy Jacobs and Del. Anthony O'Donnell introduced a map endorsed by the state GOP.[25] Meanwhile, Maryland Congresswoman Donna Edwards created a proposed map to create a third majority minority district, which earned the support of Del. Ana Sol Gutierrez prior to the session.[26]

Governor's Map Advances, Becomes Law

The governor's plan, despite criticism from many sides, advanced in the state Senate,[27] and, after about an hour of debate, was passed 33-13.[28]

All 12 Republicans voted against the map, along with lone Democrat C. Anthony Muse. "I believe it pits the party against the people -- against a minority population that has down through the decades been the party's most loyal supporters, and yet we stand at this moment in history determined to reward that loyalty by diluting their political power, weakening their voices and shrinking their districts,” he said.[29]

The House took up the map on October 19, passing it 91-46. All 41 Republicans, along with 5 Democrats, voted against it.[30] All five dissenting Democrats were from the Washington, D.C. area. Due to technical changes, the Senate had to reconvene the following day to take a final vote to correct typographical errors in the bill. Following the vote, Gov. O'Malley signed the new districts into law.[31] Less than 24 hours later, the Fannie Lou Hamer Political Action Committee, along with Republicans, called on the Justice Department to investigate the maps for possible racial gerrymandering.[32]

On March 5, U.S. District Court Judge William Quarles rejected a challenge to the plan, saying plaintiffs failed to show it violated the state constitution and statutes. It was the final legal challenge to the map.[33]

Referendum

In mid-July 2012, the Maryland State Board of Elections announced that opponents of the map had collected a sufficient number of signatures in order to place the issue on the November 6 ballot. Opponents of the map needed 55,736 signatures in order to qualify their petition. Supporters of the petition drive argued that the map was gerrymandered in order to favor Democrats.[34] The Referendum, if approved, would have overturned the congressional redistricting plan.

Voter Repeal Effort

Republican opponents of the map adopted by the legislature launched an effort to put the redistricted map before the voters. The maps opponents gathered 25,000 signatures for the June 1, 2012 initial deadline. As of May 31, 2012, the opponents planned on gathering 75,000 signatures to ensure the voters would be able to pass judgment on the redistricted map.[35]

Legislative maps

Lower Shore Growth

The release of detailed Census data revealed that the lower shore grew significantly. This meant its districts would need to shed population, becoming smaller and more compact.[36]

House Bill 50

At the local level, politicians were quick to see other districting problems. House Bill 50 would extend the Constitutional mandate that each of the 47 Districts has one Senator and three Delegates by additionally requiring each county to have at least one Delegate. Lacking this provision going into 2001, sparsely populated Districts, usually on the Lower Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, met the existing requirement by drawing exceptionally large districts without each county having its own delegate.[37]

Baltimore to Lose Influence

Due to a loss of approximately 30,000 residents, Baltimore was set to lose some of its legislative clout via redistricting. The city had to at least forfeit a portion of one of its six legislative districts. Since the 1970s, the city has dropped from 44 legislative seats to 24.[38]

Committee Map

The Governor’s Redistricting Advisory Committee released a proposed map of new legislative districts on December 16, 2011. The plan increased the number of majority black districts from 10 to 12 and asked the governor to consider creating a Hispanic majority district in Montgomery County. Officials held a public hearing on the map on December 22, 2011.[39]

Senate President Mike Miller (D) called the plan "a fair and balanced proposal," while Speaker of the House Michael Busch (D) said it "ensures every Marylander will have a voice in Annapolis."[40]

Republicans initially criticized the plan for being divisive and highly partisan, but went on to question the integrity of the entire plan after it was discovered that Richard Stewart, one of five members of the Redistricting Advisory Committee, pleaded guilty the prior week to failing to pay nearly $4 million in taxes connected with a business he owned. Governor Martin O'Malley (D) said Stewart never informed him of his legal troubles and would have no further role in the redistricting process.[41]

Sent to Assembly

Gov. Martin O'Malley formally presented the new map to the General Assembly on January 11, 2012. Legislators had 45 days to approve the plan or pass an alternative map. If they did not pass an alternative plan, O'Malley's proposal would automatically become law.[42][43]

The Fannie Lou Hamer Political Action Committee, a black activist group, said it would sue the state if the map was approved by the legislature. The group argued that the plan violated the federal Voting Rights Act by purposely reducing black influence and violated state laws by splitting more boundaries and counties than was necessary.[44]

Alternative Maps

With O'Malley's map set to become law on February 25, House legislators put forth five alternative plans, but none of them were scheduled for committee hearings. Del. Susan Krebs (R) said, “There should be hearings for all the alternatives, and they all should be considered. We believe our plans should have the courtesy of a hearing.”[45]

A spokesman for Speaker Michael Busch (D) said that without consensus on an alternative plan hearings were unlikely and the chamber's time could be spent better. While both sides criticized the plan, issues such as same-sex marriage and the budget dominated the conversation in Annapolis. No alternative plans were presented in the Senate, but both chambers filed bills that would change the redistricting process in the future.

Plan Becomes Law

Gov. Martin O'Malley’s (D) plan for new legislative districts became law on February 24 after the House and Senate declined to vote on it.[46]

Legal issues

Harford County lawsuit

In Harford County the Republican-controlled County Council determined that the Democratic Party was a "fringe" party -- meaning it would be shut out of the redistricting process. In the previous election, Democrats only garnered 12 percent of the total votes, which was below the county-established 15 percent figure in order to be eligible to sit on the redistricting committee. Democrats were outraged, while Republicans argued that to make an exception for Democrats would open the door for third parties (Green Party, Libertarian Party, etc...) to file similar complaints.[47][48]

On Thursday, March 10, 2011, Democrats filed suit, seeking to stop any recommendations of the redistricting committee from being considered, thus making good on their threat to sue if two or more of their members weren't seated on the advisory commission charged with redistricting. While Harford's Charter explicitly contains the 15% threshold to be considered a major party and to be eligible for sitting on advisory committees, Democrats said the meaning of the charter changed over time. They based part of their legal argument on the fact that, if only the election results for the City Council President were removed and the polling percentage of Democratic candidates were reweighted, they would have pulled in 21.5% of the vote and thus would have exceeded the threshold.[49]

Dilution of agriculture-related electorates

Maryland resident Howard Gorrell filed suit over the new congressional redistricting map in U.S. District court on October 27, 2011, arguing that it unnecessarily diluted the "voting power of agriculture-related electorates" in the 6th Congressional District and was gerrymandered.[50] The suit asked the court to assume jurisdiction and redraw the map.[51]

On January 19, 2012, U.S. District Judge William D. Quarles Jr. dismissed the suit, ruling against all of Gorell's arguments.[52]

Citizen/GOP lawsuit

On November 10, 2011, nine Maryland citizens filed a joint lawsuit in federal court, charging the state with civil rights violations as a result of the recently approved Congressional districts. Expected to cost over $250,000, the suit was to be largely financed by the nonprofit Legacy Foundation of Iowa, with money from Republican Congressmen Roscoe Bartlett and Andy Harris. The plaintiffs put forth four main arguments alleging civil rights violations: the 5th Congressional District should be a majority-minority voting district, Districts 4 and 7 should have a stronger black vote, Districts 2 and 3 were politically gerrymandered, and the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment was violated in Montgomery County.[53]

Throwing the Party's support behind the suit, Maryland Republican Party Chairman Alex Mooney said, “We join the Fannie Lou Hamer PAC, the Legacy Foundation, Marylanders for Fair and Coherent Representation, and citizens from across Maryland to reaffirm our belief that redistricting should not be done solely on partisanship or incumbent preference. We are eager to see the Governor’s map remedied so that the rights of all Marylanders, regardless of race, geography or political affiliation, are not denied.”[54]

The lawsuit won an initial victory on November 21, 2011 when U.S. District Judge Roger Titus ruled the suit could go ahead and should be heard by a three-judge panel. The move was a blow to Maryland Attorney General Doug Gansler, who argued the case should be dismissed.[55] On November 29, 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Judge William Traxler, Jr. announced a three-judge panel consisting of Judge Paul Niemeyer, Judge Alexander Williams and Judge Roger Titus to hear the case.[56]

Arguments were presented before the court on December 20. That same day the Attorney General's office filed pleadings asking the court to issue an opinion by the end of the week. Maryland's primary was April 3, 2012, with the deadline for congressional candidates falling on January 11. Under federal law, overseas ballots had to be sent out by February 17. A delayed ruling could have jeopardized the state’s ability to print up ballots in time.

On December 23, 2011, the panel dismissed the suit, stating that the plaintiffs failed to meet the burden of proof for any of their claims. In regard to the allegation that the map discriminated against African-Americans by failing to create a third majority-black district, the court said the residents of the additional proposed district were not shown to be a single community of interest.

Judge Paul Niemeyer explained, "The crucial weakness in the plaintiffs' evidence is that it concerns residents of their proposed congressional district in general, and not minority residents specifically. In the absence of this kind of specific evidence, we may not accept bare assertions that the area's African-American residents share the same characteristics, needs and interests."[57]

The panel also said plaintiffs failed to show the map was a partisan gerrymander.[58] Representatives of the Fannie Lou Hamer Foundation Political Action Committee said they would take the case to the United States Supreme Court if they could find the resources.[59] On January 20, 2012, the group filed a notice of appeal. Attorney Jason Torchinsky said the appeal focused on the law counting prisoners in their home districts, rather than where they are imprisoned. They did not appeal other arguments in the case, but planned to argue that all states should count population in the same manner for congressional reapportionment.[60]

If they did not succeed in appealing, opponents of the approved plan said they might start a petition drive to put the issues before voters in a fall referendum. In order to achieve that, organizers would have to collect 55,736 valid signatures, including 18,579 by May 31.[61] The opponents followed through on this plan, and claimed to file the necessary amount of signatures for the first threshold.[62]

Commissioner Smith Lawsuit

Frederick County Commissioner Paul Smith filed suit against the state's new congressional plan on November 22, 2011 for failing to design contiguous and compact voting areas. Smith filed the suit in the Maryland Court of Appeals and in Anne Arundel County Circuit Court, hoping for an expedited ruling. Under the approved map Frederick County is divided into two congressional districts - something that has not happened in some 200 years.[63]

The case in the Maryland Court of Appeals was rejected on procedural grounds on January 10, 2012.[64]

Referendum

A referendum petition to overturn Maryland's congressional redistricting plan passed in October 2011 was on the November 6, 2012 ballot. Maryland Delegate Justin Ready, who spearheaded the move, announced March 27, 2012 that the referendum would move forward with collecting signatures. In order to qualify for the ballot supporters were required to collect a minimum of 55,736 valid signatures before June 1.

Under the new map, the number of Carroll County delegates was reduced from four to three. Ready stated, "The map, which passed in October, takes Carroll County out of its traditional pairing with Western Maryland and splits us into two congressional districts. So, Taneytown is in the same district as Ocean City and Westminster is connected to Silver Spring in a district that is shaped like the country of Thailand."[65]

The Referendum was certified for the ballot in July and on July 26 the Maryland Democratic Party filed a lawsuit seeking to overturn the petition drive. Many of the signatures were collected through an online process which automatically fills in most of the information required on petitions. According to the suit, this process violated the law by filling out petitions with voter information. It also argued that at least 5,000 signatures that were certified as valid were in fact invalid. Striking these signatures would bring the total number below the required number to get the issue on the ballot.[66]

Citizen Activism

On August 24, 2011, a coalition of minority groups led by the NAACP asked Gov. Martin O'Malley (D) to release proposed congressional redistricting plans 30 days prior to the special legislative session slated to commence on October 17. Although O'Malley scheduled 12 public hearings across the state, the NAACP said those settings only allowed the public to provide general comments, not specific ones. More time is needed, they said, was to ensure the lines were not drawn in such a way that would dilute the minority vote. The groups also asked the governor to release legislative redistricting plans 60 days prior to the beginning of the regular session in January.[67]

In a letter to O'Malley, Maryland NAACP President Gerald Stansbury stated, “Releasing these plans early ensures that citizens have an opportunity to review the redistricting plan that will be debated in the General Assembly, and gives citizens a chance to express their concerns to the governor, the Redistricting Advisory Committee and their representatives in the state legislature.”[68]

Timeline

Figure 2: This map shows the Maryland Assembly Districts after the 2000 census.

In order to provide candidates with time to campaign for the 2012 elections, Maryland's General Assembly met on October 17, 2011 for a brief special session.[69] That session was dedicated to Congressional Districts, as legislative seats are not up for election again until 2014. The legislature dealt with the State Legislative districts in an early 2012 session.[70] Democratic Governor Martin O'Malley named a special advisory committee for redistricting on July 4, 2011.[71][72]

The following timeline was provided by the Maryland Department of Planning.[73]

Maryland 2010 Redistricting Timeline
Date Action
March 2011 Census 2010 Redistricting population counts received from Census Bureau
Spring/Summer 2011 Regional public hearings conducted throughout the state for Congressional and State Legislative Redistricting.
July 2011 Governor's Redistricting Advisory Committee appointed.
October 17, 2011[74] Special legislative session called to adopt Congressional redistricting plan.
January 11, 2012 Governor submits State Legislative Redistricting Plan to President of Senate and Speaker of House of Delegates to be introduced as joint Resolution to Maryland General Assembly on first day of Maryland's 2012 legislative session.
February 14, 2012
April 3, 2012[75]
State primary election to include revised Congressional districts.
By February 25, 2012 Alternative state legislative district plan must be adopted by this date or the Governor's plan is adopted.
Fall 2014 State primary and general election to include revised State legislative districts.

Primary date

In 2011, lawmakers moved the 2012 primaries from February to April, giving themselves more leeway on Congressional redistricting.[76]

History

Deviation from "Ideal Districts"

2000 Population Deviation[77]
Office Percentage
Congressional Districts 0.00%
State House Districts 9.89%
State Senate Districts 9.91%
Under federal law, districts may vary from an 'Ideal District' by up to 10 percent, though the lowest number achievable is preferred. 'Ideal Districts' are computed through simple division of the number of seats for any office into the population at the time of the Census.

Partisan registration by district

2010

Partisan Registration and Representation by Congressional District, 2010[78]
Congressional District Democrats Republicans Unaffiliated District Total Party Advantage* 111th Congress 112th Congress
1 (Eastern Shore) 196,183 196,411 78,590 471,184 0.001% Republican
2 (Baltimore area) 241,628 92,085 60,137 393,850 162.39% Democratic
3 (Baltimore area) 240,852 114,282 78,945 434,079 110.75% Democratic
4 (Washington, DC suburbs) 314,380 50,596 63,481 428,457 521.35% Democratic
5 (Prince George, Anne Arundel) 277,134 118,109 78,797 474,040 134.64% Democratic
6 (Northwest Maryland) 159,715 208,024 77,940 445,679 94.98% Republican
7 (Baltimore and Howard Counties) 283,827 64,222 55,940 403,989 341.95% Democratic
8 (Montgomery County) 243,560 81,885 91,562 417,007 197.44% Democratic
State Totals 1,957,279 925,614 585,392 3,468,285 111.46% Democratic 7 D, 1 R 6 D, 2 R
*The partisan registration advantage was computed as the gap between the two major parties in registered voters.

Constitutional explanation

The Maryland Constitution does not directly address Congressional redistricting. The General Assembly, with the authority of Congress, redistricts Congressional seats.[79]

Authority for legislative redistricting is provided to the Governor of Maryland in Section 5 of Article III.

See also

External links

References

  1. Maryland Department of Planning, "Redistricting: Congressional and Legislative Districts," accessed June 5, 2012
  2. Maryland Department of Planning, "Redistricting FAQs," accessed June 16, 2011
  3. Office of Governor Martin O'Malley, "Governor Martin O'Malley Announces Members of the Governor's Redistricting Advisory Committee," June 30, 2011
  4. Department of Planning, "Redistricting: Past Public Hearings," accessed June 5, 2012
  5. Delmarva Now, "Census results are enlightening," February 14, 2011
  6. Fox News, "Feds Foil Maryland Redistricting Plan to Count Inmates by Former Home," March 23, 2011
  7. Hometown Annapolis, "Maryland finishes prison count for census," March 23, 2011
  8. Severn patch, "Federal Roadblock Prevents New Inmate Identification Method," March 27, 2011
  9. Baltimore Sun, "In redistricting, Democrats look for electoral opportunities," April 16, 2011
  10. Baltimore Sun, "In redistricting, Democrats look for electoral opportunities," April 16, 2011
  11. Washington Post, "A model redistricting plan from the Maryland GOP," July 15, 2011
  12. WAMU 88.5, "Md. Redistricting: Democrats Target Bartlett's Seat," July 25, 2011
  13. Washington Examiner, "Md. Democrats target Republican congressional district," July 31, 2011
  14. The Washington Post, "Hoyer’s district must shrink in redistricting," July 6, 2011
  15. City Biz List, "Redistricting Hearings Start Soon; Republicans Have Already Drawn Their Lines," July 14, 2011
  16. Baltimore Sun, "Two maps emerge in redistricting discussions," September 30, 2011
  17. The Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting panel targets Rep. Bartlett," October 3, 2011
  18. Baltimore Sun, "GOP, others find faults with proposed map," October 4, 2011
  19. Washington Post, "Md. Rep. Donna Edwards says redistricting plan doesn’t adequately represent minorities," October 11, 2011
  20. Washington Examiner, "MontCo lawmakers bristle over Md. redistricting plan," October 5, 2011
  21. 21.0 21.1 The Star Democrat, "Pipkin will introduce 'Fair Representation' congressional redistricting plan at session," October 13, 2011
  22. CityBizList Baltimore, "Black Group Charges Racial Gerrymandering in New Congressional Districts and May File Suit," October 7, 2011
  23. Capital News Service, "Tea Party, Others Rally Against Governor’s Redistricting Plan," October 18, 2011
  24. Washington Post, "Md. Republican delegate to include minority group’s plan in redistricting measure," October 12, 2011
  25. Washington Post, "Marathon debate begins on Md. redistricting," October 17, 2011
  26. Washington Post, "Md. Rep. Edwards submits alternative redistricting map as lawmakers gather for special session," October 17, 2011
  27. Washington Post, "Maryland redistricting plan advances," October 17, 2011
  28. Gazette.Net, "Senate OKs governor’s redistricting plan," October 18, 2011
  29. NBC Washington, "Md. Senate Approves US House Redistricting Bill," October 18, 2011
  30. Washington Post, "House of Delegates roll call vote on Maryland redistricting," October 19, 2011
  31. Washington Post, "O’Malley signs congressional redistricting bill for Maryland," October 20, 2011
  32. Washington Post, "Political battle over Md. redistricting over, but legal fight concerning minorities ready to take over," October 20, 2011
  33. Washington Post, "Final challenge to Md. congressional redistricting map dismissed by federal judge," March 6, 2012
  34. Herald-Mail, "Petitions certified; Md. redistricting map, gay marriage law to be on November ballot," July 11, 2012
  35. The Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting Map Foes Say They Have Passed First Test," May 31, 2012
  36. Ocean City Today, "Lower Shore election districts to shrink," May 13, 2011
  37. Delmarva Times, "Redistricting is an opportunity," January 24, 2011
  38. Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting: Mighty Baltimore to lose influence," August 11, 2011
  39. Gazette.Net, "Redistricting advisory committee releases map," December 17, 2011
  40. Citybizlist Baltimore, "Analysis: Legislative Redistricting Has Republicans Frowning," December 19, 2011
  41. Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting plan questioned after O'Malley adviser's conviction," December 22, 2011
  42. Washington Post, "O’Malley submits state legislative redistricting map to General Assembly," January 11, 2012
  43. [1]
  44. Washington Times, "Activists plan suit on map for Maryland legislature," January 12, 2012
  45. Gazette.Net, "Alternative redistricting plans stalled," February 17, 2012
  46. WBAL, "Lawmakers To Let O'Malley Redistricting Plan Take Effect Without a Vote," accessed February 23, 2012
  47. Baltimore Sun, "Harford Democrats termed fringe party, shut out of redistricting," February 17, 2011
  48. Baltimore Sun, "Democrats, GOP both threaten suit over Harford redistricting," February 16, 2011
  49. Explore Harford, "Harford Democrats sue over county council redistricting panel appointments," March 10, 2011
  50. The Republic, "Western Maryland resident files lawsuit over redistricting map," October 27, 2011
  51. Gazette.net, "Washington County man files lawsuit to get districts redrawn," October 27, 2011
  52. Herald-Mail, "Local man's redistricting lawsuit dismissed," January 21, 2012
  53. Citybizlist Baltimore, "Nine Citizens To File Civil Rights Lawsuit Challenging Congressional Redistricting," November 10, 2011
  54. Washington Post, "Groups file suit against Maryland redistricting map, alleging voting rights violations," November 10, 2011
  55. Washington Post, "Judge rules Md. redistricting challenge should go forward," November 21, 2011
  56. Washington Post, "Judge appoints 3-judge panel to hear Maryland redistricting lawsuit," November 29, 2011
  57. The Republic, "Judges: New Md. congressional maps don't discriminate; 2 majority-black districts is OK," December 23, 2011
  58. Washington Post, "Judges: New Md. congressional maps don’t discriminate; 2 majority-black districts is OK," December 23, 2011
  59. The Capital, "Group hopes to take state redistricting case to Supreme Court," December 27, 2011
  60. Washington Post, "Plaintiffs file appeal to US Supreme Court on Maryland redistricting," January 20, 2012
  61. Herald Mail, "Petition drive possible over congressional redistricting," January 8, 2012
  62. The Baltimore Sun, “Redistricting Map Foes Say They Have Passed First Test,” May 31, 2012
  63. Frederick News Post, "Commissioner Smith's lawsuit challenges redistricting," November 23, 2011
  64. Frederick News Post, "High court dismisses redistricting lawsuit; Circuit Court case still pending," January 21, 2012
  65. Eldersburg Patch, "Del. Ready Supports Petition to Fight Congressional Redistricting," March 28, 2012
  66. Southern Maryland Online, "Democratic Lawsuit Challenges GOP Petition Success," July 27, 2012
  67. Baltimore Sun, "Minority groups want redistricting maps released soon," August 24, 2011
  68. Washington Post, "NAACP and other groups ask Md. Gov. O’Malley to release redistricting plans early," August 24, 2011
  69. Carroll County Times, "Delegates plan special session to decide new boundaries for Congressional representatives," July 10, 2011
  70. The Baltimore Sun, "What about redistricting?," January 10, 2011
  71. Explore Baltimore County, "Districts' borders on General Assembly agenda," January 12, 2011
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