Ruben Hinojosa

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rubén Hinojosa
Ruben Hinojosa.jpg
U.S. House, Texas, District 15
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 1997-present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 17
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorKika de la Garza (D)
Leadership
Chairman of the Board of South Texas Community College for Hidalgo and Starr Counties, TX.
1993-1996
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$9.52 in 2012
Next primaryMarch 4, 2014
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$3,894,089
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Texas state board of education
1974-1984
Education
High schoolMercedes High School, TX
Bachelor'sUniversity of Texas, Austin
Master'sUniversity of Texas-Pan America
Personal
BirthdayAugust 20, 1940
Place of birthEdcouch, TX
Net worth$-2,303,473
Websites
Campaign website
Rubén Hinojosa (b. August 20, 1940, in Edcouch, Texas) is a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the state of Texas. Hinojosa represents Texas' 15th Congressional District and was first elected to the House in 1996.

Hinojosa most recently won re-election in 2012.[1] On November 15, 2012, Hinojosa was selected as the new chairman of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.[2]

Hinojosa is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Hinojosa is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

After earning his bachelor's from the University of Texas, Hinojosa worked as an executive in a family-owned food business. He also earned his M.B.A. from University of Texas-Pan America and went on to be an adjunct professor there.[3]

Career

  • 1974-1984: Texas state board of education
  • 1993-1996: Chairman of the Board of South Texas Community College for Hidalgo and Starr Counties, TX
  • 1997-present: U.S. House of Representatives

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Hinojosa serves on the following committees:[4]

2011-2012

Hinojosa served on the following House committees:[5]

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1%) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14% of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[6] For more information pertaining to Hinojosa's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[7]

National security

NDAA

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[8]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[9]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[10]

Economy

Farm bill

Voted "Yes" On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[11] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[12][13] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[13] Hinojosa voted with 88 other Democratic representatives in favor of the bill.

2014 Budget

Voted "Yes" On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[14][15] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[15] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[16] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Hinojosa joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[14][15]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "No" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[17] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[18] Hinojosa voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[19]

Voted "Yes" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[20] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Hinojosa voted for HR 2775.[21]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[22]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[23] The vote largely followed party lines.[24]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[25]

Social issues

Abortion

Voted "No" Hinojosa voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[26]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Hinojosa voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[27]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Ruben Hinojosa's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of all Congressional members based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Hinojosa is a Hard-Core Liberal. Hinojosa received a score of 76 percent on personal issues and 14 percent on economic issues.[28]

On The Issues organization logo.
On The Issues Vote Quiz
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Opposes Human needs over animal rights Favors
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Favors Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Favors
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Strongly Favors
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Strongly Opposes
Note: Information last updated in 2014.[28]

Earmarks

A Washington Post investigation in February 2012 revealed that 33 members of Congress helped direct more than $300 million in earmarks to public projects in close proximity to commercial and residential real estate owned by the lawmakers or their family members.[29] According to the report, Hinojosa obtained a $665,000 earmark to help widen a road next to a 3.7-acre commercial property that his family partnership was developing and near the family food processing plant in Mercedes, Texas.[30]

Campaign themes

2012

Hinojosa's campaign website listed the following issues:[31]

  • Rebuilding our Economy
Excerpt: "by investing in the future, providing access to capital and tax relief to our small businesses, strengthening our community banks, restoring the middle class and working to create jobs. "
  • Investing in Education
Excerpt: "by protecting the current funding of Pell Grants and direct federal college loans to make higher education affordable. "
  • Honoring the Service of our Brave Veterans
Excerpt: "by keeping faith with them when they return home and providing them the top-notch health care and educational opportunities for them and their spouses that they have earned. "
  • Strengthening Our Commitment to Seniors Citizens
Excerpt: "by preserving Social Security and Medicare for current and future generations of Americans. "
  • Reducing the Cost of Gasoline
Excerpt: "by safe domestic production like oil shale and promoting renewable energy sources. "

Elections

2014

See also: Texas' 15th Congressional District elections, 2014

Hinojosa is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He won the Democratic nomination in the primary election on March 4, 2014, with no opposition. He will face Eddie Zamora (R) in the general election on November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: Texas' 15th Congressional District elections, 2012

Hinojosa won re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing Texas' 15th District. He defeated Jane Cross, David Cantu, Johnny Partain, and Roben Ramon Ramirez in the Democratic primary on May 29, 2012. He then defeated Dale Brueggemann (D) and Ronald Finch (L) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[32][33]

U.S. House, Texas District 15 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngRuben Hinojosa Incumbent 60.9% 89,296
     Republican Dale A. Brueggemann 36.9% 54,056
     Libertarian Ron Finch 2.3% 3,309
Total Votes 146,661
Source: Texas Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
U.S. House, Texas District 15 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngRubén Hinojosa Incumbent 71.2% 29,397
David Cantu 12.1% 5,008
Jane Cross 10.2% 4,208
Ruben Ramon Ramirez 4.9% 2,012
Johnny Partain 1.7% 687
Total Votes 41,312

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Hinojosa is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Hinojosa raised a total of $3,894,089 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 25, 2013.[42]

Ruben Hinojosa's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $592,032
2010 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $609,898
2008 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $616,104
2006 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $681,521
2004 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $603,046
2002 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $294,746
2000 US House (Texas, District 15) Won $496,742
Grand Total Raised $3,894,089

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Hinojosa's reports.[43]

Rubén Hinojosa (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[44]April 15, 2013$176,684.47$19,160.62$(23,131.58)$172,713.51
July Quarterly[45]July 15, 2013$172,713.51$49,902.42$(50,316.54)$172,299.39
October Quarterly[46]October 15, 2013$172,299.39$34,267.77$(37,300.47)$169,266.69
Year-End[47]January 31, 2014$169,266$51,126$(24,521)$195,871
Pre-Primary[48]February 20, 2014$195,871$36,837$(20,635)$212,073
April Quarterly[49]April 15, 2014$212,073$126,511$(21,702)$316,882
Running totals
$317,804.81$(177,606.59)

2012

Breakdown of the source of Hinojosa's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Hinojosa won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Hinojosa's campaign committee raised a total of $592,033 and spent $849,921.[50] This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.[51]

Cost per vote

Hinojosa spent $9.52 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Hinojosa's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Hinojosa won re-election to the U.S. House in 2010. During that re-election cycle, Hinojosa's campaign committee raised a total of $609,898 and spent $622,521.[52]

U.S. House, Texas District 15, 2010 - Ruben Hinojosa Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $609,898
Total Spent $622,521
Total Raised by General Election Opponent $87,768
Total Spent by General Election Opponent $99,531
Top contributors to Ruben Hinojosa's campaign committee
L&F Distributors$25,700
L&G Concrete$10,400
Border Health$10,000
Intl Brotherhood of Electrical Workers$10,000
Laborers Union$10,000
Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee
Health Professionals$82,050
Lawyers/Law Firms$34,800
Beer, Wine & Liquor$34,700
Building Trade Unions$32,500
Retail Sales$30,066

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have personally benefited from their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the Government Accountability Institute:

PGI: Net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Hinojosa's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $-5,287,942 and $680,995. That averages to $-2,303,473, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Hinojosa ranked as the 439th most wealthy representative in 2012.[53] Between 2004 and 2012, Hinojosa's calculated net worth[54] decreased by an average of 18 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[55]

Ruben Hinojosa Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$4,924,923
2012$-2,303,473
Growth from 2004 to 2012:-147%
Average annual growth:-18%[56]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[57]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Hinojosa is a "rank-and-file Democrat" as of June 2013.[58]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[59]

Hinojosa most often votes with:

Hinojosa least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Hinojosa missed 1,055 of 11,058 roll call votes from January 1997 to March 2013. This amounts to 9.5%, which is worse than the median of 2.2% among current congressional representatives as of March 2013.[60]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Hinojosa paid his congressional staff a total of $1,070,016 in 2011. Overall, Texas ranks 27th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[61]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

2012

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Hinojosa ranked 124th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[62]

2011

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Hinojosa ranked 137th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[63]

Voting with party

2013

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus. According to the website, Hinojosa has voted with the Democratic Party 92.0% of the time, which ranked 163rd among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[64]

Personal

Hinojosa is married to Martha Lopez Hinojosa and has five children.[3]

Hinojosa hired his great-niece, Krista Hinojosa Garcia, as a constituent services representative. While House ethics rules prohibit the hiring of close family members, great-niece is not on the list of prohibited members.[65]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Rubén + Hinojosa + Texas + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Rubén Hinojosa News Feed

  • Loading...

See also

External links

Light Bulb Icon.svg.png
Suggest a link


References

  1. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Texas," November 6, 2012
  2. ABC News, "Congressional Hispanic Caucus Elects New Chairman," November 15, 2012
  3. 3.0 3.1 Official House website, "Biography," accessed October 27, 2011
  4. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  5. Official House website, "My Committees," accessed October 27, 2011
  6. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  7. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  8. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  9. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  10. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  11. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  12. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 NY Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  18. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  19. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  21. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  23. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  27. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  28. 28.0 28.1 On The Issues, "Ruben Hinojosa Vote Match," accessed June 18, 2014
  29. Washington Post, "Congressional earmarks sometimes used to fund projects near lawmakers' properties," February 6, 2012
  30. Washington Post, "Mapping the earmarks," February 6, 2012
  31. Campaign website, "Issues," accessed August 10, 2012
  32. Texas Democrats, "2012 Candidate list," accessed May 10, 2012
  33. Texas Secretary of State, "Unofficial Democratic primary results," May 29, 2012
  34. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Rubén Hinojosa," accessed March 25, 2013
  43. Federal Election Commission, "Rubén Hinojosa Summary Report," accessed July 24, 2013
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Rubén Hinojosa April Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2013
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Rubén Hinojosa July Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2013
  46. Federal Election Commission, "Rubén Hinojosa October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  47. Federal Election Commission, "Ruben Hinojosa Year-End," accessed February 6, 2014
  48. Federal Election Commission, "Ruben Hinojosa Pre-Primary," accessed April 20, 2014
  49. Federal Election Commission, "Ruben Hinojosa April Quarterly," accessed April 20, 2014
  50. Open Secrets, "Rubén Hinojosa 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 5, 2013
  51. Open Secrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  52. Open Secrets, "Ruben Hinojosa 2010 Election Cycle," accessed October 27, 2011
  53. OpenSecrets, "Ruben Hinojosa (D-Texas), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  54. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  55. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  56. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  57. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  58. GovTrack, "Rubén Hinojosa," accessed June 7 2013
  59. OpenCongress, "Rubén Hinojosa," accessed August 2, 2013
  60. GovTrack, "Rubén Hinojosa," accessed April 2, 2013
  61. LegiStorm, "Rubén Hinojosa," accessed September 17, 2012
  62. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013
  63. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  64. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed June 6, 2013
  65. Legistorm, "Weekly newsletter," September 30, 2013
Political offices
Preceded by
Kika de la Garza
U.S. House of Representatives - Texas, 15th District
1997-Present
Succeeded by
-