Sheila Jackson Lee

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Sheila Jackson Lee
Sheila Jackson Lee.jpg
U.S. House, Texas, District 18
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 1995-present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 19
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorCraig Washington (D)
Leadership
Staff counsel to U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations
1977-1978
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$3.79 in 2012
First electedNovember 8, 1994
Next primaryMarch 4, 2014
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$3,914,248
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
City council member, Houston, TX
1990-1994
Municipal judge, Houston, TX
1987-1990
Education
High schoolJamaica High School
Bachelor'sYale University
J.D.University of Virginia Law School
Personal
BirthdayJanuary 12, 1950
Place of birthQueens, New York
ProfessionLawyer
Net worth$943,504
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Sheila Jackson Lee (b. January 12, 1950, in Queens, New York) is a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the state of Texas. Jackson Lee represents Texas' 18th Congressional District and was first elected to the House in 1994.

Jackson Lee most recently won re-election in 2012. She defeated Sean Seibert (R) and Christopher Barber (L) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[1]

Jackson Lee began her political career as a municipal judge in Houston, Texas, from 1987 to 1990. She then served as a city council member for Houston from 1990 to 1994.

Jackson Lee is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Jackson Lee is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning she will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

Jackson Lee earned her bachelor's degree in political science from Yale University and her J.D. from the University of Virginia Law School.[2] From 1977-1978, she served as staff counsel to the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations.[3]

Career

  • 1987-1990: Municipal judge, Houston, TX
  • 1990-1994: Houston, TX, city council member
  • 1995-present: U.S. House of Representatives

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Jackson Lee serves on the following committees:[4]

2011-2012

Jackson Lee was a member of the following House committees:[5]

  • Committee on Judiciary
    • Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition, and the Internet
    • Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security
    • Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement
  • Committee on Homeland Security
    • Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security
    • Subcommittee on Transportation Security Ranking member

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1%) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14% of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[6] For more information pertaining to Lee's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[7]

National security

NDAA

Voted "Yes" Lee voted for HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[8]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Lee voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[9]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Lee voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[10]

Economy

Farm bill

Voted "No" On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, known as the Farm Bill.[11] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill provides for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[12][13] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[13] Jackson Lee voted with 102 other Democratic representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Voted "Yes" On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[14][15] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[15] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[16] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Jackson Lee joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[14][15]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "No" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[17] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[18] Lee voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[19]

Voted "Yes" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[20] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Lee voted for HR 2775.[21]

Federal Pay Adjustment Elimination

Neutral/Abstain Lee did not vote on HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[22]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Lee voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[23] The vote largely followed party lines.[24]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "No" Lee voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[25]

Social issues

Abortion

Voted "No" Lee voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[26]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Jackson Lee voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. She was 1 of 172 Democrats that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[27]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Sheila Jackson Lee's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of all Congressional members based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Jackson Lee is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Jackson Lee received a score of 74 percent on personal issues and 8 percent on economic issues.[28]

On The Issues organization logo.
On The Issues Vote Quiz
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Favors Expand the military Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Strongly Favors
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Strongly Opposes
Note: Information last updated in 2014.[28]

American response in Syria

See also: United States involvement in Syria

On August 29, 2013, more than 50 House Democrats signed a letter written by California Rep. Barbara Lee that called for a congressional resolution on strikes, and cautioned that the dire situation in Syria "should not draw us into an unwise war—especially without adhering to our constitutional requirements."[29][30] The letter also called on the Obama administration to work with the U.N. Security Council “to build international consensus” condemning the alleged use of chemical weapons. Jackson Lee was 1 of the 50 Democrats in the House to sign the letter.[29][30]

House Judiciary Committee

Congresswoman Jackson Lee was first appointed to the House Judiciary Committee shortly after she was first sworn into Congress in 1995.[31] Jackson Lee has served on the committee throughout her entire congressional career.[32]

Elections

2014

See also: Texas' 18th Congressional District elections, 2014

Jackson Lee is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. She won the Democratic nomination in the primary election on March 4, 2014, with no opposition. She will face Sean Seibert (R) in the general election on November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: Texas' 18th Congressional District elections, 2012

Jackson Lee won re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing Texas' 18th District. She ran unopposed in the Democratic primary on May 29, 2012. She defeated Sean Seibert (R) and Christopher Barber (L) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[33][34]

U.S. House, Texas District 18 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngSheila Jackson Lee Incumbent 75% 146,223
     Republican Sean Seibert 22.6% 44,015
     Libertarian Christopher Barber 2.4% 4,694
Total Votes 194,932
Source: Texas Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Jackson Lee is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Jackson Lee raised a total of $3,914,248 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 25, 2013.[44]

Sheila Jackson Lee's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $600,450
2010 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $825,310
2008 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $930,270
2006 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $395,014
2004 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $381,325
2002 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $319,836
2000 US House (Texas, District 18) Won $462,043
Grand Total Raised $3,914,248

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Jackson Lee's reports.[45]

Sheila Jackson Lee (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[46]April 6, 2013$160,294.34$20,900.00$(13,302.48)$167,891.86
July Quarterly[47]July 9, 2013$167,891.86$19,100.00$(18,001.07)$168,990.79
October Quarterly[48]October 5, 2013$168,990.79$46,900.00$(22,460.11)$193,430.68
Year-End[49]January 11, 2014$193,430$100,550$(24,197)$269,782
Pre-Primary[50]February 16, 2014$269,782$19,390$(15,440)$273,732
April Quarterly[51]April 5, 2014$273,732$26,500$(23,690)$276,542
Running totals
$233,340$(117,090.66)

2012

Breakdown of the source of Jackson Lee's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Jackson Lee won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Jackson Lee's campaign committee raised a total of $600,451 and spent $554,810.[52] This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.[53]

Cost per vote

Jackson Lee spent $3.79 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Jackson Lee's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Jackson Lee won re-election to the U.S. House in 2010. During that re-election cycle, Jackson Lee's campaign committee raised a total of $825,310 and spent $1,130,371.[54]

U.S. House, Texas District 18, 2010 - Sheila Jackson Lee Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $825,310
Total Spent $1,130,371
Total Raised by General Election Opponent $264,052
Total Spent by General Election Opponent $256,478
Top contributors to Sheila Jackson Lee's campaign committee
Air Line Pilots Assn$10,000
American Assn for Justice$10,000
Communications Workers of America$10,000
Intl Brotherhood of Electrical Workers$10,000
Laborers Union$10,000
Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee
Health Professionals$91,200
Lawyers/Law Firms$67,750
Transportation Unions$52,500
Industrial Unions$31,000
Building Trade Unions$31,000

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have personally benefited from their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the Government Accountability Institute:

  • The Net Worth Metric
  • The K-Street Metric (coming soon)
  • The Donation Concentration Metric (coming soon)
  • The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric (coming soon)

PGI: Net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Jackson Lee's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $524,010 and $1,362,998. That averages to $943,504, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Jackson Lee ranked as the 216th most wealthy representative in 2012.[55] Between 2004 and 2012, Jackson Lee's calculated net worth[56] increased by an average of 49 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[57]

Sheila Jackson Lee Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$193,259
2012$943,504
Growth from 2004 to 2012:388%
Average annual growth:49%[58]
Comparatively, the average citizen experienced a yearly decline in net worth of 0.94%.[59]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership, and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Jackson Lee is a "far-left Democrat" as of June 2013.[60]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[61]

Jackson Lee most often votes with:

Jackson Lee least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Jackson Lee missed 701 of 12,398 roll call votes from January 1995 to March 2013. This amounts to 5.7%, which is worse than the median of 2.2% among current congressional representatives as of March 2013.[62]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Jackson Lee paid her congressional staff a total of $935,934 in 2011. Overall, Texas ranks 27th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[63]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

2012

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Jackson Lee tied with two other members of the U.S. House of Representatives, ranking 59th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[64]

2011

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Jackson Lee ranked 105th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[65]

Voting with party

2013

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus. According to the website, Lee has voted with the Democratic Party 95.1% of the time, which ranked 115th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[66]

Personal

Jackson Lee and her husband, Dr. Elwyn C. Lee, have two children.[2]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Sheila + Jackson Lee + Texas + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Sheila Jackson Lee News Feed

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See also

External links

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References

  1. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Texas," November 6, 2012
  2. 2.0 2.1 Official House website, "Biography," accessed October 28, 2011
  3. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "Sheila Jackson Lee," accessed October 28, 2011
  4. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  5. Official House website, "Committees and Caucuses," accessed October 28, 2011
  6. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  7. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  8. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  9. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  10. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  11. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  12. Politico, "House clears Farm Bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  18. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  19. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  21. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  23. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  27. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  28. 28.0 28.1 On The Issues, "Sheila Jackson Lee Vote Match," accessed June 18, 2014
  29. 29.0 29.1 Office of Barbara Lee, "Lee Letter to President Obama," accessed September 2, 2013
  30. 30.0 30.1 Washington Post, "More than 50 House Democrats also want Syria strike resolution," accessed September 2, 2013
  31. Black Americans in Congress, "Committee Assignments," accessed August 2, 2011
  32. Congresswoman Sheila Jackson Lee, "111th Congress Committee Assignments," accessed August 2, 2011
  33. Texas Democrats, "2012 Candidate list," accessed May 10, 2012
  34. Texas Secretary of State, "Unofficial Democratic primary results," May 29, 2012
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  43. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
  44. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Sheila Jackson Lee," accessed March 25, 2013
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee Summary Report," accessed July 24, 2013
  46. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee April Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2013
  47. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee July Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2013
  48. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  49. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee Year-End," accessed February 6, 2014
  50. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee Pre-Primary," accessed April 20, 2014
  51. Federal Election Commission, "Sheila Jackson Lee April Quarterly," accessed April 20, 2014
  52. Open Secrets, "Sheila Jackson Lee 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 5, 2013
  53. Open Secrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  54. Open Secrets, "Sheila Jackson Lee 2010 Election Cycle," accessed October 28, 2011
  55. OpenSecrets, "Sheila Jackson Lee (D-Texas), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  56. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  57. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  58. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  59. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  60. GovTrack, "Sheila Jackson Lee," accessed June 7 2013
  61. OpenCongress, "Sheila Jackson Lee," accessed August 2, 2013
  62. GovTrack, "Sheila Jackson Lee," accessed April 2, 2013
  63. LegiStorm, "Sheila Jackson Lee," accessed September 17, 2012
  64. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013
  65. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  66. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed June 6, 2013
Political offices
Preceded by
Craig Washington
U.S. House of Representatives - Texas, 18th District
1995-Present
Succeeded by
-