South Carolina state budget

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South Carolina state budget

Flag of South Carolina.png
Budget calendar:  Annual
Current fiscal year:  2015
State credit rating:  AA+ (as of 2014)
Current governor:  Nikki Haley
Financial figures
GF expenses[1]:  $6.350 billion (estimated for FY 2013)
All funds expenses:  $22.300 billion (estimated for FY 2013)
Spending % change:  Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.96%[2]
% from federal funding:  33.3%
State debt:  $71,105,557,000
Per capita state debt:  $15,053
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Policypedia Budget Policy-logo-no background.png

Between fiscal year 2009 and fiscal year 2013, South Carolina's total expenditures increased by approximately $1.534 billion, from $20.766 billion in 2009 to $22.300 billion in 2013. This represents a 7.39 percent increase, below the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (9.06 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Indices for January 2009 and January 2013).[3][4]

This page contains information about budget processes and policy issues in South Carolina, including:

  • A summary of the budget drafting process
  • Trends in revenues and expenditures
  • Current fiscal year budget developments
  • Financial transparency measures

Budget process

The state operates on an annual budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[5][6]

  1. In July and August of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year, the governor sends budget instructions to state agencies.
  2. In September, agencies submit their budget requests to the governor.
  3. Budget hearings are held with state agencies in September and October.
  4. In January the governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature.
  5. Both the House and the Senate pass a budget. If these versions do not match, a conference committee consisting of both House and Senate members is assembled to reconcile the differences.
  6. The legislature must pass a budget with a simple majority by the beginning of the fiscal year, which is July 1. The governor may exercise line item veto power on the enacted budget.

The governor is constitutionally required to submit a balanced budget to the legislature. In turn, the legislature must pass a balanced budget, and any budget signed into law by the governor must be balanced.[6]

A rainy day fund, the General Reserve Fund, must maintain a balance equaling three percent of General Fund revenue. Rainy day funds may be withdrawn only for the purpose of covering operating deficits.[7]

South Carolina is one of 44 states in which the governor has line item veto authority.[6]

Current leadership

There are three primary entities that drive the state budget process. The Governor of South Carolina, chair of the Senate Finance Committee and the chair of the House Ways and Means Committee. As of February 2014, those individuals are:

Expenditures

Definitions

Although each state executes its budget process differently, the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) breaks down state expenditures into four general categories. This allows for comparisons among the 50 states. NASBO's categories are as follows:[8]

  • General fund: "The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state."[8]
  • Other funds: "Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds."[8]
  • Federal funds: "Funds received directly from the federal government."[8]
  • Bonds: "Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects."[8]

2013 expenditures

Breakdown of expenditures in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down expenditures for fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are provided to give additional context).[8] Figures for all columns except "Per capita expenditures" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita expenditures" have not been abbreviated.

Total state expenditures, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[8]
State General fund Federal funds Other funds Bonds Total Per capita expenditures
South Carolina $6,350 $7,792 $8,158 $0 $22,300 $4,670.31
Georgia $18,303 $11,752 $10,211 $808 $41,074 $4,110.62
North Carolina $20,602 $17,459 $12,543 $785 $51,389 $5,218.19
Tennessee $12,622 $13,055 $5,394 $382 $31,453 $4,841.92
Virginia $17,691 $9,546 $16,191 $1,167 $44,595 $5,398.65
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total expenditures and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[9]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditures by function

Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State expenditures in South Carolina can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures by function, FY 2012 (as percents)[8]
State Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other**
South Carolina 15.9% 21.0% 0.4% 21.7% 2.7% 6.6% 31.7%
Georgia 24.0% 18.7% 0.1% 21.5% 3.7% 5.2% 26.8%
North Carolina 23.2% 9.0% 0.5% 24.7% 4.2% 9.9% 28.4%
Tennessee 17.7% 12.8% 0.4% 30.7% 2.7% 6.4% 29.3%
Virginia 16.0% 13.1% 0.4% 16.2% 2.9% 11.3% 40.1%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers
Note**: "Other" expenditures include "Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), institutional and community care for the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, public health programs, employer contributions to pensions and health benefits, economic development, environmental projects, state police, parks and recreation, housing and general aid to local governments."[8]

Expenditure trends

Between 2008 and 2012, state expenditures for elementary and secondary education fell by nearly three percentage points, or 15.4 percent, as a share of the budget. During the same period, spending on higher education and Medicaid saw modest increases. The table below details changes in expenditures from 2008 to 2012.[8][10][11][12][13] Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below. Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures from 2008 to 2012 (as percents)
Year Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other**
2012 15.9% 21.0% 0.4% 21.7% 2.7% 6.6% 31.7%
2011 17.3% 21.0% 0.5% 20.7% 2.5% 5.7% 32.3%
2010 17.1% 20.9% 0.3% 22.6% 2.8% 9.1% 27.0%
2009 17.0% 21.0% 0.3% 23.00% 2.9% 6.9% 28.9%
2008 18.8% 20.6% 0.4% 21.1% 3.0% 7.5% 28.6%
Change in % -2.9% 0.4% 0% 0.6% -0.3% -0.9% 3.1%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers
Note**: "Other" expenditures include "Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), institutional and community care for the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, public health programs, employer contributions to pensions and health benefits, economic development, environmental projects, state police, parks and recreation, housing and general aid to local governments."[8]

Revenues

2013 revenues

Breakdown of general fund revenue sources in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down general fund revenues by source in fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context).[8] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[8]
State Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
South Carolina $2,448 $2,796 $265 $0 $742 $6,251 $1,309.15
Georgia $5,226 $8,486 $706 $0 $3,562 $17,980 $1,799.41
North Carolina $5,309 $10,958 $1,192 $0 $3,100 $20,559 $2,087.62
Tennessee $6,643 $126 $1,083 $0 $3,551 $11,403 $1,755.39
Virginia $3,249 $11,093 $821 $0 $1,259 $16,421 $1,987.92
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates for 2013.[9]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

In fiscal year 2013, personal income tax accounted for approximately 45 percent of all general fund revenues in South Carolina. Compared to the four neighboring states noted above, South Carolina's personal income tax to general fund ratio ranked fourth, behind 47 percent in Georgia, 53 percent in North Carolina, and 68 percent in Virginia.

Revenue trends

The table below details the change in revenue sources in the general fund from 2009 to 2013.[8][10] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, South Carolina ($ in millions)[8][10]
Year Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
2013 $2,448 $2,796 $265 $0 $742 $6,251 $1,309.15
2012 $2,354 $2,592 $212 $0 $700 $5,858 $1,240.20
2011 $2,245 $2,396 $183 $0 $809 $5,633 $1,205.30
2010 $2,191 $2,144 $149 $0 $771 $5,255 $1,133.43
2009 $2,248 $2,327 $207 $0 $762 $5,544 $1,215.46
Change in % 8.90% 20.16% 28.02% N/A -2.63% 12.75% 7.71%
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[9][14]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State budgets by year

Fiscal year 2015

DocumentIcon.jpg See budget bill: H 4701

Governor Nikki Haley announced her fiscal year 2015 budget proposal on January 13, 2014. Under the governor's proposal, total spending for fiscal year 2015 would have equaled approximately $23.5 billion, including $6.6 billion in general fund spending.[15]

On June 11, 2014, Haley signed into law the fiscal year 2015 budget. The enacted budget totaled $24 billion, a 6.7 percent increase over fiscal year 2014.[15]

Fiscal year 2014

South Carolina state budget -- 2014
South Carolina State Legislature
Text:A101, R120, H3710
Legislative history
Introduced:March 5, 2013
House:March 13, 2013
Vote (lower house):116-1
Senate:May 28, 2013
Vote (upper house):34-7
Conference:June 19, 2013
Conference vote (upper house):39-5
Conference vote (lower house):54-52
Governor:Nikki Haley
Signed:June 25, 2013

The fiscal year 2014 budget was signed into law by Governor Nikki Haley on June 25, 2013. The $22.8 billion spending plan included a $6.7 billion General Fund, $7.6 billion in federal funds and $8.4 billion in other funds (e.g., grants, agency fees, fines, etc.). While the budget easily cleared the state Senate, it passed by only a two-vote margin in the House.[16]

Budget opponents disapproved of the inclusion of tax credits for private school tuition, a lack of expanded Medicaid eligibility, and a failure to institute a cost-of-living wage increase for state employees. Supporters of the budget pointed to allocations for infrastructure improvement and expanded full-day pre-school programs.[16]

Fiscal year 2013

See also: South Carolina state budget (2012-2013)

Fiscal year 2012

See also: South Carolina state budget (2011-2012)

Fiscal year 2011

See also: South Carolina state budget (2010-2011)

Fiscal year 2010

See also: South Carolina state budget (2009-2010)

Historical spending

State budget historical spending below was compiled by the National Association of State Budget Officers. Figures reflect the reported Total Expenditures in Table 1. Figures for all columns are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000).[8][11]

Historical state budget spending in South Carolina ($ in millions)
Fiscal year General Fund Other funds Federal funds Bonds Budget totals
Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget
2011-2012 $5,517 25% $9,284 42% $7,164 32.4% $123 0.6% $22,088
2010-2011 $5,275 23.8% $9,821 44.3% $6,988 31.5% $104 0.5% $22,188
2009-2010 $5,146 26.1% $7,691 39% $6,779 34.4% $86 0.4% $19,702
Averages: $5,312.67 25% $8,932 42% $6,977 33% $104.333 0% $21,326
General Fund: The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state.
Other funds: Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds.
Federal funds: Funds received directly from the federal government.
Bonds: Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects.

State debt

According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, South Carolina had a state debt of over $71 billion. Its state debt per capita was $15,053. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded public pensions.[17][18]

Total state debt in South Carolina[19]
Type Totals U.S. rank
Total state debt $71,105,557,000 23
Per capita debt $15,053 23
State and other fund expenditures $12,681,000,000 10

Public pensions

See also: South Carolina public pensions and South Carolina public employee salaries

At the close of 2012, South Carolina's public pension system had total estimated liabilities of $43.5 billion. Of these liabilities, roughly 67.8 percent were funded, meaning the pension system had total unfunded liabilities of approximately $13.9 billion.[20]

Credit ratings

See also: State credit ratings

Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states that take into account a state's ability to pay debts and the general health of the state's economy. Generally speaking, a higher credit rating indicates lower interest costs on the general obligation bonds states sometimes sell to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). This is turn results in lower interest costs, thereby lowering the cost to taxpayers.[21][22]

The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit ratings for South Carolina and surrounding states from 2004 to 2014. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest.[23]

State credit ratings, 2004 to 2014
State 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
South Carolina AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AAA
Georgia AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA
North Carolina AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA
Tennessee AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA AA
Virginia AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA
Source: Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2014," June 9, 2014.

Federal aid to state budget

See also: Federal aid to budgets in the 50 states

The chart below notes how much of the state’s general revenues come from the federal government. Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s federal intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue. The number in the rightmost column indicates the state's ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (e.g., if "1," the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation). Figures from neighboring states are included to provide additional context.[24]

State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, Mississippi received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, Alaska received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.[24]

Federal aid to state budgets in 2012
State Federal aid as % of general revenue Total federal aid ($ in millions) National rank
South Carolina 32.45% $6,893 29
Georgia 38.06% $13,795 7
North Carolina 33.24% $15,193 26
Tennessee 41.02% $11,199 3
Virginia 23.53% $9,278 48

Stimulus

South Carolina received $4.39 billion in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 2013.[25]

Budget transparency

Transparency evaluation
Searchability Y
600px-Yes check.png
Grants N
600px-Red x.png
Contracts Y
600px-Yes check.png
Line item expenditures Y
600px-Yes check.png
Dept./agency budgets N
600px-Red x.png
Public employee salaries N
600px-Red x.png
Last evaluated in 2009.

South Carolina Spending Transparency is the publicly available website created by the South Carolina government. It discloses information about South Carolina's spending, and is managed by the Comptroller. South Carolina's current Comptroller, Richard Eckstrom, has written extensively on the importance of state and local transparency.[26] In December 2008, he wrote:

"Earlier this year, I worked with Gov. Mark Sanford to create an easy-to-use spending transparency website. It contains detailed spending information for more than 80 state agencies, giving the public more access than ever to information about how state government spends its hard-earned tax dollars. This website, which is available through my office’s site (www.cg.sc.gov), is serving as a national model for other states attempting their own transparency initiatives. Several states have contacted me hoping to duplicate our open-government ideas."[26]

Government tools

See also: Evaluation of South Carolina state website

South Carolina Spending Transparency provides a searchable expenditures database.[27]

The table to the right is helpful in evaluating the accessibility and scope of the information provided by the South Carolina Spending Transparency page.

Support for creation of the database

Governor Mark Sanford signed South Carolina Executive Order 2007-14 on August 30, 2007. The order required the Comptroller to compile and disclose information concerning how the state agencies of South Carolina allocate revenues.

Exempted accounts

In 2012, 13 state agencies pushed to make 65 separate accounts exempt from oversight, meaning that the money in those accounts could only be reviewed by people inside the agency. Agencies are allowed to apply for such status with the Budget and Control Board if "release of the information would be detrimental to the state or agency."

Multi-measure budget transparency profile

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois created a multi-measure transparency profile for South Carolina, which measured state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measured both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presented four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.[28][29]

IGPA devised a budget transparency index based on information available from the National Association of State Budget Officers. South Carolina tied for eighth in the nation with 11 other states, earning six out of eight possible points.[30]

South Carolina - IGPA score for budget process, contents and disclosure
Budget transparency indicator Yes or no?
Performance measures
{{{1}}}
"Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" budget N
600px-Red x.png
Multi-year forecasting
{{{1}}}
Annual cycle
{{{1}}}
Binding revenue forecast N
600px-Red x.png
Legislative revenue forecast
{{{1}}}
Nonpartisan staff
{{{1}}}
Constitution or statutory tax/spend limitations
{{{1}}}
TOTAL 6

In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.[30]

U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report

See also: Following the Money 2014 Report

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[31] According to the report, South Carolina received a grade of D+ and a numerical score of 63, indicating that South Carolina was "lagging" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[31]

Budget gimmicks

The nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions released a report in January 2014 detailing what it calls budget gimmicks used by the states. The report is meant to highlight situations where states hide spending or misuse funds for purposes different from which they were initially intended. According to the report, South Carolina received funding as part of the National Mortgage Settlement in February 2012. The funds were supposed to be used to provide some restitution to homeowners who lost equity in the market collapse or lost their homes during foreclosure scandals. South Carolina was one of six states which did not direct any of the funds toward the agreed-upon uses.[32][33]

Accounting principles

See also: South Carolina government accounting principles

The South Carolina State Auditor performs financial audits of state agencies, the annual financial audit of the State's General Purpose Financial Statements, and the annual Single Audit of the State's Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Funds. (timed out) The audit reports are published online.[34]

The Institute for Truth in Accounting (IFTA) rates South Carolina “timely” in filing the state’s Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) -– the annual financial report of state and local governmental entities. IFTA rated 22 states "timely," 22 states "tardy," and 6 states as "worst." IFTA does not consider South Carolina's CAFRs, and those of the other states, to be accurate representations because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis does not include significant liabilities for the pension plans and for other post employment benefits, such as health care.[35] South Carolina's CAFRs are annual publications of the South Carolina Comptroller General, the state's top accountant. The Comptroller General is responsible for supervising state spending, keeping the state's books and maintaining accounting controls over state agencies. Richard Eckstrom has served as Comptroller General since 2002.[36]

External links

Additional reading

See also

Contact

South Carolina Office of State Budget
1205 Pendleton Street, Suite 529
Columbia, South Carolina 29201
803-734-2280

References

  1. Refers to General Fund spending. Typically in state budgets the General Fund is spending that is most directly controlled by state legislators.
  2. This figure is derived by calculating the percent difference between the prior two years' spending levels according to the National Association of State Budget Officers.
  3. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "CPI Detailed Report Data for February 2014," accessed April 9, 2014
  4. InflationData.com, "Cumulative Inflation Calculator," February 28, 2014
  5. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  7. South Carolina Budget and Control Board, "State Budget - FAQ," accessed February 21, 2014
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 United States Census Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013," accessed February 26, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  12. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  13. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  14. United States Census Bureau, "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Summaries of Fiscal Year 2015 Proposed and Enacted Budgets," July 11, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 The Times and Democrat, "S.C. General Assembly passes 2013-2014 budget compromise," June 20, 2013
  17. State Budget Solutions, "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  18. Washington Examiner, "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014
  19. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  20. South Carolina Retirement Systems 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," accessed February 27, 2014
  21. Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012
  22. Bankrate, "The 6 states with the worst credit ratings," September 27, 2012
  23. Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2014," June 9, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 United States Census Bureau, "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  25. Recovery.gov, "Stimulus Spending by State," accessed February 21, 2014
  26. 26.0 26.1 The Herald-Journal, "Urge local governments to put spending information online," December 28, 2008
  27. South Carolina Spending Transparency Database, "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014
  28. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois, "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014
  29. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois, "South Carolina: Budget Transparency Profile," September 2011
  30. 30.0 30.1 Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois, "Budget Transparency Profiles - All 50 States," September 2011
  31. 31.0 31.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  32. State Budget Solutions, "The worst state budget gimmicks of 2013," January 3, 2014
  33. Washington Examiner, "EXography: States use gimmicks, late payments and other accounting tricks to meet balanced budget requirements," February 18, 2014
  34. South Carolina Office of the State Auditor, "Home page," accessed November 11, 2009
  35. Institute for Truth in Accounting “The Truth About Balanced Budgets—A Fifty State Study,” Page 35
  36. South Carolina Comptroller General, "Home page," accessed November 11, 2009