Steny Hoyer

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Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer.jpg
U.S. House, Maryland, District 5
Incumbent
In office
May 19, 1981-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 33
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorGladys Spellman (D)
Leadership
House Minority Whip
2011-Present
House Majority Leader
2007-2011
House Minority Whip
2003-2007
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$16.08 in 2012
First electedMay 19, 1981
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$18,914,150
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Maryland State Senate
1966-1979
Maryland State Board for Higher Education
1978-1981
Education
High schoolSuitland High School
Bachelor'sUniversity of Maryland, College Park
J.D.Georgetown University Law Center
Personal
BirthdayJune 14, 1939
Place of birthNew York City, NY
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth$33,501.50
ReligionBaptist
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Steny Hoyer campaign logo
Steny Hamilton Hoyer (b. June 14, 1939, in New York City, NY) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Maryland's 5th Congressional District. Hoyer was first elected to the House in a 1981 special election following the resignation of Rep. Gladys Spellman due to incapacitating illness. Hoyer is currently serving his 16th consecutive term, having won re-election on November 6, 2012 .[1][2]

Hoyer is running for re-election in Maryland's 5th Congressional District in the general election on November 4, 2014. He officially filed to run for re-election on September 6, 2013.[3] He ran unopposed for the Democratic nomination in the primary on June 24, 2014.

Prior to his congressional career, Hoyer served as a member of the Maryland State Senate and Maryland State Board for Higher Education.

Hoyer currently serves as the minority whip for the 113th United States Congress.[4][5]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Hoyer is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

Hoyer was born in 1939 in New York, NY. After graduating from Suitland High School in Maryland, Hoyer went on to earn his B.A. from the University of Maryland at College Park and his J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1963 and 1966, respectively. Prior to his political career, Hoyer worked as an attorney.[6]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Hoyer's political career:[6]

  • Maryland State Senate, 1966-1979
    • President, 1975-1979
  • Maryland State Board for Higher Education, 1978-1981
  • U.S. House of Representatives, 5th Congressional District of Maryland, 1981-Present
    • House Majority Leader, 2007-2011
    • House Minority Whip, 2003-2007, 2011-Present

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Hoyer does not serve on any committees.[7][8]

2011-2012

Hoyer did not serve on committees, as he was the House Minority Whip.

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[9] For more information pertaining to Hoyer's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[10]

National security

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Hoyer voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[11]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Yea3.png Hoyer voted in favor of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[11]

CISPA (2013)

Yea3.png Hoyer voted in favor of HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[12] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[11]

NDAA

Yea3.png Hoyer voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[11]

Economy

Farm bill

Yea3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[13] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[14][15] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[15] Hoyer voted with 88 other Democratic representatives in favor of the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[16][17] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[17] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[18] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Hoyer joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[16][17]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[19] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[20] Hoyer voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[21]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[22] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Hoyer voted for HR 2775.[23]

Immigration


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Morton Memos Prohibition

Nay3.png Hoyer voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States. The vote largely followed party lines.[11]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Nay3.png Hoyer voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[11]

Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act

Nay3.png Hoyer voted against HR 2009 - Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act of 2013. The bill passed through the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 232-185. The bill would prevent the IRS and Treasury Secretary from enforcing the powers provided to them in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The vote largely followed party lines.[11]

Social issues

Amash amendment

Nay3.png Hoyer voted against House Amendment 413 - Prohibits the National Security Agency from Collecting Records Under the Patriot Act. The amendment failed on July 4, 2013, by a vote of 205-217. The amendment would have prohibited the collection of records by the National Security Agency under the Patriot Act. Both parties were split on the vote.[11]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Hoyer voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[24]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Steny Hoyer's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Hoyer is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Hoyer received a score of 60 percent on social issues and 10 percent on economic issues.[25]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[26]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Favors Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Favors
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Opposes
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[25]

Healthcare

Support for Affordable Care Act

Hoyer said on November 19, 2013, of the Affordable Care Act launch, “It’s had a rough rollout, to say the least, that’s disappointing. But it doesn’t undermine the fact that at its basis the Affordable Care Act will provide millions and millions of people with access to affordable, quality health care.”[27]

Social issues

Political positions

Kids Act

In January 2014, Hoyer attacked Eric Cantor prior to Cantor's speech at the Brookings Institute. Cantor's speech promoted school choice as a way of reducing income inequality. Hoyer said, "Talk is cheap. Performance is what pays off. The Kids Act provides for authorization, not appropriation, for pediatric research. Now, the [National Institutes of Health] spends $800 million annually on pediatric health. This bill, which they talk about and which Mr. Cantor thinks made a good statement, does make a good statement about the need for kids research [but Republicans] voted for a budget offered by [Paul] Ryan that would have the effect of cutting NIH by $6 billion, if the cuts were applied across the board. And of course politically it sounds very good because they take away from politicians and conventions. I don’t think anybody cares whether they take that money away or not, whether you have the public pay for that or the private sector pay for it." Hoyer concluded, "It’s very nice to go around the country and say you’re for education, but … you cut the Labor-Health bill by 22.6 percent in your budget. It’s very nice to say you’re for No Child Left Behind, but you didn’t fund it. So talk is cheap, performance is what counts, it’s the Reagan ‘Trust but Verify. Okay, so you say nice things. What are you doing?"[28] Cantor's spokesman Doug Heye responded, "House Republicans put talk into action by passing the Student Success Act, which included a Cantor amendment directing Title I money follow the student, and overwhelmingly approving the Gabriella Miller Kids First Act. We’re especially grateful for the 72 House Democrats who rejected both Mr. Hoyer’s cynicism and whip and voted for Gabriella Miller’s bill."[28]

Marijuana legalization

In January 2014, Hoyer responded to the possibility that the Maryland General Assembly would introduce bills to legalize marijuana in the state. "I'm not a proponent of legalization of marijuana. As I talked to people who deal with drug abuse issues, with rehabilitation issues, I became convinced that marijuana was, in fact, a threshold drug and it would lead to the use of harder, very harmful drugs," Hoyer said on C-SPAN on January 9, 2014.[29]

Campaign themes

2012

The following are issues which were highlighted on Hoyer's campaign website.[30]

  • Education

Excerpt "Congressman Hoyer also helped to enact the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act, which made critical investments in higher education by significantly increasing funding for Pell Grants, making loan repayment more affordable by expanding the Income Based Repayment program, and providing $2 billion to strengthen our community colleges."[30]

  • Energy

Excerpt: "He has supported legislation to improve energy efficiency to save families and businesses money, spur innovation and create good-paying jobs, lessen our reliance on foreign energy, and reduce the carbon pollution that causes global warming."[30]

  • Environment

Excerpt: "He has supported every major environmental bill since he was elected to Congress."[30]

  • Equal Pay

Excerpt: "Congressman Steny Hoyer believes in equal pay for equal work, and he's fighting to make it a reality. He helped pass legislation that requires companies to pay women the same wages for the same job as men."[30]

  • Jobs/Economy/Small Business

Excerpt: "He's taking the lead on the Make It In America agenda, a plan to create jobs by reinvigorating American manufacturing and fighting for a fair playing field for American companies that compete globally."[30]

Elections

2014

See also: Maryland's 5th Congressional District elections, 2014

Hoyer is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He is seeking the Democratic nomination in the primary election. He officially filed to run for re-election on September 6, 2013.[31] He ran unopposed for the Democratic nomination in the primary on June 24, 2014.The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: Maryland's 5th Congressional District elections, 2012

Hoyer ran in the 2012 election for the U.S. House to represent Maryland's 5th District. He defeated challenger Cathy Johnson Pendleton in the Democratic primary on April 3, 2012.[1] He defeated Anthony O'Donnell in the November general election.

The signature filing deadline for candidates wishing to run was January 11, 2012.[32]

U.S. House, Maryland District 5 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngSteny Hoyer Incumbent 69.4% 238,618
     Republican Anthony O'Donnell 27.7% 95,271
     Libertarian Arvin Vohra 1.3% 4,503
     Green Bob Auerbach 1.5% 5,040
     N/A Other Write-ins 0.1% 388
Total Votes 343,820
Source: Maryland State Board of Elections "Representative in Congress"
U.S. House, Maryland District 5 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngSteny Hoyer Incumbent 84.7% 36,961
Cathy Johnson Pendleton 15.3% 6,688
Total Votes 43,649

Full history


Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Hoyer attends.


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Hoyer is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Hoyer raised a total of $18,914,150 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[49]

Steny Hoyer's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $4,155,102
2010 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $4,511,873
2008 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $3,677,188
2006 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $2,354,470
2004 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $1,896,026
2002 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $1,060,007
2000 U.S. House (Maryland, District 5) Won $1,259,484
Grand Total Raised $18,914,150


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Hoyer’s reports.[50]

Steny Hoyer (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[51]April 15, 2013$777,032.09$385,020.97$(433,340.63)$728,712.43
July Quarterly[52]July 15, 2013$728,712.43$668,527.27$(511,266.18)$885,973.52
October Quarterly[53]October 13, 2013$885,973.52$473,490.17$(491,537.91)$867,925.78
Year-end[54]January 31, 2014$867,925$495,753$(185,329)$1,178,349
April Quarterly[55]April 15, 2014$1,178,349$427,698$(351,244)$1,254,804
Running totals
$2,450,489.41$(1,972,717.72)

2012

Hoyer won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Hoyer's campaign committee raised a total of $4,155,103 and spent $3,838,033.[56]

Cost per vote

Hoyer spent $16.08 per vote received in 2012.


2010

Hoyer won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Hoyer's campaign committee raised a total of $4,511,873 and spent $4,687,713.[57]


Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Hoyer's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $15,003 and $52,000. That averages to $33,501.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Hoyer ranked as the 395th most wealthy representative in 2012.[58] Between 2004 and 2012, Hoyer's calculated net worth[59] decreased by an average of 12 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[60]

Steny Hoyer Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$738,376
2012$33,501.50
Growth from 2004 to 2012:-95%
Average annual growth:-12%[61]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[62]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Hoyer is a "rank-and-file Democrat" as of August 4, 2014. This was the same rating Hoyer received in June 2013.[63]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[64]

Hoyer most often votes with:

Hoyer least often votes with:


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Hoyer missed 490 of 19,870 roll call votes from June 1981 to August 2014. This amounts to 2.5 percent, which is equal to the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of August 2014.[65]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Hoyer paid his congressional staff a total of $1,113,729 in 2011. He ranked 43rd on the list of the highest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 53rd overall of the highest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Maryland ranked 11th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[66]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year.

2013

Hoyer ranked 98th in the liberal rankings in 2013.[67]

2012

Hoyer ranked 76th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[68]

2011

Hoyer ranked 138th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[69]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2014

Hoyer voted with the Democratic Party 94.2 percent of the time, which ranked 63rd among the 204 House Democratic members as of August 2014.[70]

2013

Hoyer voted with the Democratic Party 95.6 percent of the time, which ranked 14 among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[71]

Personal

Hoyer and his wife, the late Judith Pickett Hoyer, have three children, four grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.[72]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Steny + Hoyer + Maryland + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Steny Hoyer News Feed

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See also

External links

Track-at-political-tracker-com.png
Political Tracker has an article on:
Steny Hoyer


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Maryland State Board of Elections, "Primary Election Results 2012," accessed April 3, 2012
  2. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Maryland," accessed 2012
  3. Washington Post, "Rep. Hoyer files for re-election to Maryland’s 5th Congressional District," accessed September 10, 2013
  4. U.S. Congress Bioguide, "Steny Hoyer Biography," accessed August 5, 2013
  5. U.S. House Website, "Steny Hoyer," accessed August 5, 2013
  6. 6.0 6.1 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Steny Hoyer," accessed December 1, 2011
  7. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  8. U.S. House of Representatives, "Committee assignments," accessed March 31, 2014
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  10. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Project Vote Smart, "Steny Hoyer Key Votes," accessed October 14, 2013
  12. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  13. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 NY Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  19. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  21. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  23. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  24. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  25. 25.0 25.1 On The Issues, "Steny Hoyer Vote Match," accessed July 1, 2014
  26. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  27. Politico, "Steny Hoyer: Dems still back Obamacare," accessed November 21, 2013
  28. 28.0 28.1 Roll Call, "Steny Hoyer to Eric Cantor: ‘Talk Is Cheap’," accessed January 7, 2014
  29. The Washington Post, "Hoyer opposes pot legalization in Maryland," accessed January 10, 2014
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 Steny Hoyer's Official Campaign Website, "Issues," accessed 2012
  31. Washington Post, "Rep. Hoyer files for re-election to Maryland’s 5th Congressional District," accessed September 10, 2013
  32. Maryland State Board of Elections, "2012 Primary Results," accessed 2012
  33. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  34. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1992," accessed March 28, 2013
  43. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1990," accessed March 28, 2013
  44. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1988," accessed March 28, 2013
  45. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1986," accessed March 28, 2013
  46. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1984," accessed March 28, 2013
  47. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 1982," accessed March 28, 2013
  48. Our Campaigns, "MD - District 5 - Special Election", accessed May 1, 2013
  49. Open Secrets, "Steny Hoyer," accessed May 16, 2013
  50. Federal Election Commission, "Steny Hoyer 2014 Summary reports," accessed October 28, 2013
  51. Federal Election Commission, "Steny Hoyer April Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  52. Federal Election Commission, "Steny Hoyer July Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  53. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  54. Federal Election Commission, "Year End Report," accessed February 17, 2014
  55. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  56. Open Secrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 16, 2013
  57. Open Secrets, "Steny Hoyer 2010 Re-Election Cycle," accessed November 29, 2011
  58. OpenSecrets, "Hoyer (D-MD), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  59. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  60. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  61. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  62. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  63. Gov Track, "Hoyer," accessed August 4, 2014
  64. OpenCongress, "Steny Hoyer," accessed August 4, 2014
  65. GovTrack, "Steny Hoyer," accessed August 4, 2014
  66. LegiStorm, "Steny Hoyer," accessed 2012
  67. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed August 4, 2014
  68. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  69. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  70. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  71. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  72. Official House Site, "Biography," accessed November 30, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Gladys Spellman
U.S. House of Representatives - Maryland District 5
1981–present
Succeeded by
-
Preceded by
'
Maryland State Board for Higher Education
1978–1981
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Maryland State Senate
1966–1979
Succeeded by
'