Terri Sewell

From Ballotpedia
(Redirected from Terri A. Sewell)
Jump to: navigation, search
Terri Sewell
Terri Sewell.jpg
U.S. House, Alabama, District 7
Incumbent
In office
2011-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 3
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorArtur Davis (D)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 4, 2014
Cost per vote$3.71 in 2012
First electedNovember 2, 2010
Campaign $$2,944,268
Term limitsN/A
Education
Bachelor'sPrinceton University, 1986
Master'sOxford University, 1988
J.D.Harvard University, 1992
Personal
BirthdayJanuary 1, 1965
Place of birthSelma, AL
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth$191,507
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Terri Sewell (b. January 1, 1965, in Selma, AL) is a Democratic member of the U.S. House representing Alabama's 7th Congressional District. Sewell was first elected to the House in 2010. Sewell serves as one of the Chief Deputy Whips of the Democratic caucus for the 113th Congress.[1]

Sewell won re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. She defeated Tamara Harris Johnson in the primary and was unchallenged in the general election on November 4, 2014.[2]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Sewell is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning she will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Sewell's academic, professional and political career:[3]

  • 1986: Graduated from Princeton University with B.A.
  • 1988: Graduated from Oxford University with M.A.
  • 1992: Graduated from Harvard University with J.D.
  • 2011-Present: U.S. Representative from Alabama

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Sewell serves on the following committees:[4]

2011-2012

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[5] For more information pertaining to Sewell's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[6]

National security

HR 644

See also: Bowe Bergdahl exchange

Neutral/Abstain On September 9, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 644, a resolution condemning President Barack Obama's act of exchanging five Guantanamo Bay prisoners for Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl.[7][8] The House voted 249-163 for resolution, with all Republicans and 22 Democrats supporting the bill. Fourteen Democrats and five Republicans did not vote on the resolution, while all other Democrats opposed its passage.[8] Sewell did not vote on the resolution.[7][8]

NDAA

Yea3.png Sewell voted for HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[9]

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Sewell voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[10]

CISPA (2013)

Yea3.png Sewell voted for HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill permitted federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[11]

Economy

Farm bill

Yea3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[12] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[13][14] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[14] Sewell voted with 88 other Democratic representatives in favor of the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[15][16] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[16] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[17] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Sewell joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[15][16]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[18] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[19] Sewell voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[20]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[21] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Sewell voted for HR 2775.[22]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Nay3.png Sewell voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill called for a stop to a 0.5 percent pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years. Sewell was 1 of 144 Democrats who voted against it.[23]

Immigration


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Morton Memos Prohibition

Nay3.png Sewell voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[24] The vote largely followed party lines.[25]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Nay3.png Sewell voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[26]

Social issues

Abortion

Nay3.png Sewell voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill was to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[27]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Sewell voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. She was 1 of 172 Democrats that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[28]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Terri Sewell's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Sewell is a Liberal Populist. Sewell received a score of 55 percent on social issues and 24 percent on economic issues.[29]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[30]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Unknown
Absolute right to gun ownership Unknown Human needs over animal rights Strongly Favors
Higher taxes on the wealthy Unknown Stricter punishment reduces crime Unknown
Support & expand free trade Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Unknown
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Unknown
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Unknown
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Favors Stay out of Iran Strongly Opposes
Privatize Social Security Unknown Never legalize marijuana Unknown
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[29]

Campaign themes

2014

Sewell's official website listed the following issues:[31]

  • Education
Excerpt: "A successful workforce starts with a solid education base. As a product of public schools and the daughter of two educators, I know firsthand the difference that a strong education can make in achieving the American Dream, regardless of race, gender, or socioeconomic background. Improving education can help break the cycle of poverty that affects families all across west Alabama."
  • Healthcare
Excerpt: "Every person in the 7th Congressional District, Alabama and across America deserves access to affordable, quality health care, whether you live in a city or a small town. That is why I strongly support President Obama’s health care plan and the health care reform signed in to law last March."
  • Jobs and Economy
Excerpt: "We must create good-paying jobs, and support the millions of Americans who work hard every day to take care of their families. This means working diligently to address the immediate problems of unemployment, falling home prices and limping credit markets, while laying out a long-term plan that ensures future economic growth that benefits all Americans."

Domestic violence

On August 9, 2014, U.S. District Judge Mark Fuller was arrested for misdemeanor battery following a phone call to 911 from his wife. Following the arrest, Sewell called for Fuller's resignation. She said, "All acts of domestic violence are unacceptable and should not be tolerated. No one committing such abusive acts should get a pass. This is especially true for those charged with upholding and enforcing the law. Judge Fuller has violated the public trust and should resign."[32]

Elections

2014

See also: Alabama's 7th Congressional District elections, 2014

Sewell ran for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. She defeated Tamara Harris Johnson in the Democratic primary election on June 3, 2014, and was unchallenged in the general election.[33][2]

U.S. House, Alabama District 7 General Election, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngTerri Sewell Incumbent 98.4% 133,687
     N/A Write-in 1.6% 2,212
Total Votes 135,899
Source: Alabama Secretary of State
U.S. House, Alabama District 7 Democratic Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngTerri Sewell Incumbent 83.9% 74,830
Tamara Harris Johnson 16.1% 14,345
Total Votes 89,175
Source: Politico

2012

See also: United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama, 2012

Sewell won re-election to the 7th Congressional District in 2012. She was unopposed in the Democratic primary and defeated Don Chamberlain (R) in the November 6 general election.[34]

U.S. House, Alabama District 7 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngTerri Sewell Incumbent 75.8% 232,520
     Republican Don Chamberlain 24.1% 73,835
     N/A Write-In 0.1% 203
Total Votes 306,558
Source: Alabama Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"

Full history


Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Sewell attends.


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Sewell is available dating back to 2010. Based on available campaign finance records, Sewell raised a total of $2,944,268 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 21, 2013.[36]

Terri Sewell's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Alabama, District 7) Won $1,204,449
2010 US House (Alabama, District 7) Won $1,739,819
Grand Total Raised $2,944,268


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

2014

Candidates for Congress were required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Sewell's reports.[37]

Terri Sewell (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[38]April 15, 2013$377,613.87$162,712.88$(138,889.89)$401,436.86
July Quarterly[39]July 15, 2013$401,436.86$226,619.59$(110,933.64)$517,122.81
October Quarterly[40]October 16, 2013$517,122.81$127,555.62$(81,203.71)$563,474.72
Year-End[41]January 31, 2014$563,474$163,548$(74,952)$652,070
April Quarterly[42]April 15, 2014$652,070$258,226$(95,063)$815,233
Pre-Primary[43]May 22, 2014$815,233$173,753$(450,329)$538,657
July Quarterly[44]July 15, 2014$538,657$151,479$(197,036)$493,100
October Quarterly[45]October 15, 2014$493,100$148,982$(176,431)$465,651
Running totals
$1,412,876.09$(1,324,838.24)

2012

Sewell won re-election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Sewell's campaign committee raised a total of $1,204,450 and spent $862,853.[46] This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.[47]

Cost per vote

Sewell spent $3.71 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Sewell won election to the U.S. House in 2010. During that election cycle, Sewell's campaign committee raised a total of $1,739,819 and spent $1,703,600.[48]

Her top five contributors between 2009-2010 were:


Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Sewell's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $-636,982 and $1,019,997. That averages to $191,507, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Sewell ranked as the 348th most wealthy representative in 2012.[49] Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[50]

Terri Sewell Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2009$-204,931
2012$191,507
Growth from 2009 to 2012:N/A
Average annual growth:N/A
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[51]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

PGI: Donation Concentration Metric

See also: The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

Filings required by the Federal Election Commission report on the industries that give to each candidate. Using campaign filings and information calculated by OpenSecrets.org, Ballotpedia calculated the percentage of donations by industry received by each incumbent over the course of his or her career (or 1989 and later, if elected prior to 1988). Sewell received the most donations from individuals and PACs employed by the Lawyers/Law Firms industry.

From 2009-2014, 33.87 percent of Sewell's career contributions came from the top five industries as listed below.[52]

Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png
Terri Sewell Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $4,205,678
Total Spent $3,714,796
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$659,788
Securities & Investment$249,000
Insurance$205,800
Commercial Banks$164,700
Women's Issues$145,272
% total in top industry15.69%
% total in top two industries21.61%
% total in top five industries33.87%

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Sewell is a "rank-and-file Democrat" as of July 2014. This was the same rating Sewell received in June 2013.[53]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[54]

Sewell most often votes with:

Sewell least often votes with:


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Sewell missed 70 of 2,678 roll call votes from January 2011 to July 2014. This amounts to 2.6 percent, which is worse than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.[55]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Sewell paid her congressional staff a total of $842,301 in 2011. She ranked 13th on the list of the lowest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 90th overall of the lowest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Alabama ranked 22nd in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[56]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2013

Sewell ranked 174th in the liberal rankings in 2013.[57]

2012

Sewell ranked 143rd in the liberal rankings in 2012.[58]

2011

Sewell ranked 164th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[59]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2014

Sewell voted with the Democratic Party 90.6 percent of the time, which ranked 152nd among the 204 House Democratic members as of July 2014.[60]

2013

Sewell voted with the Democratic Party 95.2 percent of the time, which ranked 113th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[61]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Terri + Sewell + Alabama + Congress

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Terri Sewell News Feed

  • Loading...

See also

External links


References

  1. Office of the Democratic Whip Steny Hoyer, "Hoyer Announces Whip Team for the 113th Congress," January 4, 2013
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Huffington Post, "Election 2014," November 4, 2014
  3. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "Terri Sewell," accessed October 28, 2011
  4. CQ.com - Roll Call, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed January 18, 2013
  5. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  6. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Hill, "House votes to condemn administration over Taliban prisoner swap," September 9, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 485," accessed September 10, 2014
  9. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  10. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  11. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  12. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 NY Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  19. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  20. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  21. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  22. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  23. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  24. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  27. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  28. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 On The Issues, "Terri Sewell Vote Match," accessed June 18, 2014
  30. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  31. Office website, "Issues," accessed September 12, 2013 (dead link)
  32. CBS News, "Lawmakers call for resignation of judge charged with domestic violence," September 18, 2014
  33. Politico, "2014 Alabama House Primaries Results," June 3, 2014
  34. ABC News, "2012 General Election Results," accessed November 6, 2012
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Terri Sewell," accessed March 21, 2013
  37. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell Summary Report," accessed July 22, 2013
  38. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell April Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
  39. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell July Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
  40. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell October Quarterly," accessed October 21, 2013
  41. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell Year-End," accessed February 4, 2014
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell April Quarterly," accessed April 17, 2014
  43. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell Pre-Primary," accessed June 2, 2014
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2014
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Terri Sewell October Quarterly," accessed October 20, 2014
  46. Open Secrets, "Terri Sewell 2012 Election Cycle," accessed February 19, 2013
  47. Open Secrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  48. Open Secrets, "Jeff Sessions 2010 Election Cycle," accessed October 28 2011
  49. OpenSecrets, "Terri A. Sewell (D-Ala), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  50. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  51. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  52. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Terri A. Sewell," accessed September 19, 2014
  53. GovTrack, "Terri Sewell," accessed July 21, 2014
  54. OpenCongress, "Terri Sewell," accessed July 18, 2014
  55. GovTrack, "Terri Sewell," accessed July 21, 2014
  56. LegiStorm, "Terri Sewell," accessed August 21, 2012
  57. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 18, 2014
  58. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," February 21, 2013
  59. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  60. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  61. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
Political offices
Preceded by
Artur Davis
U.S. House - Alabama District 7
2011-Present
Succeeded by
-