Texas state budget and finances

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Texas budget and finances
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General information
Budget calendar:
Biennial
Fiscal year:
2015
State credit rating:
AAA (as of 2014)
Current governor:
Greg Abbott
Financial figures
Total spending (state and federal funds):
$100 billion (estimated for 2014)
Per capita spending:
$3,711.44 (estimated for 2014)
Total state tax collections:
$51.7 billion (2013)
Per capita tax collections:
$1,951.07 (2013)
State debt:
$340.9 billion (as of 2014)
Per capita state debt:
$13,083 (as of 2014)
State budgets and finances
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Total state expendituresState debtTax policy in Texas
Note: This page utilizes information from a variety of sources. As such, the currency of the information varies somewhat. The information presented on this page reflects the most recent data available as of February 2015.

Between fiscal years 2013 and 2014, total government spending in Texas increased by approximately $8.3 billion, from $91.7 billion in fiscal year 2013 to an estimated $100 billion in 2014. This represents a 9.1 percent increase. The cumulative rate of inflation during the same period was 1.58 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Indices for January 2013 and January 2014. As of 2014, financial services firm Standard and Poor's had assigned Texas a credit rating of AAA.[1][2][3]

In 2013, Texas's state tax collections per capita equaled $1,951, the ninth-lowest in the nation.

Spending

Definitions

The information below comes from the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO). These spending figures are broken into three broad categories in order to facilitate comparison between the states.[3]

  • State funds: State funds include general and other state-based funds. A general fund is "the predominant fund for financing a state's operations." Other state funds are "restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities."
  • Federal funds: Federal funds are "funds received directly from the federal government."
  • Total spending: Total spending is calculated by adding together the totals for state and federal funds.

These figures exclude spending from the sale of bonds.

2014 expenditures

See also: Total state expenditures

The table below breaks down estimated spending totals for fiscal year 2014 (comparable figures from surrounding states are included to provide additional context). Figures for all columns except "Population” and “Per capita spending" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the columns labeled "Population” and “Per capita spending" have not been abbreviated.[3]

In Texas in fiscal year 2014, estimated per capita spending equaled $3,711, less than in any neighboring state.

Total estimated state spending, FY 2014 ($ in millions)
State State funds Federal funds Total spending Population Per capita spending
Texas $65,373 $34,676 $100,049 26,956,958 $3,711.44
Arizona $16,068 $12,837 $28,905 6,731,484 $4,294.00
New Mexico $10,100 $6,126 $16,226 2,085,572 $7,780.12
Oklahoma $14,721 $7,425 $22,146 3,878,051 $5,710.60
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total spending and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[4]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Spending by function

See also: State spending by function as a percent of total expenditures
Breakdown of spending by function in FY 2013
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State spending in Texas can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2013 information is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percentages, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.[3]

In Texas in fiscal year 2013, K-12 education accounted for 27.4 percent of total state spending.

State spending by function as a percent of total expenditures, FY 2013
State K-12 education Higher education Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Trans-
portation
Other
Texas 27.4% 15.7% 0.1% 31.7% 3.6% 8.9% 12.6%
Arizona 18.6% 14.3% 1.2% 29.8% 3.5% 5.6% 27%
New Mexico 19.5% 19.3% 1% 25% 2% 5.7% 27.4%
Oklahoma 16.2% 22.7% 0.9% 23% 2.6% 7.1% 27.5%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers
Note: "Other" expenditures include "Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), institutional and community care for the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, public health programs, employer contributions to pensions and health benefits, economic development, environmental projects, state police, parks and recreation, housing and general aid to local governments."[3]

Spending trends

Between 2009 and 2013, the share of the Texas state budget spent on Medicaid increased from 7.5 percent to 31.7 percent. See the table below for further details (figures are rendered as percentages, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category).[3][5][6][7][8]

Spending by function from 2009 to 2013 (as percentages)
Year K-12 education Higher education Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
2013 27.4% 15.7% 0.1% 31.7% 3.6% 8.9% 12.6%
2012 28.7% 15.8% 0.1% 30.1% 3.5% 8.1% 13.8%
2011 30.0% 11.8% 0.1% 24.6% 4.1% 7.7% 21.6%
2010 29.3% 10.0% 0.3% 24.6% 4.0% 7.2% 24.6%
2009 31.0% 11.4% 0.4% 7.5% 3.9% 8.7% 37.2%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers
Note: "Other" expenditures include "Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), institutional and community care for the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, public health programs, employer contributions to pensions and health benefits, economic development, environmental projects, state police, parks and recreation, housing and general aid to local governments."[3]

Revenues

2013 revenues

See also: State government tax collections by source

The table below breaks down state government tax collections by source in 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context). Figures for all columns except "Population" and "Per capita revenue" are rendered in thousands of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000). Figures in the columns labeled "Population" and "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.[9]

In 2013, Texas's state tax collections per capita equaled $1,951.07, less than in any neighboring state.

State tax collections by source ($ in thousands)
State Property taxes Sales and gross receipts Licenses Individual income taxes Corporation net income taxes Other taxes Total 2013 population Per capita collections
Texas N/A $39,277,583 $7,788,864 N/A N/A $4,647,848 $51,714,295 26,505,637 $1,951.07
Arizona $762,651 $8,206,708 $412,769 $3,397,707 $662,026 $29,829 $13,471,690 6,634,997 $2,030.40
New Mexico $71,587 $2,651,625 $255,968 $1,240,945 $267,457 $713,998 $5,201,580 2,086,895 $2,492.50
Oklahoma N/A $3,848,451 $1,010,430 $2,916,615 $585,146 $531,861 $8,892,503 3,853,118 $2,307.87
Source: Tax Policy Center, "State Tax Collection Sources 2000-2013," June 20, 2014
Texas tax collections by source in 2013
Source: Tax Policy Center

The table below lists 2013 tax collections by source as percentages of total collections. Sales taxes and gross receipts accounted for 76 percent of Texas's total tax collections in fiscal year 2013.[9]

State tax collections by source (as percentages)
State Property taxes Sales and gross receipts Licenses Individual income taxes Corporation net income taxes Other taxes
Texas N/A 75.95% 15.06% N/A N/A 8.99%
Arizona 5.66% 60.92% 3.06% 25.22% 4.91% 0.22%
New Mexico 1.38% 50.98% 4.92% 23.86% 5.14% 13.73%
Oklahoma N/A 43.28% 11.36% 32.80% 6.58% 5.98%
Source: Tax Policy Center, "State Tax Collection Sources 2000-2013," June 20, 2014

Current fiscal year budget

See also: Historic Texas budget and finance information

Fiscal years 2014 and 2015

DocumentIcon.jpg See budget bill: General Appropriations Act

Texas state budget -- 2014-2015
Texas State Legislature
Text:General Appropriations Act
Legislative history
Introduced:January 23, 2013
House:April 4, 2013
Vote (lower house):135-12-1
Senate:March 20, 2013
Vote (upper house):29-2
Conference:May 26, 2013
Conference vote (upper house):27-4
Conference vote (lower house):118-29
Governor:Greg Abbott
Signed:June 14, 2013

On June 14, 2013, then-Governor Rick Perry signed the fiscal years 2014 and 2015 budget into law. To access the complete text of the General Appropriations Act, click here.[10]

Some conservatives criticized the budget and argued that state spending was expanding too quickly. A few days before signing the budget into law Perry responded by saying, "I did read some of the criticism, and I'm not sure that those who were making that criticism have a really good handle on the Texas budgeting process. Frankly, I don't understand their math." Perry contended that critics were including a supplemental spending bill in their calculations, which he maintained should be considered separately from the larger budget.[11]

One-time expenditures from the state's Rainy Day Fund totaling approximately $4 billion were also included in the budget, primarily to pay for infrastructure projects and "accounting tricks used in previous budgets." Perry said, "This state is growing and we're growing fast, and we're putting great pressure on infrastructure, both transportation, water, schools, and we have been meeting that challenge rather well."[11]

State debt

See also: State debt

According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, Texas had a state debt of approximately $340.9 billion. Its state debt per capita was $13,083. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt. The obligation amounted to $16,178 per capita in the nation.[12]

Total state debt, 2014
State Total state debt State debt per capita Per capita debt ranking
Texas $340,944,239,000 $13,083 31
Arizona $61,082,635,000 $9,321 45
New Mexico $50,137,504,000 $24,041 7
Oklahoma $44,151,947,000 $11,574 40
Sources: State Budget Solutions, "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014

Public pensions

See also: Texas public pensions and Texas public employee salaries

A 2012 report from the Pew Center on the States noted that Texas's pension system was funded at 83 percent at the close of fiscal year 2010, above the 80 percent funding level experts recommend. Consequently, Pew designated the state's pension system as a "solid performer."[13]

The funding ratio for the state's pension system decreased from 88.75 percent in fiscal year 2008 to 83.14 percent in fiscal year 2012, a decrease of 5.61 percentage points, or 6.3 percent. Likewise, unfunded liabilities increased from nearly $20.9 billion in fiscal year 2008 to more than $37.2 billion in fiscal year 2012.[14][15][16][17][18]

Credit ratings

See also: State credit ratings

Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states that take into account a state's ability to pay debts and the general health of the state's economy. Generally speaking, a higher credit rating indicates lower interest costs on the general obligation bonds states sometimes sell to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). This in turn results in lower interest costs, thereby lowering the cost to taxpayers.[19][20]

The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit ratings for Texas and surrounding states from 2004 to 2014. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest.[21]

State credit ratings, 2004 to 2014
State 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Texas AAA AAA AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA AA AA AA AA
Arizona AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA AA AA AA AA
New Mexico AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+
Oklahoma AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA+ AA AA AA AA
Source: Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2014," June 9, 2014

Federal aid to the state budget

See also: Federal aid to state budgets

State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, Mississippi received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, Alaska received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.[22]

The table below notes what share of Texas’s general revenues came from the federal government in 2012. That year, Texas received approximately $37.3 billion in federal aid, 34.5 percent of the state's total general revenues. Figures from surrounding states are provided for additional context.[22]

Federal aid to state budgets, 2012
State Total federal aid ($ in thousands) Federal aid as a % of general revenue Ranking
Texas $37,310,756 34.51% 20
Arizona $10,394,549 36.46% 10
New Mexico $5,171,367 36.43% 11
Oklahoma $7,363,043 35.57% 15
Source: United States Census Bureau, "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014

Stimulus

Texas received $15.19 billion in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 1013.[23]

Budget process

The state operates on a biennial budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[24][25]

  1. Budget instructions are sent to state agencies beginning in March.
  2. Agencies submit their budget requests to the governor from July through September.
  3. Agency and public hearings are held from July through September.
  4. The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature on the 30th day of the regular session.
  5. The legislature typically adopts a budget in May. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The fiscal year begins in September.

Texas is one of 44 states in which the governor has line item veto authority.[25]

The legislature is legally required to adopt a balanced budget. Similarly, the governor must sign a balanced budget into law.[25]

Agencies, offices and committees

The following standing committees in the Texas State Legislature deal with budget and finance matters:

  1. Appropriations Committee, Texas House of Representatives
  2. Finance Committee, Texas State Senate
  3. Ways & Means Committee, Texas House of Representatives

Studies and reports

U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report

See also: "Following the Money" report, 2014

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[26] According to the report, Texas received a grade of A- and a numerical score of 91, indicating that Texas was "leading" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[26]

Budget and finance ballot measures

Voting on
state and local
government budgets,
spending and finance
State finance.jpg
Policy
Budget policy
Ballot measures
By state
By year
Not on ballot
See also: State and local government budgets, spending and finance on the ballot and List of Texas ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked the following ballot measures relating to state and local budget and financial matters in Texas.

  1. Texas Appropriations for Assistance Grants, Proposition 3 (May 1971)
  2. Texas Assistance for Economic Development, Proposition 4 (1987)
  3. Texas Assistance for Needy Children, Proposition 2 (1982)
  4. Texas Assistance for Spouses and Children, Proposition 7 (August 1969)
  5. Texas Assistance for the Disabled, Proposition 15 (1966)
  6. Texas Assistance for the Disabled, Proposition 8 (1962)
  7. Texas Assistance for the Needy, Proposition 2 (1951)
  8. Texas Assistance for the Needy, Proposition 2 (1962)
  9. Texas Assistance for the Needy, Proposition 2 (1963)
  10. Texas Assistance for the Needy, Proposition 5 (August 1969)
  11. Texas Assistance for the Needy, Proposition 8 (1954)
  12. Texas Buffer Areas for Military Installations, Proposition 1 (2009)
  13. Texas Building Construction at John Tarleton Agricultural College, Proposition 3 (1942)
  14. Texas Building Construction for John Tarleton Agricultural College, Proposition 1 (1946)
  15. Texas Certification of Appropriations Bills, Proposition 1 (1942)
  16. Texas Compensation Fund for Victims of Crimes, Proposition 10 (1997)
  17. Texas Confederate Pension Fund Transfer, Proposition 11 (1954)
  18. Texas Construction for Institutions of Higher Learning, Proposition 3 (1956)
  19. Texas County Permanent School Fund, Proposition 14 (1972)
  20. Texas Debt Payment Excepted from Appropriations Limitations Amendment (2015)
  21. Texas Dedication of Appropriations Amendment (2015)
  22. Texas Early Retirement of State Debt Amendment (2015)
  23. Texas Economic Development Program Loans, Proposition 3 (2005)
  24. Texas Economic Stabilization Fund, Proposition 2 (1988)
  25. Texas Expenditures for State Promotion, Proposition 7 (1958)
  26. Texas Farm and Ranch Finance Program, Proposition 3 (1995)
  27. Texas Federal Reimbursement of State Highway Funds, Proposition 1 (1988)
  28. Texas Finance Constitutional Provisions, Proposition 5 (1975)
  29. Texas Financial Assistance for Fire Departments, Proposition 17 (1989)
  30. Texas Financing Products and Businesses, Proposition 3 (1989)
  31. Texas Funding for Institutions of Higher Learning, Proposition 13 (1993)
  32. Texas Funding for Transportation Projects, Proposition 14 (September 2003)
  33. Texas Governor Fiscal Control, Proposition 5 (1980)
  34. Texas Grain Warehouse Fund, Proposition 1 (1987)
  35. Texas Growth Fund, Proposition 3 (1988)
  36. Texas Growth Fund Investment, Proposition 9 (1995)
  37. Texas Growth Fund Investments, Proposition 6 (1997)
  38. Texas Growth in Appropriations Limitations Amendment (2015)
  39. Texas Higher Education Assistance Fund, Proposition 2 (1984)
  40. Texas Improvements for Institutions of Higher Education, Proposition 1 (1965)
  41. Texas Investing Proceeds from Sale of Lands, Proposition 3 (August 1883)
  42. Texas Investing School Funds in Bonds, Proposition 3 (August 1897)
  43. Texas Investment of University Funds, Proposition 8 (1932)
  44. Texas Investment of the Permanent School Fund, Proposition 4 (1942)
  45. Texas Investment of the Permanent University Fund, Proposition 2 (1930)
  46. Texas Investment of the Permanent University Fund, Proposition 3 (1968)
  47. Texas Investment of the Permanent University Fund, Proposition 5 (1951)
  48. Texas Investment of the Public School Fund, Proposition 1 (1896)
  49. Texas Land for Permanent School Fund, Proposition 4 (1985)
  50. Texas Legislative Budget Session Amendment (2015)
  51. Texas Lending State Credit, Proposition 5 (1954)
  52. Texas Limitations on Motor Vehicle Revenue Use Amendment (2015)
  53. Texas Local Government Investments, Proposition 19 (1989)
  54. Texas Maximum Amount of Appropriations Amendment (2015)
  55. Texas Medical Care for the Needy Elderly, Proposition 3 (1964)
  56. Texas Mobility Fund, Proposition 15 (2001)
  57. Texas Motor Vehicle Revenue for Non-Tolled Roadways Amendment (2015)
  58. Texas Mutual Insurance Premiums, Proposition 6 (1984)
  59. Texas Negative Growth and Appropriations Amendment (2015)
  60. Texas Permanent School Fund Amendment, Proposition 6 (2011)
  61. Texas Permanent School Fund Transfer, Proposition 1 (1964)
  62. Texas Permanent University Fund Investment, Proposition 17 (1999)
  63. Texas Prohibition on Using Motor Vehicle Revenue for Policing Amendment (2015)
  64. Texas Public Assistance, Proposition 2 (1968)
  65. Texas Rail Relocation and Improvement, Proposition 1 (2005)
  66. Texas Rainy Day Fund Appropriations Amendment (2015)
  67. Texas Red River County Indebtedness, Proposition 4 (1940)
  68. Texas Reorganization of University Funds, Proposition 5 (May 1919)
  69. Texas Repayment of Transportation Funds, Proposition 2 (1991)
  70. Texas Retirement, Disability and Death Compensation System, Proposition 2 (1946)
  71. Texas Retirement Fund Investment, Proposition 7 (1991)
  72. Texas Retirement Fund for School Employees, Proposition 4 (1936)
  73. Texas School District Bonds, Proposition 12 (1989)
  74. Texas State Appropriations, Proposition 9 (1985)
  75. Texas State Debt Payable from General Fund, Proposition 11 (1997)
  76. Texas State Finance Committee, Proposition 3 (1981)
  77. Texas State Financing of Texas Business, Proposition 6 (1987)
  78. Texas State Medical Education Fund, Proposition 2 (1952)
  79. Texas State Water Fund Amendment, Proposition 6 (2013)
  80. Texas Student Loans, Proposition 8 (August 1969)
  81. Texas Survivors of Public Servants, Proposition 3 (1984)
  82. Texas Tomorrow Fund, Proposition 13 (1997)
  83. Texas Transferring Monies from the Permanent School Fund, Proposition 5 (August 1891)
  84. Texas University Fund Investment, Proposition 5 (August 1887)
  85. Texas Use of the Permanent School Fund, Proposition 9 (September 2003)
  86. Texas Veterans' Housing Assistance, Proposition 8 (1985)
  87. Texas Veterans' Land Fund, Proposition 1 (1951)
  88. Texas Veterans' Land Fund, Proposition 2 (1965)
  89. Texas Veterans' Land Fund, Proposition 2 (1977)
  90. Texas Veterans' Land Fund, Proposition 3 (1967)
  91. Texas Veterans' Land Fund, Proposition 5 (1956)
  92. Texas Veterans' Land Fund, Proposition 7 (1973)
  93. Texas Water Laterals, Proposition 3 (1985)

Texas Transportation Funding Amendment, Proposition 1 (2014)

See also: Texas Transportation Funding Amendment, Proposition 1 (2014)

The Texas Transportation Funding Amendment, Proposition 1 is on the November 4, 2014 general election ballot in the state of Texas as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment.

The measure would divert half of the general revenue derived from oil and gas taxes from the Economic Stabilization Fund (ESF), also known as the Rainy Day Fund, to the State Highway Fund for the purpose of providing transportation funding for repairs and maintenance of public roads. It's anticipated that this will result in approximately $1.2 billion per year going toward transportation funding instead of the Rainy Day Fund. If approved, the measure would take effect as soon as the votes are certified, and would apply to transfers the comptroller made after September 1, 2014.[27][28][29][29]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the terms "Texas budget."

Some of the stories below may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of Google's news search engine.

Texas state budget and finances - Google News Feed

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Contact information

Texas Governor's Office of Budget, Planning and Policy
1100 San Jacinto, 4th Floor
Austin, Texas 78711
Telephone: 512-463-1778

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "CPI Detailed Report Data for February 2014," accessed April 9, 2014
  2. InflationData.com, "Cumulative Inflation Calculator," February 28, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report: 2012-2014," accessed February 18, 2015
  4. United States Census Bureau, "State and County QuickFacts," accessed February 23, 2014
  5. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  6. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  7. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  8. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 Tax Policy Center, "State Tax Collection Sources 2000-2013," June 20, 2014
  10. Office of the Governor, "Gov. Perry Line-Item Vetoes in SB 1," June 14, 2013
  11. 11.0 11.1 The Texas Tribune, "Amid Criticism, Perry Defends State Budget," June 10, 2013
  12. State Budget Solutions, "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  13. Pew Center on the States, "Widening Gap Update: Texas," June 18, 2012
  14. Employees Retirement System of Texas, "2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," accessed November 20, 2013
  15. Teacher Retirement System of Texas, "2013 Actuarial Valuation Report," accessed November 20, 2013
  16. Texas Municipal Retirement System, "2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," accessed November 20, 2013
  17. Texas County and District Retirement System, "2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," accessed November 20, 2013
  18. Texas Emergency Services Retirement System, "2012 Actuarial Valuation," accessed November 20, 2013
  19. Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012
  20. Bankrate, "The 6 states with the worst credit ratings," September 27, 2012
  21. Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2014," June 9, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Census Bureau, "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  23. Recovery.gov, "Stimulus Spending by State," accessed February 21, 2014
  24. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  26. 26.0 26.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  27. AGC of America, "Texas Legislature Passes Transportation Funding Measure," August 12, 2013
  28. Bloomberg, "Texas Lawmakers Let Voters Decide on Transportation Funds," August 6, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 House Research Organization, "Constitutional Amendment on November 2014 Ballot," May 29, 2014