New editions of the State Legislative Tracker and The Policy Tracker available now!

The Executive Summary: Where did your state executives go to school?

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search


August 22, 2013

Edited by Greg Janetka

This edition of The Executive Summary features a look at the educational backgrounds of the current officeholders of the top four state executive official positions - Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, and Secretary of State. Meanwhile, Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell pledges to finish out his term as those seeking to replace him face controversies of their own, the AFL-CIO releases their potential 2014 targets, and a new Indiana State Auditor takes office. The handful of 2013 elections are in their final months as 2014 battles continue to take shape. And put on your thinking cap as we’ve got a trivia question headed your way.

Educating a state executive official

Where did current state executive officials go to school? How many earned undergraduate degrees? Graduate degrees? Which schools can count the most alumni? The State Executive Officials project on Ballotpedia has begun comparing educational backgrounds of the different offices to learn how the officials match up throughout the states.

There are currently 188 officials holding the top four state executive official positions of Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, and Secretary of State. Some official biographies do not appear to include all degrees earned. For example, some officeholders who have earned law degrees do not have undergraduate degrees listed. Thus, the following is based on available information. According to official bios there are:

  • 171 officeholders with a Bachelor's degree
  • 36 officeholders with a Master's degree
  • 107 officeholders with a law degree
  • 5 officeholders with a Doctorate
  • 3 officeholders with an MD
Breakdown of degrees held by current officeholders
Office Bachelor's Master's J.D. PhD MD
Governor 47 8 26 1 2
Lieutenant Governor 35 10 14 1 1
Secretary of State 41 13 17 2 0
Attorney General 48 5 50 1 0

Most popular schools by degree


  • Yale University: 6
  • Brown University: 5
  • Georgetown University: 4
  • Harvard University: 4
  • University of Notre Dame: 3
  • University of South Dakota: 3
24 schools have two alumni, the rest have 1


  • Boston University: 2
  • Harvard University: 2
  • Oxford University: 2
  • University of Maine: 2
All other schools have 1 alumni


  • Harvard University: 7
  • American University: 4
  • Georgetown University: 4
  • Yale University: 4
12 schools have two alumni, the rest have 1

Most popular undergraduate schools by position

  • Governor: Brown University (4)
  • Lieutenant Governor: No two attended the same school
  • Secretary of State: No two attended the same school
  • Attorney General: Brigham Young (2), Georgetown (2), Tulane (2), Notre Dame (2), Yale (2)
For full information on governors, see Where did your governor go to school? For a full breakdown of the other offices, see The education of state executive officials. Ballotpedia will continue to release education analyses on other positions in the future.

AFL-CIO targeting governors in 2014

AFL-CIO logo.jpg

Citing federal “gridlock,” Michael Podhorzer, Political Director of the AFL-CIO, told reporters last week that labor unions will likely focus most of their efforts in 2014 on the state level, saying, "Our focus is really going to be at the state level, because that's where we think that our constituents — working-class families, working families — are going to have the most at stake over the following four years."[1] To that end, Podhorzer named six Republican governors likely to be targeted for removal from office, all of which have publicly battled with unions during their term in office:

Workers' Voice is the Super PAC run by the AFL-CIO. In the 2012 election cycle, the Workers' Voice PAC spent a grand total of $6,331,541: $3,230,012 for Democrats, $6,466 against Democrats, $602 for Republicans, and $3,094,461 against Republicans.[2] Of those funds, 76.02 percent achieved the desired result, based on Sunlight Foundation analysis.[3]

Gov. Bob McDonnell

Gov. McDonnell to finish out term

Appearing at an event on Tuesday to highlight programs to help veterans in the state, Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell (R) made it clear that he has no plans to leave office early, despite ongoing controversies and calls for his resignation. “I’m going to be governor of Virginia for another ­4½ months,” he stated.[4]

Last month a handful of state legislators called for the governor to step down as details continued to emerge on gifts and loans McDonnell received from Star Scientific chief executive Jonnie R. Williams Sr. On July 23, McDonnell apologized and repaid over $120,000 in loans to Williams.[5]

Investigations of the matter are ongoing. The governor’s attorneys met with federal prosecutors on Monday to argue that McDonnell and his wife should not face criminal charges. The attorneys, along with the governor, offered no comment on the matter. New revelations emerged over the weekend, showing Maureen McDonnell purchased $30,000 in Star Scientific stock in 2011, just days after she received a $50,000 check from Williams.[6]

Candidate seeking McDonnell’s job face ethics questions of their own

 Ethical questions lead the debate in Virginia  

While embattled Governor McDonnell continues to fend off questions related to controversies, the two men seeking to replace him are dealing with similar issues themselves. The campaigns of Terry McAuliffe (D) and Ken Cuccinelli (R) have repeatedly attacked one another’s ethics, overshadowing arguably other more important issues in the state.

Like McDonnell, Cuccinelli's controversies center around his acceptance of gifts from Star Scientific CEO Jonnie Williams. Cuccinelli, the current Attorney General for the state, accepted $18,893 in gifts between 2009 and 2012.[7] While Bob McDonnell is returning all of his received gifts totaling $125,000, Cuccinelli has stated the type of gifts he received can not be returned. Cuccinelli received gifts that included Thanksgiving dinner, flights, and vacations. Along with those, McDonnell received personal and business loans given to him during his time as governor.[8]

Cuccinelli neglected to report some of the gifts, including the stays at Williams' house. He maintains that he had forgotten to include them and reported them as soon as an aide on his staff reminded him. In Virginia it is required that any gift over $50 be reported, but there is no penalty for an elected official who forgets to disclose gifts. Purposefully leaving out gifts is considered a misdemeanor.[9]

Meanwhile, Cuccinelli has attacked McAuliffe for his role in electric car company GreenTech Automotive, which is currently under investigation. Under a Congressional program called EB-5, foreign entrepreneurs and their families can make an investment to a United States company that will create at least ten full time jobs in exchange for permanent residence. GreenTech received $25 million in Chinese investments by way of 50 green cards. In order to try to expedite the process, McAuliffe set up meetings with high-ranking federal officials. The Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security is now attempting to determine if a top immigration official gave preferential treatment to GreenTech. Additionally, The Securities and Exchange Commission is looking into GreenTech’s solicitation of foreign investors.[10]

Leonard Bentz

Mississippi Public Service Commissioner resigns, timetable for filling seat uncertain

Leonard Bentz resigned from the Mississippi Public Service Commission on August 19, 2013 in order to take a job as executive director of the South Mississippi Planning and Development District. The new position offers a 48% bump in salary for Bentz, who was a state representative in Mississippi in addition to his career investigating for, and then serving on, the public service commission.[11] Governor Phil Bryant will appoint a replacement to serve out the remainder of Bentz's unexpired term, which is scheduled to end in January of 2016.

Bentz, a Republican, was appointed to the commission in 2006 and elected in 2007 and 2011. He served the Southern District and was the chairman in 2008 and 2013. He previously served in the Mississippi House of Representatives from 2004 to 2006 and was a Mississippi Public Service Commission Investigator from 1999-2003.[12]

Indiana auditor vacancy filled

Dwayne Sawyer was appointed Indiana Auditor of State by Gov. Mike Pence and took office on August 19, 2013.[13][14] Sawyer's predecessor, Tim Berry, stepped down prior to his term end date, scheduled for January 2015, in order to become chairman of the Indiana Republican Party. Pence had recommended Berry for the chairmanship, and he was confirmed for the position by GOP committee vote on July 22, 2013.[15]

Berry's resignation went into effect immediately upon his election as state party chair, thus activating Pence's gubernatorial authority to appoint an interim auditor who will serve out the remainder of Berry's unexpired term.[16] Before tapping Sawyer for the job, Pence had said that he wanted to replace Berry with someone who would run for a full term in 2014.[16][13]

Like Pence and Berry, Sawyer is a member of the Republican Party. His appointment makes him the first African-American from the party to hold statewide office in Indiana history.[17]

Iowa Utilities Board gets new member

On August 19, 2013, Sheila Tipton assumed office after her appointment to the three-member Iowa Utilities Board by Gov. Terry Branstad to a term ending in April of 2015.

Tipton is an attorney specializing in energy law.[18] She was appointed to the Iowa Utilities Board by Governor Terry Branstad on July 19, 2013 to fill the vacancy left by Swati Dandekar's resignation to run for Congress effective July 22, 2013.[19] She serves alongside Nick Wagner and current board chair Elizabeth Jacobs.

See also: State executive official elections, 2013
State Executive Official Elections Results in 2013
Office Incumbent Incumbent Party Incumbent Running? 2013 Winner Partisan switch?
Governor of New Jersey Chris Christie Ends.png Republican Yes Pending
Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey Kim Guadagno Ends.png Republican Yes Pending
Governor of Virginia Bob McDonnell Ends.png Republican No Pending
Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Bill Bolling Ends.png Republican No Pending
Attorney General of Virginia Ken Cuccinelli Ends.png Republican No (running for governor) Pending
Superintendent of Wisconsin Tony Evers Grey.png Nonpartisan Yes Tony Evers No
Mark your calendar
November 5General election in New Jersey and Virginia

There are three states holding state executive official elections in 2013 -- New Jersey, Virginia and Wisconsin. A total of six officials will be elected. The attention-grabbing positions up for election are Governor of New Jersey and Governor of Virginia. Both made The Washington Post’s list of the top five races to watch in 2013.


The first state executive election in 2013 took place in Wisconsin on April 2, 2013. Incumbent Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction Tony Evers won re-election to a second term against challenger Don Pridemore.[20] Evers, a career educator, handily defeated Don Pridemore, a Wisconsin State Assemblyman since 2005. Although the Superintendent of Public Instruction is a nonpartisan position, Evers is a Democrat and Pridemore is a Republican.

The race attracted considerable buzz in the lead-up to the election, owing in large part to the controversial education proposals put forth by Gov. Scott Walker (R) in his 2013-2015 budget plan, as well as Pridemore's penchant for provoking the media - with dramatic pronouncements about his campaign agenda or else by creating a blacklist of a number of "liberal"[21] political reporters.[22][23]

Evers received over 61% of the vote, equalling 487,030 votes. This figure points to Evers' growth in popularity since his initial election to the post back in 2009, when he won 439,248 votes and a roughly 15 percentage point victory over a different single challenger, Rose Fernandez.

Below are the official results of the superintendent race, certified by the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board on April 23.[24]

Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction General Election, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngTony Evers Incumbent 61.1% 487,030
     Nonpartisan Don Pridemore 38.7% 308,050
     Scattering Various 0.2% 1,431
Total Votes 796,511
Election Results via Wisconsin Government Accountability Board (dead link).



Current Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell (R) is ineligible to run for re-election in 2013 because of term limits. The term limits Virginia imposes on its governors are more strict than any other state in the country: under the commonwealth's constitution, no governor may serve back-to-back terms. This means that McDonnell, unlike other governors in their first term, is ineligible to run for re-election until a full term has passed.

There are no such term limits on the attorney general, and many were surprised at current AG Ken Cuccinelli's (R) decision to run for governor rather than seek another term. If not for Cuccinelli, Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling would have been the frontrunner for the Republican nomination to succeed current Governor Bob McDonnell. Bolling expressed more disappointment than surprise that Cuccinelli had chose to challenge him in the gubernatorial primary rather than be his lieutenant gubernatorial running-mate, noting "nothing he does surprises me."[25]

Bolling suspended his campaign on November 28, 2012, citing his slim chances beating tea party favorite and attorney general Ken Cuccinelli for the party's nomination. Bolling's withdrawal stems from a decision by Virginia Republicans to change their method for selecting gubernatorial nominees from open primary election to closed nominating convention.[26] Although Bolling was explicit about ending his pursuit of a place on the Republican ticket, he waited until March 12 before ruling out the possibility of running as an independent candidate instead.[27] About the alternative of seeking re-election to his current post, Bolling stated that, “Under normal circumstances, I would be open to the possibility of running for another term as lieutenant governor, but I would not be interested in running on a statewide ticket with Mr. Cuccinelli.”[28] He later said he regretted dropping out of the race as early as he did.[29]

McDonnell had previously pledged his support for Bolling's candidacy- in part because Bolling refrained from challenging McDonnell for governor in 2009. After Bolling bowed out, McDonnell chose to endorse fellow Republican Cuccinelli for his successor, despite Cuccinelli's outspoken opposition to McDonnell's Transportation Initiative, which is considered to be the centerpiece of his gubernatorial legacy. Ironically, Cuccinelli's future general election opponent, former Democratic National Committee Chairman Terry McAuliffe, has been equally outspoken on the issue, but as an advocate and defender of the outgoing governor's approach to amending the state's transportation funding policy.[30][31][32]

In response to the major party nominees, the Libertarian Party held a special convention and nominated Robert Sarvis as the party's official gubernatorial candidate.[33]

Like Cuccinelli and Sarvis, McAuliffe faced no primary contest. The three contenders will square off in the general election on November 5, 2013.[34]

On August 2, 2013, Sen. Charles Grassley (R-IA) revealed government documents implicating McAuliffe in a possible investment fraud being investigated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (S.E.C.). Grassley's findings that McAuliffe received special treatment from a high-ranking immigration official further entrenched the candidate in the controversy surrounding Greentech Automotive, a failed electric car company which he founded. Due to its poor performance and its employment of Hillary Rodham Clinton's brother, who handled the company's capital and is thus the target of the investigation, the environmental venture was a blemish on McAuliffe's campaign platform for reinvigorating the state's economy using his knowledge as an experienced businessman and successful job creator. The well-publicized development linking McAuliffe to the suspected fraud has made that blemish more pronounced and is considered to be a threat to his chances of overtaking Cuccinelli in the November general election. Cuccinelli had been the beleaguered candidate of the pair up until the Greentech S.E.C. investigation scandal broke and opened McAuliffe up for criticism regarding his history of "mingling politics and business."[35]

Governor of Virginia
Poll Terry McAuliffe (D) Ken Cuccinelli (R)Robert Sarvis (L)UndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Public Policy Poll
(July 11-14, 2013)
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to

Governor of Virginia: Cuccinelli v. McAuliffe
Poll Terry McAuliffe (D) Ken Cuccinelli (R)UndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Quinnipiac University
(Feb. 14-18, 2013)
Roanoke College Poll
(April 8-14, 2013)
Washington Post (Registered Voters)
(April 29-May 2, 2013)
Washington Post (Likely Voters)
(April 29-May 2, 2013)
NBC News/Marist Poll
(April 28-May 2, 2013)
Quinnipiac University
(May 8-13, 2013)
Public Policy Polling
(May 24-26, 2013)
Rasmussen Reports Poll
(June 5-6, 2013)
Quinnipiac University Poll
(July 11-15, 2013)
Quinnipiac University Poll
(August 14-19, 2013)
AVERAGES 41.2% 40.7% 17.1% +/-3.34 950.3
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to

Lieutenant Governor

Incumbent Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling (R) is not seeking re-election this year. Nine candidates filed to fill the imminently-open executive seat, including two Democrats and seven Republicans. State Sen. Ralph Northam defeated Aneesh Chopra for the Democratic Party's nomination for lieutenant governor in the June 11 primary election.[36] Northam's general election opponent is Republican E.W. Jackson. Jackson was nominated by delegates of the Virginia Republican Party at the party-funded statewide primary convention on May 17-18.[37]

Lieutenant Governor of Virginia
Poll Ralph Northam (D) E.W. Jackson (R)Not sureMargin of ErrorSample Size
Public Policy Poll
(May 24-26, 2013)
Public Policy Poll
(July 11-14, 2013)
AVERAGES 38.5% 32% 29.5% +/-3.9 636.5
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to

Attorney General

In March 2013, Governing magazine rated Virginia's open attorney general seat as "vulnerable" heading into the 2013-2014 elections because incumbent Republican Ken Cuccinelli is not running for re-election.[38]

The race to replace Cuccinelli began at the primary nomination stage; both Republican convention and Democratic election candidates drew primary contests. On May 18, two "strong fiscal and social conservatives"[38] -- state Sen. Mark Obenshain and state Rep. Rob Bell -- competed for delegate votes at the Republican Party of Virginia's closed nominating convention, which Obenshain won.[39] The nominee's late father, GOP politician Richard Obenshain, died in a plane crash during his 1978 campaign for U.S. Senate. Obenshain will square off against state Sen. Mark Herring in the general election. Herring defeated former assistant U.S. Attorney for Virginia Justin Fairfax in the Democratic primary election, which took place on June 11, 2013.[40][38]

Attorney General of Virginia
Poll Mark Herring (D) Mark Obenshain (R)Not sureMargin of ErrorSample Size
Public Policy Poll
(May 24-28, 2013)
Public Policy Poll
(July 11-14, 2013)
AVERAGES 35.5% 34% 29.5% +/-3.9 636.5
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to

New Jersey

Incumbent Republican Gov. Chris Christie and Democratic state Sen. Barbara Buono faced one challenger each in the primary election on June 4, though ultimately neither presented much of a challenge. Both won their respective party nominations with roughly 90% of the vote.[41][42]

Former Atlantic City Councilman Seth Grossman was the sole Republican to brave a run against the popular first term governor, whose star has long been on the rise but turned meteoric in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Grossman's campaign criticized Christie for being overly moderate, while Buono's opponent Troy Webster, adviser to the mayor of East Orange, believed he was uniquely suited to making New Jersey friendlier to "the working poor and middle class families who have been literally 'thrown under the bus.'"[43] Grossman and Webster were endorsed by the weekly publication NJ Today.[44]

In New Jersey, gubernatorial candidates have 30 days to select a lieutenant gubernatorial running mate to share the ticket with in the general election. Immediately after launching his re-election campaign, Christie secured his current Lt. Gov. Kim Guadagno as his running mate, while Buono waited until July 29 to formally announce her choice of union leader Milly Silva as her running mate. Silva is the executive vice president of 1199 SEIU United Healthcare Workers East.[45][46] The two-woman ticket will be up against incumbent Republican governor/lt. governor pair Chris Christie and Kim Guadagno in addition to a number of third party opponents in the general election contest taking place November 5, 2013.

Christie is heavily favored to win re-election, with his campaign raising nearly double that of Buono's so far and averaging a 30% edge over his Democratic competitor in the latest polls.[47][48] He also has bipartisan support, which is crucial in a state where Democrats outnumber Republicans by over 700,000, according to party registration statistics provided by the New Jersey Department of State.[49]

The New Jersey gubernatorial election was rated by the Washington Post as one of the top five races to watch in 2013.[50]

General election

(gov & lt. gov running-mate listed together)


See also: State executive official elections, 2014

Ballotpedia has counted and is currently tracking a total of 215 state executive positions in 42 states that will be on the ballot next year. That is more than double the number of positions that were elected in 2012, when 94 positions were elected. The eight states that are not holding executive official elections in 2014 are Kentucky, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Utah, Virginia, Washington and West Virginia.

The offices up for election include:

Notable candidates

Before declaring his entry into the lieutenant governor race on August 15, 2013, Critz had seriously considered a bid to re-claim his old seat, representing Pennsylvania's 12th Congressional District, from which he was narrowly ousted in last year's general election by Republican Keith Rothfus.[66][67]
  • Wyoming State Auditor Cynthia Cloud (R) announced on Monday that she would seek a second term in office. She said that one of her major accomplishments since taking office has been to “create a comprehensive inventory of all state-owned lands for the first time.”[68]

252px-Question book-3 trans.png

Vernon L. Larson

Q. Who is the first person to serve in three different constitutional offices in South Dakota?


Vernon L. Larson assumed the office of South Dakota Commissioner of School and Public Lands on August 15. Governor Dennis Daugaard announced the appointment on May 20, 2013 to fill the vacancy created by Republican officeholder Jarrod Johnson's resignation. Johnson was first elected in 2006 and subsequently re-elected in 2010.[69] He announced on April 5, 2013 that he would resign from office before the end of his term to spend more time with his family.[70]

Larson previously served as State Auditor and State Treasurer.[71] Serving as South Dakota Commissioner of School and Public Lands makes him the first person in South Dakota to have held three different constitutional offices. Larson stated upon the announcement of his appointment that he would not seek election to a full term as commissioner in 2014.[72]


  1. USA Today, “AFL-CIO eyes GOP governor races as 2014 priority,” August 13, 2013
  2. Open Secrets, "AFL-CIO Workers' Voice PAC Recipients, 2012," accessed July 8, 2013
  3. Sunlight Foundation, "Outside spenders' return on investment," November 14, 2012
  4. Washington Post, "Virginia Democrat to Gov. McDonnell: Explain gifts or resign," July 2, 2013
  5. Washington Post, “McDonnell apologizes, repays loans,” July 23, 2013
  6. Washington Post, “McDonnell touts budget surplus as lawyers huddle,” August 19, 2013
  7. Think Progress, Despite Ken Cuccinelli’s Claims, Records Show Deep Involvement In Bob McDonnell Ethics Controversy, July 10, 2013
  8. Newsplex, AP: Cuccinelli Says He Will Not Return Gifts From Star Scientific CEO Jonnie Williams, July 31, 2013
  9. Times Dispatch, Cuccinelli discloses more gifts from Star Scientific CEO, July 17, 2013
  10. Washington Post, “ Virginia gubernatorial candidates attack each other’s ethics again,” August 19, 2013
  11., "Leonard Bentz resigns from Mississippi Public Service Commission," August 20, 2013
  12. Project Vote Smart, "Biography of Leonard Bentz," accessed July 10, 2011
  13. 13.0 13.1 Indiana Auditor of State, "Homepage," accessed August 21, 2013
  15. Indiana Public Media, "Tim Berry Confirmed As Republican Party Chair," July 23, 2013
  16. 16.0 16.1 NWI Politics, "Governor seeks 'best' state auditor," July 11, 2013
  17., “Sawyer sworn in as new Indiana state auditor,” August 19, 2013
  18. Business Record, "Lawyer Tipton appointed to Iowa Utilities Board," July 22, 2013
  19. Iowa Utilities Board, "Vacant, Board Member," accessed May 23, 2013 (dead link)
  20. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Wisconsin April 2 election results," accessed April 3, 2013
  21. The Republic, "GOP education superintendent candidate's campaign blacklists 5 Wisconsin reporters," March 17, 2013
  22. Walworth County Today, "Wisconsin superintendent candidates to debate," March 12, 2013 (dead link)
  23. WisPolitics, "Pridemore Campaign: Pridemore vows to eliminate DPI mascot policy," March 28, 2013
  24. Wisconsin Government Accountability Board, "Canvass Certification: 2013 Spring Election," accessed April 18, 2013
  25. Richmond Times Dispatch, "Bolling on Cuccinelli: 'Nothing he does surprises me'," December 6, 2011
  26. The Washington Post, "GOP Fratricide in Virginia," December 1, 2012
  27. Washington Post, "Bill Bolling decides not to seek GOP nomination for VA governor," November 28, 2012
  28. The Roanoke Times, "Could Bolling run for governor as an independent?," November 28, 2102
  29. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, "Bolling regrets dropping out of the race so soon," April 22, 2013
  30. The Collegian, "Obama victory could cost Democrats Virginia governorship," November 15, 2012
  31. NBC 12- Decision Virginia 2013, "Transportation battle creates awkward political triangle," March 26, 2013
  32. Washington Post, "Cuccinelli vs. McAuliffe: Virginia governor’s race holds the eyes of the nation," March 29, 2013
  33. Independent Political Report, "Robert Sarvis Receives Libertarian Party of Virginia Nomination for Governor in 2013," accessed April 27, 2013
  34. Associated Press -, "Terry McAuliffe qualifies for Virginia June Democratic primary ballot," March 27, 2013
  35. The New York Times, "Clouds Spread to Democratic Side of Virginia Governor’s Race," August 2, 2013
  36. Blue Virginia, "Virginia Primary Election Results Live Blog," June 11, 2013
  37. The Washington Post, "Va. GOP settles on Cuccinelli, Obenshain and Jackson for November ballot," May 19, 2013
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Governing, "The 2013-2014 Attorneys General Races: Who's Vulnerable?," March 25, 2013
  39. The Washington Post, "Va. GOP settles on Cuccinelli, Obenshain and Jackson for November ballot," May 19, 2013
  40. Blue Virginia, "Virginia Primary Election Results Live Blog," June 11, 2013
  41. NJToday, "Primary election results," accessed June 5, 2013
  42., "Christie and Buono wrap yawner primary season," June 4, 2013
  43. Elect Troy Webster Official Campaign Website, "Biography," accessed June 4, 2013 (timed out)
  44. NJ Today, "EDITORIAL: Troy Webster For Governor," April 14, 2013
  45., "Barbara Buono picks union leader Milly Silva as running mate," July 25, 2013
  46. Barbara Buono and Milly Silva 2013 Official Campaign website, "Press Releases: Buono Names Milly Silva Candidate for Lieutenant Governor," July 29, 2013 (timed out)
  47. PolitickerNJ, "Christie and Buono wrap yawner primary season," June 4, 2013
  48. ‘’NJ News 12 “Poll: Christie remains popular in NJ” Accessed April 15, 2013
  49. New Jersey Department of State Elections Division, "Statewide Voter Registration Summary," May 7, 2013
  50. Washington Post, "The 5 best races of 2013," November 30, 2012
  51. New Jersey Division of Elections, "Candidates for Governor - Official List," June 28, 2013
  52. 52.0 52.1 Quinnipiac University, "Booker Is Strongest Dem To Face Christie, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; Voters Say Show Me The Money Before Tax Cut Vote," October 17, 2012
  53., "Democrat Barbara Buono running for governor in NJ," December 11, 2012
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 New Jersey State Board of Elections, "Primary candidate list for 2013 Governor," accessed April 4, 2013 (dead link)
  55. The Associated Press, "Governor Christie Announces Re-Election Bid," November 26, 2012
  56. Politico, "Report: Cory Booker may take on Chris Christie," August 24, 2012
  57. The New York Times, "," December 20, 2012
  58. The Star-Leger, "Sen. Richard Codey says he won't run for governor after weighing a campaign," accessed January 25, 2013
  59. West Deptford Patch, "Steve Sweeney Won’t Run for Governor in ’13," January 28, 2013
  60. The Star-Ledger, "Sen. Sweeney to run for governor if Cory Booker declines, sources say," November 28, 2012
  61. The Huffington Post, "Steve Sweeney Considering Race For Governor Of New Jersey Against Chris Christie," December 6, 2012
  62., "Sen. Buono raises almost $250K in first month of campaigning," January 2, 2013
  63. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named quinpolll
  64. Rutgers-Eagleton Poll, November 27, 2012
  65. The Sentinel, "ex-Rep. Mark Critz seeking Dem nod for lieutenant governor," August 15, 2013
  66. Politico, "2012 House Race Results," accessed November 6, 2012
  67. The Hill, "Source: Former Rep. Mark Critz wants to run again," February 26, 2013
  68. Casper Star Tribune, "Wyoming auditor announces re-election campaign," August 19, 2013
  69. South Dakota School and Public Lands, "Commissioner Jarrod Johnson," accessed August 13, 2013 (dead link)
  70. South Dakota State News, "School & Public Lands Commissioner Johnson To Resign In August," accessed August 13, 2013
  71. South Dakota State News, "Governor Daugaard To Appoint Vern Larson As Commissioner Of School And Public Lands," accessed August 13, 2013
  72. Argus Leader, "Public Lands commissioner won't run in 2014," accessed August 13, 2013