Difference between revisions of "Alabama school districts"

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{|class="infobox" style="text-align: center; style="width:25%;valign=top;nestright"
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{{Alabama ed infobox}}
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|[[File:School Board badge.png|center|150px|link=Alabama school districts]]<center>[[List of school districts in Alabama|'''List of school districts in Alabama''']]</center><hr>
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|-
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!style="background-color: #ECEBED"| State profile
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|-
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|<center>'''Number of students:''' 744,637 <br> '''Number of schools:''' 1,496 <br> '''Graduation rate:''' 72.0% <br> '''Per-pupil spending:''' $8,405</center>
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!style="background-color: #ECEBED"| State school administration
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|-
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|<center>'''Secretary and Executive Officer:''' [[Thomas R. Bice]] <br> '''State Board President:''' Governor Robert Bentley <br> '''State Board Members:''' 10 </center>
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|-
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!style="background-color: #ECEBED"| Table of Contents
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|-
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|<center>[[Alabama school districts#Quick facts|Quick facts]] <br> [[Alabama school districts#School board elections|School board elections]] <br> [[Alabama school districts#External links|External links]] <br> [[Alabama school districts#References|References]]</center>
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|-
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!style="background-color: #ECEBED"| See also
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|-
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|<small><center>[[Portal:School boards and school board elections|School boards and school board elections]] <br> [[List of school districts in Alabama]] <br> [[Alabama]]</center></small>
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|-
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|[[File:Flag of Alabama.png|center|150px|link=Alabama school districts]]
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|}
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'''Alabama''' is home to 1,496 schools and 744,637 K-12 students.<ref name=ALQuickFacts>[http://www.alsde.edu/general/QuickFacts_12-13.pdf ''Quick Facts," accessed August 6, 2013]</ref>
+
{{tnr}}'''Alabama''' is home to 1,618 schools and 744,621 K-12 students.<ref name=ALQuickFacts>[http://www.alsde.edu/general/QuickFacts_12-13.pdf ''Alabama State Department of Education,'' "Quick Facts," accessed August 6, 2013]</ref>
  
 
==Quick facts==
 
==Quick facts==
 
===State school administrators===
 
===State school administrators===
*State Board of Education:
+
*[[Alabama Department of Education|State Board of Education]]
**Governor Robert Bentley, ''President''
+
**[[Governor of Alabama|Governor]] [[Robert J. Bentley]], ''President''
**Mitchell D. Chester, ''Executive Officer and Secretary''
+
**[[Alabama Superintendent of Education|State Superintendent]] [[Tommy Bice]], ''Executive Officer and Secretary''
**Tracy Roberts, ''Board Member, District 1''
+
**Tracy Roberts, ''District 1''
**Betty Peters, ''Board Member, District 2''
+
**Betty Peters, ''District 2''
**Stephanie Bell, ''Board Member, District 3''
+
**Stephanie Bell, ''District 3''
**Yvette Richardson, ''Board Member, District 4''
+
**Yvette Richardson, ''District 4''
**Ella B. Bell, ''Board Member, District 5''
+
**Ella B. Bell, ''District 5''
**Charles E. Elliott, ''Board Member, District 6''
+
**Charles E. Elliott, ''District 6''
**Jeffery Newman, ''Board Member, District 7''
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**Jeffery Newman, ''District 7''
**Mary Scott Hunter, ''Board Member, District 8''
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**Mary Scott Hunter, ''District 8''
  
===Enrollment and spending===
+
===Statistics===
The following table displays the top ten Alabama school districts by total student enrollment and per-pupil spending.<ref>[http://www.homesurfer.com/schoolreports/view/schoolrankreports.cfm?state=AL ''School District Ranking Report'' Accessed August 9, 2013]</ref>
+
The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, academic performance on the Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test (ARMT) and per-pupil spending.<ref name=report>[http://www.homesurfer.com/schoolreports/view/schoolrankreports.cfm?state=AL ''Homesurfer,'' "School District Ranking Report," accessed August 9, 2013]</ref><ref name=ARMT>[http://alabamaschoolconnection.org/armt-2011-2012-test-result-rankings/armt-2011-2012-test-result-rankings-8th-grade-reading/ ''Alabama School Connection'', "ARMT 2011-2012 Test Result Rankings – 8th Grade Reading," accessed July 7, 2014]</ref>
  
{| class="wikitable sortable"
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{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:65%;"
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Student enrollment
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! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Student enrollment, 2011-2012
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Per-pupil spending<ref>[http://www.homesurfer.com/schoolreports/view/schoolrankreports.cfm?state=AL ''School District Ranking Report'' Accessed August 9, 2013]</ref>
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! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test (ARMT) scores for 8th grade reading, 2011-2012<ref name=ARMT/>
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Per-pupil spending, 2011-2012<ref name=report/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1.) [[Mobile County Public Schools, Alabama|Mobile County Public Schools]] || 1.) [[Homewood City School District, Alabama|Homewood City School District]]
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| 1.) [[Mobile County Public Schools, Alabama|Mobile County Public Schools]] || 1.) [[Cullman City Schools, Alabama|Cullman City Schools]] ||1.) [[Homewood City School District, Alabama|Homewood City School District]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2.) [[Jefferson County Schools, Alabama|Jefferson County Schools]] || 2.) [[Sylacauga City School District, Alabama|Sylacauga City School District]]
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| 2.) [[Jefferson County Schools, Alabama|Jefferson County Schools]] || 2.) [[Mountain Brook City Schools, Alabama|Mountain Brook City Schools]]|| 2.) [[Sylacauga City Schools, Alabama|Sylacauga City Schools]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 3.) [[Montgomery Public Schools, Alabama|Montgomery Public Schools]] || 3.) [[Tuscaloosa County School System, Alabama|Tuscaloosa County School System]]
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| 3.) [[Montgomery Public Schools, Alabama|Montgomery Public Schools]] || 3.) [[Arab City Schools, Alabama|Arab City Schools]] || 3.) [[Tuscaloosa County School System, Alabama|Tuscaloosa County School System]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 4.) [[Baldwin County Public Schools, Alabama|Baldwin County Public Schools]] || 4.) [[Coosa County School District, Alabama|Coosa County School District]]
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| 4.) [[Baldwin County Public Schools, Alabama|Baldwin County Public Schools]] || 4.) [[Vestavia Hills City Schools, Alabama|Vestavia Hill City Schools]] || 4.) [[Coosa County School District, Alabama|Coosa County School District]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 5.) [[Shelby County Schools, Alabama|Shelby County Schools]] || 5.) [[Auburn City School District, Alabama|Auburn City School District]]
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| 5.) [[Shelby County Schools, Alabama|Shelby County Schools]] || 5.) [[Madison City Schools, Alabama|Madison City Schools]] || 5.) [[Auburn City Schools, Alabama|Auburn City Schools]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 6.) [[Birmingham City Schools, Alabama|Birmingham City Schools]] || 6.) [[Vestavia Hills City School District, Alabama|Vestavia Hills City School District]]
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| 6.) [[Birmingham City Schools, Alabama|Birmingham City Schools]] || 6.) [[Winfield City Schools, Alabama|Winfield City Schools]] || 6.) [[Vestavia Hills City Schools, Alabama|Vestavia Hills City Schools]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 7.) [[Huntsville City Schools, Alabama|Huntsville City Schools]] || 7.) [[Choctaw County School District, Alabama|Choctaw County School District]]
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| 7.) [[Huntsville City Schools, Alabama|Huntsville City Schools]] || 7.) [[Hoover City Schools, Alabama|Hoover City Schools]] || 7.) [[Choctaw County School District, Alabama|Choctaw County School District]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 8.) [[Madison County Schools, Alabama|Madison County Schools]] || 8.) [[Hoover City Schools, Alabama|Hoover City Schools]]
+
| 8.) [[Madison County Schools, Alabama|Madison County Schools]] || 8.) [[Demopolis City School District, Alabama|Demopolis City School District]] || 8.) [[Hoover City Schools, Alabama|Hoover City Schools]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 9.) [[Tuscaloosa County School System, Alabama|Tuscaloosa County School System]] || 9.) [[Mountain Brook City School District, Alabama|Mountain Brook City School District]]
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| 9.) [[Tuscaloosa County School System, Alabama|Tuscaloosa County School System]] || 9.) [[Boaz City School District, Alabama|Boaz City School District]] || 9.) [[Mountain Brook City Schools, Alabama|Mountain Brook City Schools]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 10.) [[Hoover City Schools, Alabama|Hoover City Schools]] || 10.) [[Sheffield City School District, Alabama|Sheffield City School District]]
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| 10.) [[Hoover City Schools, Alabama|Hoover City Schools]] || 10.) [[Piedmont City School District, Alabama|Piedmont City School District]] || 10.) [[Sheffield City Schools, Alabama|Sheffield City Schools]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
===Demographics===
 
===Demographics===
The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Alabama.<ref name=ALQuickFacts>[http://www.alsde.edu/general/QuickFacts_12-13.pdf ''Quick Facts," accessed August 6, 2013]</ref>
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{{Education k-12 ethnicity alabama}}
  
{| class="wikitable sortable"
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==In the news==
|-
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===Plan 2020===
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Ethnicity
+
Starting with the 2013-2014 school year, the [[Alabama Department of Education]] replaced the [[No Child Left Behind Act]] with Plan 2020, a new way of measuring student achievement in the state. In addition to eliminating the Alabama High School Graduation Exam as the only path to graduation and switching to [[College and career ready|college and career readiness]] standards to judge student progress, Plan 2020 set achievement goals meant to close the achievement gap between impoverished minority students and students who are better off socioeconomically. While the No Child Left Behind Act set the goal of having 100 percent of all students be proficient in math and reading, Plan 2020 set different proficiency goals for students based on subgroups. There are nine subgroups within the plan: American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, black, white, multi-race, English language learners, poverty and special education. Plan 2020 gave each subgroup an improvement goal for each year from its start in 2013 until 2020. Under the plan, all students will be at the same proficiency level by 2020.<ref name=Tuscaloosanews>[http://www.tuscaloosanews.com/article/20130703/news/130709950?p=2&tc=pg ''Tuscaloosa News'', "Plan 2020 brings praise, criticism," July 3, 2013]</ref><ref>[http://www.cullmantimes.com/local/x1951919562/Education-Revolution-How-Plan-2020-could-reshape-education-in-Alabama ''Cullman Times'', "Education Revolution: How Plan 2020 Could Reshape Education in Alabama," December 9, 2012]</ref>
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Percentage
+
 
|-
+
Rev. Schmitt Moore, member of the Tuscaloosa County Board of Education, said it was unfortunate that different groups of people were separated in academic performance but that Plan 2020 set goals for lower-performing subgroups in a fair way, starting with where they were and expecting them to improve from there. [[James Minyard]], member of the [[Tuscaloosa City Schools, Alabama|Tuscaloosa City Schools Board of Education]], agreed with Moore, believing the plan was fair as long as it required every subgroup to reach the end proficiency goal at the same time.<ref name=Tuscaloosanews/>
| White || 58.3%
+
 
|-
+
[[Marvin Lucas]], another member of the [[Tuscaloosa City Schools, Alabama|Tuscaloosa City Schools Board of Education]], did not think the plan should set lower expectations for any child. Instead, he thought early intervention should be stressed, such as starting school earlier and working with children who are falling behind during the summer.<ref name=Tuscaloosanews/>
| African American || 34.6%
+
 
|-
+
[[Harry Lee]], another member of the [[Tuscaloosa City Schools, Alabama|Tuscaloosa City Schools Board of Education]], expressed surprise by Plan 2020's separation of students based on subgroups, as he thought the state should be focused on teaching students all the same.<ref name=Tuscaloosanews/>
| Hispanic || 4.7%
+
 
|-
+
Plan 2020 was passed by the [[Alabama Department of Education]] and approved by the [[U.S. Department of Education]].<ref name=Tuscaloosanews/> An overview presentation of Plan 2020 can be found [https://web.alsde.edu/Home/Sections/DocumentDownload.aspx?SectionID=908&FileName=Plan%202020%20New%20Accountability%20Model%20Overview%2090%20Minute%20Presentation%20Mega%202013.pdf here].
| Asian || 1.3%
+
 
|-
+
==State law==
| American Indian || 0.8%
+
===School board composition===
|-
+
Alabama school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although some school board members are appointed. School boards can have as few as five members or as many as 21.<ref name=schoolboardlist>[http://www.alabamaschoolboards.org/index.php/school-boards.html ''Alabama Association of School Boards'', "Members: School Boards," accessed July 7, 2014]</ref> School board members serve four-year or six-year terms, depending on the district.<ref name=sos>[http://www.sos.state.al.us/elections/minqualifications.aspx ''Alabama Secretary of State'', "Minimum Qualifications for Public Office," accessed July 7, 2014]</ref>
| Two or More || 0.3%
+
 
|-
+
===District types===
|}
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Alabama has two main types of school districts: county school districts and city school districts. There are also a few schools that constitute their own school district, such as the Alabama School of Math & Science, the Alabama School of Fine Arts and the Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Blind.<ref name=schoolboardlist/>
 +
 
 +
===Term limits===
 +
Alabama does not impose statewide term limits on school board members.<ref name=sos/>
  
 
==School board elections==
 
==School board elections==
 
===Upcoming elections===
 
===Upcoming elections===
: See also: [[List of school board elections in 2014]]
+
: ''See also: [[Alabama school board elections, 2014]]''
In 2013, four of the top enrollment school districts in Alabama held elections for a total of 23 school board seats across the state. In 2014, nine top enrollment school districts in Alabama will hold elections for a total of 19 seats. [[Huntsville City Schools, Alabama|Huntsville City Schools]] will hold its election on August 26, 2014 and [[Montgomery Public Schools, Alabama|Montgomery Public Schools]] will hold its election on November 30, 2014. The other seven districts will hold their elections on November 4, 2014.
+
{{Alabama SBE 2014}}
 +
 
 +
===Path to the ballot===
 +
To qualify as a school board candidate in Alabama, an individual must be:<ref name=sos/>
 +
*At least 18 years of age
 +
*A U.S. citizen
 +
*A registered voter
 +
*A resident of the state for at least one day
 +
*A resident of the school district that the candidate seeks to represent for at least one year prior to the election.
 +
 
 +
===Campaign finance===
 +
Alabama requires candidates to form campaign committees as soon as they become candidates. This can happen in one of two ways, either when they reach the disclosure threshold of $1,000 or by filing for office with the appropriate election official. Candidates are also required to file a Statement of Economic Interests form when they file as a candidate. Candidates who have not reached the disclosure threshold of $1,000 even after filing for office are not required to file campaign finance reports until they reach the threshold.<ref>[http://www.sos.state.al.us/downloads/election/fcpa/cfg-12th-edition.pdf ''Alabama Secretary of State'', "Candidate Filing Guide Twelfth Edition," accessed July 7, 2014]</ref>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Portal:School boards and school board elections|School board elections portal]]
+
*[[Portal:School Boards and School Board Elections|School board elections portal]]
 +
*[[United States school districts]]
 
*[[List of school districts in Alabama]]
 
*[[List of school districts in Alabama]]
 +
*[[Alabama Department of Education]]
 +
*[[Public education in Alabama]]
 
*[[Alabama]]
 
*[[Alabama]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
{{submit a link}}
 
{{submit a link}}
 +
* [http://www.sos.state.al.us/ Alabama Secretary of State]
 
* [http://www.alsde.edu/home/Default.aspx Alabama Department of Education]
 
* [http://www.alsde.edu/home/Default.aspx Alabama Department of Education]
 +
* [http://www.alabamaschoolboards.org/ Alabama Association of School Boards]
 +
* [http://www.myaea.org/?doing_wp_cron=1402345935.9792370796203613281250 Alabama Education Association]
 +
* [http://al.aft.org/ Alabama Federation of Teachers]
 +
* [http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/districtsearch/ National Center for Education Statistics school district search tool]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
  
 +
{{Alabama schools}}
 
{{School districts and elections}}
 
{{School districts and elections}}
 
{{Alabama}}
 
{{Alabama}}
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[[Category:Alabama]]
 
[[Category:Alabama]]
 
[[Category:State school district portals]]
 
[[Category:State school district portals]]
 
__NOTOC__
 
 
{{Sb stub|Month=August 9, 2013}}
 

Latest revision as of 09:47, 8 July 2014

K-12 Education in Alabama
Flag of Alabama.png
Education facts
State Superintendent: Tommy Bice
Number of students: 744,621[1]
Number of teachers: 47,723
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:15.6
Number of school districts: 170
Number of schools: 1,618
Graduation rate: 75%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $8,813[3]
See also
Alabama Department of Education
Alabama school districts
List of school districts in Alabama
Alabama
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project

Public education in the United States
Public education in Alabama
Glossary of education terms
Alabama is home to 1,618 schools and 744,621 K-12 students.[4]

Quick facts

State school administrators

Statistics

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, academic performance on the Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test (ARMT) and per-pupil spending.[5][6]

Student enrollment, 2011-2012 Alabama Reading and Mathematics Test (ARMT) scores for 8th grade reading, 2011-2012[6] Per-pupil spending, 2011-2012[5]
1.) Mobile County Public Schools 1.) Cullman City Schools 1.) Homewood City School District
2.) Jefferson County Schools 2.) Mountain Brook City Schools 2.) Sylacauga City Schools
3.) Montgomery Public Schools 3.) Arab City Schools 3.) Tuscaloosa County School System
4.) Baldwin County Public Schools 4.) Vestavia Hill City Schools 4.) Coosa County School District
5.) Shelby County Schools 5.) Madison City Schools 5.) Auburn City Schools
6.) Birmingham City Schools 6.) Winfield City Schools 6.) Vestavia Hills City Schools
7.) Huntsville City Schools 7.) Hoover City Schools 7.) Choctaw County School District
8.) Madison County Schools 8.) Demopolis City School District 8.) Hoover City Schools
9.) Tuscaloosa County School System 9.) Boaz City School District 9.) Mountain Brook City Schools
10.) Hoover City Schools 10.) Piedmont City School District 10.) Sheffield City Schools

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Alabama as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[7]

Demographic information for Alabama's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 6,179 0.84% 1.11%
Asian 9,943 1.35% 4.73%
African American 254,503 34.46% 15.86%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 328 0.04% 0.42%
Hispanic 34,722 4.70% 24.64%
White 432,707 58.60% 51.78%
Two or more 6,239 0.84% 2.57%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

In the news

Plan 2020

Starting with the 2013-2014 school year, the Alabama Department of Education replaced the No Child Left Behind Act with Plan 2020, a new way of measuring student achievement in the state. In addition to eliminating the Alabama High School Graduation Exam as the only path to graduation and switching to college and career readiness standards to judge student progress, Plan 2020 set achievement goals meant to close the achievement gap between impoverished minority students and students who are better off socioeconomically. While the No Child Left Behind Act set the goal of having 100 percent of all students be proficient in math and reading, Plan 2020 set different proficiency goals for students based on subgroups. There are nine subgroups within the plan: American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, black, white, multi-race, English language learners, poverty and special education. Plan 2020 gave each subgroup an improvement goal for each year from its start in 2013 until 2020. Under the plan, all students will be at the same proficiency level by 2020.[8][9]

Rev. Schmitt Moore, member of the Tuscaloosa County Board of Education, said it was unfortunate that different groups of people were separated in academic performance but that Plan 2020 set goals for lower-performing subgroups in a fair way, starting with where they were and expecting them to improve from there. James Minyard, member of the Tuscaloosa City Schools Board of Education, agreed with Moore, believing the plan was fair as long as it required every subgroup to reach the end proficiency goal at the same time.[8]

Marvin Lucas, another member of the Tuscaloosa City Schools Board of Education, did not think the plan should set lower expectations for any child. Instead, he thought early intervention should be stressed, such as starting school earlier and working with children who are falling behind during the summer.[8]

Harry Lee, another member of the Tuscaloosa City Schools Board of Education, expressed surprise by Plan 2020's separation of students based on subgroups, as he thought the state should be focused on teaching students all the same.[8]

Plan 2020 was passed by the Alabama Department of Education and approved by the U.S. Department of Education.[8] An overview presentation of Plan 2020 can be found here.

State law

School board composition

Alabama school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although some school board members are appointed. School boards can have as few as five members or as many as 21.[10] School board members serve four-year or six-year terms, depending on the district.[11]

District types

Alabama has two main types of school districts: county school districts and city school districts. There are also a few schools that constitute their own school district, such as the Alabama School of Math & Science, the Alabama School of Fine Arts and the Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Blind.[10]

Term limits

Alabama does not impose statewide term limits on school board members.[11]

School board elections

Upcoming elections

See also: Alabama school board elections, 2014

A total of 11 Alabama school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections in 2014 for 25 seats. Huntsville City Schools will hold elections on August 26, 2014, while the remaining 10 districts have scheduled elections for November 2014.

Here are several quick facts about Alabama's school board elections in 2014:

The districts listed below served 272,446 K-12 students during the 2010-2011 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.[12] Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2014 Alabama School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Huntsville City Schools 8/26/2014 3 5 22,188
Baldwin County Public Schools 11/4/2014 3 7 28,165
Elmore County Public Schools 11/4/2014 4 7 11,016
Etowah County Schools 11/4/2014 3 7 9,295
Jefferson County School District 11/4/2014 1 5 34,095
Lee County Schools 11/4/2014 3 7 9,810
Madison County Schools 11/4/2014 1 5 19,328
Mobile County Public School System 11/4/2014 2 5 61,237
Montgomery Public Schools 11/4/2014 2 7 31,464
Shelby County Schools 11/4/2014 1 5 28,063
Tuscaloosa County School System 11/4/2014 2 7 17,785


Path to the ballot

To qualify as a school board candidate in Alabama, an individual must be:[11]

  • At least 18 years of age
  • A U.S. citizen
  • A registered voter
  • A resident of the state for at least one day
  • A resident of the school district that the candidate seeks to represent for at least one year prior to the election.

Campaign finance

Alabama requires candidates to form campaign committees as soon as they become candidates. This can happen in one of two ways, either when they reach the disclosure threshold of $1,000 or by filing for office with the appropriate election official. Candidates are also required to file a Statement of Economic Interests form when they file as a candidate. Candidates who have not reached the disclosure threshold of $1,000 even after filing for office are not required to file campaign finance reports until they reach the threshold.[13]

See also

External links

BallotpediaAvatar bigger.png
Suggest a link

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. Alabama State Department of Education, "Quick Facts," accessed August 6, 2013
  5. 5.0 5.1 Homesurfer, "School District Ranking Report," accessed August 9, 2013
  6. 6.0 6.1 Alabama School Connection, "ARMT 2011-2012 Test Result Rankings – 8th Grade Reading," accessed July 7, 2014
  7. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Tuscaloosa News, "Plan 2020 brings praise, criticism," July 3, 2013
  9. Cullman Times, "Education Revolution: How Plan 2020 Could Reshape Education in Alabama," December 9, 2012
  10. 10.0 10.1 Alabama Association of School Boards, "Members: School Boards," accessed July 7, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Alabama Secretary of State, "Minimum Qualifications for Public Office," accessed July 7, 2014
  12. National Center for Education Statistics, "Elementary/Secondary Information System," accessed March 21, 2014
  13. Alabama Secretary of State, "Candidate Filing Guide Twelfth Edition," accessed July 7, 2014