Difference between revisions of "Alan Lowenthal"
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Revision as of 10:55, 22 July 2014
|U.S. House, California, District 47|
|January 3, 2013-Present|
|January 3, 2015|
|Years in position||1|
|Predecessor||Loretta Sanchez (D)|
|Elections and appointments|
|Cost per vote||$9.00 in 2012|
|First elected||November 6, 2012|
|Next general||November 4, 2014|
|California State Assembly|
|California State Senate|
|Ph.D.||Ohio State University|
|Birthday||March 8, 1941|
|Place of birth||New York, NY|
- 1 Biography
- 2 Career
- 3 Committee assignments
- 4 Key votes
- 4.1 113th Congress
- 4.2 National security
- 4.3 Economy
- 4.4 Immigration
- 4.5 Healthcare
- 4.6 Social issues
- 5 Issues
- 6 Elections
- 7 Campaign donors
- 8 Personal Gain Index
- 9 Analysis
- 10 Personal
- 11 Recent news
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
- 14 References
Lowenthal served in the California State Assembly from 1998-2004 and as a member of the Long Beach City Council from 1992-1998. Lowenthal is also a former member of the California State Senate, representing District 27 from 2004 to 2012.
Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Lowenthal is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.
Lowenthal has a B.A. from Hobart College and a PhD from Ohio State University. He was a professor at California State University-Long Beach in community psychology from 1969 until he retired.
Below is an abbreviated outline of Lowenthal's academic, professional and political career:
- 1962: Graduated from Hobart College with B.A.
- 1965: Graduated from Ohio State University with M.A.
- 1967: Graduated from Ohio State University with Ph.D.
- 1992-1998: Member, Long Beach City Council
- 1998-2004: California State Assembly
- 2004-2012: California State Senate
- 2013-Present: U.S. Representative from California
- Foreign Affairs Committee
- Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia and Emerging Threats
- Subcommittee on Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Trade
- Natural Resources Committee
- Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs
- Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources
In the 2011-2012 legislative session, Lowenthal served on these committees:
- Subcommittee on Resources, Environmental Protection, Energy and Transportation
- Education, Chair
- Subcommittee on Sustainable School Facilities, Chair
- Environmental Quality Committee, California State Senate
- Fisheries and Aquaculture Committee, California Legislature
- Insurance Committee, California Senate
- Legislative Ethics Committee, California Senate, Vice Chair
- Transportation and Housing Committee, California Senate
In the 2009-2010 legislative session, Lowenthal served on these committees:
- Transportation and Housing (Chair)
- Banking, Finance and Insurance
- Budget and Fiscal Review
- Environmental Quality
- Energy, Utilities and Communications
The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session. For more information pertaining to Lowenthal's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.
Lowenthal voted against HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.
Lowenthal voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.
Lowenthal voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.
On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, known as the Farm Bill. The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill provides for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop. However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states. Lowenthal voted with 102 other Democratic representatives against the bill.
On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014. The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill. The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations. It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Lowenthal joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.
- See also: United States budget debate, 2013
On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201. At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference. Lowenthal voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.
The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies. The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Lowenthal voted for HR 2775.
Federal Pay Adjustment Act
Lowenthal voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.
Morton Memos Prohibition
Lowenthal voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States. The vote largely followed party lines.
Healthcare Reform Rules
Lowenthal voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.
Lowenthal voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.
On The Issues Vote Match
- See also: On The Issues Vote Match
Based on the results of the On The Issues VoteMatch quiz, Lowenthal is a Moderate Liberal. Lowenthal received a score of 26 percent on social issues and 60 percent on economic issues. On The Issues conducts its VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate.
The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.
|On The Issues Vote Quiz|
|Economic Issues||Social Issues|
|Legally require hiring women & minorities||Strongly Favors||Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right||Strongly Favors|
|Expand ObamaCare||Strongly Favors||Comfortable with same-sex marriage||Strongly Favors|
|Vouchers for school choice||Opposes||Keep God in the public sphere||Opposes|
|Absolute right to gun ownership||Opposes||Human needs over animal rights||Neutral|
|Higher taxes on the wealthy||Unknown||Stricter punishment reduces crime||Favors|
|Support & expand free trade||Unknown||Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens||Favors|
|Stricter limits on political campaign funds||Strongly Favors||Maintain US sovereignty from UN||Strongly Favors|
|Prioritize green energy||Strongly Favors||Expand the military||Strongly Opposes|
|Stimulus better than market-led recovery||Favors||Stay out of Iran||Opposes|
|Privatize Social Security||Strongly Opposes||Never legalize marijuana||Unknown|
|Note: Information last updated: 2014.|
American response in Syria
- See also: United States involvement in Syria
On August 29, 2013, more than 50 House Democrats signed a letter written by California Rep. Barbara Lee that called for a congressional resolution on strikes, and cautioned that the dire situation in Syria "should not draw us into an unwise war—especially without adhering to our constitutional requirements." The letter also called on the Obama administration to work with the U.N. Security Council “to build international consensus” condemning the alleged use of chemical weapons. Lowenthal was one of the 50 Democrats in the House to sign the letter.
Lowenthal's campaign website listed the following issues:
- Excerpt: "California is at the leading edge of green technology innovation and the creation of “green collar jobs.” Alan Lowenthal will aggressively pursue the funding and legislation necessary to support and expand these job-creating technologies and industries, and to keep them in California."
- Excerpt: "Good education leads to good jobs. Alan Lowenthal was one of the first innovators to put this into practice; as a College Professor he created the groundbreaking Long Beach Compact Program, bringing together schools, local business, and government to plan and develop curriculum that prepares students for jobs waiting after graduation."
- Protecting Medicare and Social Security
- Excerpt: "Medicare and Social Security aren’t political football – they are vital, successful programs which provide crucial support and independence to millions of seniors and disabled citizens. Alan Lowenthal will fight the ideological and partisan attacks on these crucial services."
- Prioritizing Public Safety and our Schools
- Excerpt: "Alan took a stand in the legislature to eliminate local government slush funds and gave that money to our police, firefighters, and schools. He will make the tough decisions, and stand up to the politicians and the special interests funding them to make sure the safety of our neighborhoods and quality of our schools are the top priority."
- Clean Environment and Clean Technology
- Excerpt: "Alan Lowenthal is regularly recognized by organizations like the Sierra Club and the California League of Conservation Voters as one of the most effective protectors of the environment and clean communities. Alan wrote the laws that cleaned up millions of tons of pollutants from the port, helping clean our air and lower asthma and other pollution-related diseases in our community."
Capitol Weekly, California's major weekly periodical covering the state legislature, publishes an annual legislative scorecard to pin down the political or ideological leanings of every member of the legislature based on how they voted on an assortment of bills in the most recent legislative session. The 2009 scores were based on votes on 19 bills, but did not include how legislators voted on the Proposition 1A (2009). On the scorecard, "100" is a perfect liberal score and "0" is a perfect conservative score.
On the 2009 legislative scorecard, Lowenthal ranked as a 100. He was one of eight state senators the publication identified as voting in what they defined as a "liberal" way in every vote they ranked.
Lowenthal ran for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He and Andy Whallon (R) advanced past the blanket primary on June 3, 2014, unopposed. They will face off in the general election on November 4, 2014.
Lowenthal won the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing California's 47th District. He and Gary DeLong (R) advanced past the blanket primary on June 5, 2012, defeating Peter Mathews (D), Jay Shah (D), Usha Shah (D), Steve Foley (R), Sanford Kahn (R) and Steve Kuykendall (R). Lowenthal went on to defeat DeLong in the general election on November 6, 2012.
|U.S. House, California District 47 General Election, 2012|
|Source: California Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"|
In 2008 Lowenthal was re-elected to the California State Senate, District 27. He finished with 171,668 votes, while his opponent Allen Wood finished with 83,628 votes. Lowenthal raised $612,938 for his campaign fund.
|California State Senate, District 27|
|Alan Lowenthal (D)||171,668|
|Allen Wood (R)||83,268|
Comprehensive donor information for Lowenthal is available dating back to 2012. Based on available campaign finance records, Lowenthal raised a total of $1,210,251 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 22, 2013.
|Alan Lowenthal's Campaign Contribution History|
|2012||US House (California, District 47)||$1,210,251|
|Grand Total Raised||$1,210,251|
|Alan Lowenthal (2014) Campaign Finance Reports|
|Report||Date Filed||Beginning Balance||Total Contributions|
for Reporting Period
|Expenditures||Cash on Hand|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2013||$39,710.71||$153,936.67||$(29,385.13)||$164,262.25|
|July Quarterly||July 15, 2013||$164,262.25||$112,321.76||$(55,678.54)||$220,905.47|
|October Quarterly||October 15, 2013||$220,905.47||$98,624.55||$(45,615.52)||$273,914.50|
|Year-End||January 31, 2014||$273,914||$85,845||$(43,611)||$316,148|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2014||$316,148||$89,119||$(71,545)||$333,723|
|Pre-Primary||May 22, 2014||$333,723||$13,697||$(20,409)||$327,011|
|July Quarterly||July 14, 2014||$327,011||$78,205||$(39,354)||$365,886|
|October Quarterly||October 15, 2014||$365,886||$140,749||$(101,304)||$405,332|
Lowenthal won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Lowenthal's campaign committee raised a total of $1,210,251 and spent $1,171,131. This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.
Cost per vote
Lowenthal spent $9.00 per vote received in 2012.
|U.S. House, California District 47, 2012 - Alan Lowenthal Campaign Contributions|
|Total Raised by Election Runner-up||$1,439,651|
|Total Spent by Election Runner-up||$1,418,740|
|Top contributors to Alan Lowenthal's campaign committee|
|Girardi & Keese||$17,500|
|Amalgamated Transit Union||$10,000|
|American Assn for Justice||$10,000|
|American Federation of Teachers||$10,000|
|American Medical Assn||$10,000|
|Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee|
|Public Sector Unions||$75,000|
Lowenthal raised no money in the 2010 election cycle.
Senator Lowenthal speaks about SB 9 and 19
In 2008 Lowenthal raised $612,938 in campaign donations. His top four contributors are listed below.
|Operating Engineers Local 12||$14,400|
|California Teachers Association||$14,400|
|Southwest Regional Council of Carpenters||$14,400|
|California State Council of Service Employees||$14,400|
Personal Gain Index
- See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
- See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the Government Accountability Institute:
- Changes in Net Worth
- The K-Street Metric
- The Donation Concentration Metric
- The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric
PGI: Change in net worth
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Lowenthal's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $779,057 and $2,535,000. That averages to $1,657,028, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Lowenthal ranked as the 166th most wealthy representative in 2012. Between 2011 and 2012, Lowenthal's calculated net worth increased by an average of 51 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.
|Alan Lowenthal Yearly Net Worth|
|Year||Average Net Worth|
|Growth from 2011 to 2012:||51%|
|Average annual growth:||51%|
|Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.|
Ideology and leadership
Lifetime voting record
According to the website GovTrack, Lowenthal missed 9 of 1,072 roll call votes from January 2013 to July 2014. This amounts to 0.8 percent, which is better than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.
The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.
Lowenthal most often votes with:
Lowenthal least often votes with:
National Journal vote ratings
- See also: National Journal vote ratings
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.
Lowenthal ranked 8th in the liberal rankings in 2013.
Voting with party
The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.
Lowenthal voted with the Democratic Party 95.1 percent of the time, which ranked 29th among the 204 House Democratic members as of July 2014.
Lowenthal voted with the Democratic Party 96.2 percent of the time, which ranked 60th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.
Alan Lowenthal is married to Deborah Malumed, and they have two children.
This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term Alan + Lowenthal + California + Senate
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- United States House of Representatives
- United States congressional delegations from California
- California's 47th Congressional District elections, 2014
- California's 47th Congressional District
- Social media:
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Congressional profile at CongressMerge.com
- Congressional profile at GovTrack.us
- Congressional profile at OpenCongress.org
- Summary, biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart
- Congressional profile and news at Roll Call
- Profile at Wikipedia
- Campaign finance reports and data at the Federal Election Commission
- Financial information at OpenSecrets.org
- Campaign contributions at Follow The Money
- Issue positions and quotes at On The Issues
- Legislation at Congress.gov
- Voting record maintained by The Washington Post
- Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post
- CNN, "California Districts Race - 2012 Election Center," accessed December 1, 2012
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "Alan Lowenthal," accessed June 17, 2011
- CQ.com - Roll Call, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed January 18, 2013
- Congressman Alan Lowenthal, California's 47th District, "Committees and Caucuses," accessed January 25, 2013
- California Senate, "Members of the Senate Transportation and Housing committee," accessed March 1, 2009
- California Senate, "Senate Standing Committee on Banking, Finance and Insurance," accessed March 1, 2009
- California Senate, "California Budget and Fiscal Review committee membership," accessed March 1, 2009
- California Senate, "Senate Environmental Quality committee membership list," accessed March 1, 2009
- California Senate, "Senate Energy, Utilities and Communications committee membership," accessed March 1, 2009
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
- Politico, "House clears Farm Bill," accessed February 12, 2014
- New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
- CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
- U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
- Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
- Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
- Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
- Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
- The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
- U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
- On The Issues "Alan Lowenthal at On The Issues," accessed June 16, 2014
- The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
- On The Issues, "Alan Lowenthal Vote Match," accessed June 16, 2014
- Office of Barbara Lee, "Lee Letter to President Obama," accessed September 2, 2013
- Washington Post, "More than 50 House Democrats also want Syria strike resolution," accessed September 2, 2013
- Campaign website, "Issues," accessed August 10, 2012
- Capitol Weekly, "Capitol Weekly's Legislative Scorecard," December 17, 2009
- Fox and Hounds Daily, "Random Thoughts on the Political Scene," December 18, 2009
- Capitol Weekly, "2009 Capitol Weekly State Legislative Scorecard (Archived)," accessed March 13, 2014
- The New York Times, "California Primary Results," June 3, 2014
- California Secretary of State, "Official primary candidate list," accessed March 13, 2014
- California Secretary of State, "Unofficial election results," November 6, 2012
- California Secretary of State, "Official 2008 General election results," accessed March 13, 2014
- Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Alan Lowenthal," accessed March 22, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal Summary Report," accessed July 23, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal April Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal October Quarterly," accessed October 21, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal Year-End," accessed February 4, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal Pre-Primary," accessed June 3, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "Alan Lowenthal October Quarterly," accessed October 20, 2014
- Open Secrets, "Alan Lowenthal 2012 Election Cycle," accessed February 20, 2013
- Open Secrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
- Follow the Money, "Campaign donations," accessed March 1, 2009
- OpenSecrets, "Alan Lowenthal (D-Calif), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
- This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
- This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
- This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
- This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
- GovTrack, "Alan Lowenthal," accessed July 21, 2014
- GovTrack, "Alan Lowenthal," accessed July 21, 2014
- OpenCongress, "Alan Lowenthal," accessed July 18, 2014
- National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 18, 2014
- OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
- OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
|U.S. House, California, District 47
January 3, 2013-Present
| Succeeded by|
|California State Senate District 27
| Succeeded by|
Fran Pavley (D)
State of California
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