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Difference between revisions of "Alaska Public Records Act"

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<div style="float:right; margin:0 0 1em 1em;">{{TOCnestright (Sunshine Review)|limit=3}}</div>
 
 
{{WikiFOIA (Sunshine Review)}}
 
{{WikiFOIA (Sunshine Review)}}
The '''Alaska Public Records Act''' (APRA) is a series of laws designed to guarantee that the public has access to records of government bodies at all levels in [[Alaska (Sunshine Review)]]. The law can be found in the Alaska Statutes, statute 40.25.110 - 40.25.125.  As recently as 2003, the Alaskan Supreme Court said that access to public records is "a fundamental right" (see ''[[Fuller v. City of Homer]]'').
 
  
The '''[[Alaska Open Meetings Act]]''' (AOMA) governs the methods by which public meetings are conducted. The law can be found in the Alaska Statutes, statute 44.62.310 - 44.62.470.
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{{tnr}}
  
To learn more about how to make a public records request in this state, please see: [[Alaska FOIA procedures]]
 
  
==Relevant legal cases==
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The '''Alaska Public Records Act''' (APRA) is a series of laws designed to guarantee that the public has access to records of government bodies at all levels in [[Alaska]]. The law can be found in the Alaska Statutes, statute 40.25.110 - 40.25.125.  As recently as 2003, the Alaskan Supreme Court said that access to public records is "a fundamental right" (see ''[[Fuller v. City of Homer]]'').
: ''See also: [[Court cases with an impact on state FOIA]]''
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Here is a list of lawsuits in Alaska.  For more information go the the page or go to [[Alaska sunshine lawsuits]].
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The [[Alaska Open Meetings Act]] (AOMA) governs the methods by which public meetings are conducted. The law can be found in the Alaska Statutes, statute 44.62.310 - 44.62.470.
<br/>
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(The cases are listed alphabetically. To order them by year please click the icon to the right of the '''Year''' heading)<br/>
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To learn more about how to make a public records request in this state, please see [[Alaska FOIA procedures]]
{{Transparency litigation dpl|State = Alaska}}
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==Transparency report card==
 
==Transparency report card==
A 2008 study, '''BGA - Alper Integrity Index''', conducted by the [[Better Government Association]] and sponsored by Alper Services, ranked Alaska #40 in the nation with an overall percentage of 45.20%. <ref>[http://www.bettergov.org/2008_bga-alper_integrity_index_/ 2008 BGA-Alper Integrity Index]</ref>
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A 2008 study, ''BGA - Alper Integrity Index'', conducted by the [[Better Government Association]] and sponsored by Alper Services, ranked Alaska #40 in the nation with an overall percentage of 45.20%.<ref>[http://www.bettergov.org/2008_bga-alper_integrity_index_/ 2008 BGA-Alper Integrity Index]</ref>
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A 2007 study, ''Graded state responsiveness to FOI requests'', conducted by [[Better Government Association|BGA]] and the [[National Freedom of Information Coalition|NFOIC]], gave Alaska three points out of a possible 100, a letter grade of "F" and a ranking of 48 out of the 50 states.<ref>[http://nfoic.org/states-failing-foi-responsiveness States Failing FOI Responsiveness, National Freedom of Information Coalition, October 2007]</ref>
  
A 2007 study, '''Graded state responsiveness to FOI requests''', conducted by [[Better Government Association|BGA]] and the [[National Freedom of Information Coalition|NFOIC]], gave Alaska 3 points out of a possible 100, a letter grade of "F", and a ranking of 48 out of the 50 states.<ref>[http://nfoic.org/states-failing-foi-responsiveness States Failing FOI Responsiveness, National Freedom of Information Coalition, October 2007]</ref>
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A 2002 study, ''Freedom of Information in the USA'', conducted by [[Investigative Reporters and Editors|IRE]] and [[Better Government Association|BGA]], ranked Alaska's law as the 48th worst in the country, giving it a letter grade of "F".<ref>[http://legacy.ire.org/foi/bga/ ''Freedom of Information in the USA'', 2002]</ref>
A 2002 study, '''Freedom of Information in the USA''', conducted by [[Investigative Reporters and Editors|IRE]] and [[Better Government Association|BGA]], ranked Alaska's law as the 48th worst in the country, giving it a letter grade of "F".<ref>[http://legacy.ire.org/foi/bga/ ''Freedom of Information in the USA'', 2002]</ref>
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==Features of the law==
 
==Features of the law==
 
{{Compare states|Page=Sunshine variations}}: Click on the heading to compare your state's law to other state's transparency laws.
 
{{Compare states|Page=Sunshine variations}}: Click on the heading to compare your state's law to other state's transparency laws.
===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Declared legal intentions across the U.S.{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Declared legal intention]]</span>===
 
The [[Alaska Public Records Act]] contains no clearly distinguished declaration of legal intention.  The opening lines of the law do however state, "Unless specifically provided otherwise, the public records of all public agencies are open to inspection by the public under reasonable rules during regular office hours."<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.25.220]</ref>
 
  
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===Declared legal intention===
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::''See also: [[Declared legal intentions across the U.S.]]
 +
The Alaska Public Records Act contains no clearly distinguished declaration of legal intention.  The opening lines of the law do, however, state, "Unless specifically provided otherwise, the public records of all public agencies are open to inspection by the public under reasonable rules during regular office hours."<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.25.220]</ref>
  
===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Defining public records{{! (Sunshine Review)}}What records are covered?]]</span>===
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===What records are covered?===
"Public records" are defined as "any document, paper, book, letter, drawing, map, plat, photo, photographic file, motion picture film, microfilm, microphotograph, exhibit, magnetic or paper tape, punched card, electronic record, or other document of any other material, regardless of physical form or characteristic, developed or received under law or in connection with the transaction of official business."<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15421}/pageitems={body}? Article 2, 40.21.150(6)]</ref>
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::''See also: [[Defining public records]]
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"Public records" are defined as "any document, paper, book, letter, drawing, map, plat, photo, photographic file, motion picture film, microfilm, microphotograph, exhibit, magnetic or paper tape, punched card, electronic record or other document of any other material, regardless of physical form or characteristic, developed or received under law or in connection with the transaction of official business."<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15421}/pageitems={body}? Article 2, 40.21.150(6)]</ref>
  
In 1990, the state legislature amended APRA to expand the definition of public records to specifically include drafts and memorializations of conversations.
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In 1990, the state legislature amended APRA to expand the definition of public records to specifically include drafts and memorializations of conversations.
  
=====Exemptions=====
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===Exemptions===
Records that are exempt are listed at [[Exemptions to the Alaska Public Records Act]].
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::''See also: [[Exemptions to the Alaska Public Records Act]]''
  
=====[[Deliberative process exemption{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Deliberative process]]=====
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====Deliberative process====
 
There is no exception in the law for records of the governor.   
 
There is no exception in the law for records of the governor.   
  
 
However, an [[Deliberative process exemption-Alaska|Alaska deliberative process exemption]] originated in the courts and extends the exemption for working papers and deliberative materials to both state and local officials with the intention of protecting the free flow of information.  
 
However, an [[Deliberative process exemption-Alaska|Alaska deliberative process exemption]] originated in the courts and extends the exemption for working papers and deliberative materials to both state and local officials with the intention of protecting the free flow of information.  
  
In 1986, in the case of ''[[Doe v. Superior Court]]'', the [[Judgepedia:Alaska Supreme Court|Alaskan Supreme Court]] ruled that there is a limited "executive" or "[[Deliberative process exemption|deliberative process]]" privilege in the [[Alaska Public Records Act]] that protects communications between the governor and his or her aides about policy matters. This decision related to internal communications about advice, opinions and recommendations.  The decision was justified using the [[Separation of powers exemption|separation of powers argument]].  
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In 1986, in the case of [[Doe v. Superior Court]], the [[Judgepedia:Alaska Supreme Court|Alaskan Supreme Court]] ruled that there is a limited "executive" or "[[Deliberative process exemption|deliberative process]]" privilege in the [[Alaska Public Records Act]] that protects communications between the governor and his or her aides about policy matters. This decision related to internal communications about advice, opinions and recommendations.  The decision was justified using the separation of powers argument.  
  
In 2000, ''[[Gwich'in Steering Committee v. Office of the Governor]]'' modified the justification of the deliberative process exemption. The court said the privilege is intended to "protect the mental processes of governmental decisionmakers from interference." .<ref>[[Gwich'in Steering Committee v. Office of the Governor]]</ref>
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In 2000, [[Gwich'in Steering Committee v. Office of the Governor]] modified the justification of the deliberative process exemption. The court said the privilege is intended to "protect the mental processes of governmental decision-makers from interference."<ref>[[Gwich'in Steering Committee v. Office of the Governor]]</ref>
  
In 2003, in ''[[Fuller v. City of Homer]]'', the [[Judgepedia:Alaska Supreme Court|court]] extended the deliberative process to municipalities, given that they met the appropriate requirements.  However, the court said that the the City of [[Homer, Alaska|Homer]] was wrong to claim that it could withhold access to staff documents under the "deliberative processes privilege" as it failed the balancing test established in [[City of Kenai v. Kenai Peninsula Newspapers]].<ref>[http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data2/alaskastatecases/2003/sp-5725.pdf  Text of ''Fuller v. Homer'']</ref><ref>[[Deliberative process exemption-Alaska]]</ref>
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In 2003, in [[Fuller v. City of Homer]], the [[Judgepedia:Alaska Supreme Court|court]] extended the deliberative process to municipalities, given that they met the appropriate requirements.  However, the court said that the City of [[Homer, Alaska|Homer]] was wrong to claim that it could withhold access to staff documents under the "deliberative processes privilege," as it failed the balancing test established in [[City of Kenai v. Kenai Peninsula Newspapers]].<ref>[http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data2/alaskastatecases/2003/sp-5725.pdf  Text of ''Fuller v. Homer'']</ref><ref>[[Deliberative process exemption-Alaska]]</ref>
  
===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Defining public body{{! (Sunshine Review)}}What agencies are covered?]]</span>===
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===What agencies are covered?===
According to Alaska law, the public records of all public agencies are open to inspection during regular business hours. The law defines public "agency" as a "department, office, agency, state board, commission, public corporation, or other organizational unit of or created under the executive branch of the state government" but specifically exempts the University of Alaska.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15421}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.21.150(1)]</ref>
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::''See also: [[Defining public body]]''
 +
 
 +
According to Alaska law, the public records of all public agencies are open to inspection during regular business hours. The law defines public "agency" as a "department, office, agency, state board, commission, public corporation or other organizational unit of or created under the executive branch of the state government" but specifically exempts the University of Alaska.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15421}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.21.150(1)]</ref>
 
    
 
    
====<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Legislatures and transparency{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Legislature]]</span>====
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====Legislature====
:{{Failed}}
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::''See also: [[Legislatures and transparency]]''
The [[Alaska Public Records Act]] does not include the legislature within its definition of public body. Instead, public records issues within the legislature are decided by the rules of the legislature and have been ruled unenforceable by the courts. <ref>Abood v. League of Women Voters, 743 P.2d 333 (Alaska 1987). via [http://www.rcfp.org/ogg/item.php?t=short&state=AK&level=R1B2 RCFP Guide to Alaska]</ref>
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The Alaska Public Records Act does not include the legislature within its definition of public body. Instead, public records issues within the legislature are decided by the rules of the legislature and have been ruled unenforceable by the courts.<ref>Abood v. League of Women Voters, 743 P.2d 333 (Alaska 1987). via [http://www.rcfp.org/ogg/item.php?t=short&state=AK&level=R1B2 RCFP Guide to Alaska]</ref>
  
====[[Private agency, public dollars{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Privatized governmental agencies]]====
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====Privatized governmental agencies====
The history of Alaskan case law presents one clear application of the records laws to private corporations. If a private corporation receives public funding and was established for the sole purpose of performing a public function, it is subject to the public records laws.<ref>[[Private agency, public dollars-Alaska]]</ref>
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::''See also: [[Private agency, public dollars]] and [[Private agency, public dollars-Alaska]]''
  
====[[Universities and open records{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Public universities]]====
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The history of Alaskan case law presents one clear application of the records laws to private corporations. If a private corporation receives public funding and was established for the sole purpose of performing a public function, it is subject to the public records laws.
{{University records infobox|Status=Explicitly Open<ref> [http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.25.220(2)]</ref> |Research= |Donors= |Examinations= |Materials= }}
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The act explicitly includes the University of Alaska at [http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.25.220(2)].
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===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[List of who can make public record requests by state{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Who may request records?]]</span>===
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===Who may request records?===
Anyone may request records in [[Alaska (Sunshine Review)]]. The law states that the records are open to the "public" but does not elaborate more on what constitutes "public."  It later states that "every person" may request records.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? ''Alaska Statutes, 40.25.110(a) and 40.25.120(a)'']</ref>
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::''See also: [[List of who can make public record requests by state]]''
 +
 
 +
Anyone may request records in [[Alaska]]. The law states that the records are open to the "public" but does not elaborate more on what constitutes "public."  It later states that "every person" may request records.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? ''Alaska Statutes, 40.25.110(a) and 40.25.120(a)'']</ref>
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 +
===Must a purpose be stated?===
 +
::''See also: [[States requiring a statement of purpose]]''
  
===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[States requiring a statement of purpose{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Must a purpose be stated?]]</span>===
 
 
According to APRA, a "public agency may not request a justification or explanation of need or intended use, but a public agency may inquire whether the person making the request is a party, or represents a party, involved in litigation with the state or a public agency to which the requested record is relevant. If so, the requestor shall be informed to make the request in accordance with applicable court rules."<ref>[http://touchngo.com/lglcntr/akstats/aac/title02/chapter096/section220.htm ''AS 40.96.220'']</ref>
 
According to APRA, a "public agency may not request a justification or explanation of need or intended use, but a public agency may inquire whether the person making the request is a party, or represents a party, involved in litigation with the state or a public agency to which the requested record is relevant. If so, the requestor shall be informed to make the request in accordance with applicable court rules."<ref>[http://touchngo.com/lglcntr/akstats/aac/title02/chapter096/section220.htm ''AS 40.96.220'']</ref>
  
=====Litigation disclosure=====
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====Litigation disclosure====
The "litigation disclosure" statute in the law says, "A public record that is subject to disclosure and copying under AS 40.25.110 - 40.25.120 remains a public record subject to disclosure and copying even if the record is used for, included in, or relevant to litigation, including law enforcement proceedings, involving a public agency, except that with respect to a person involved in litigation, the records sought shall be disclosed in accordance with the rules of procedure applicable in a court or an administrative adjudication.<ref>[http://touchngo.com/lglcntr/akstats/Statutes/Title40/Chapter25/Section122.htm ''AS 40.96.122'']</ref>
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The "litigation disclosure" statute in the law says, "A public record that is subject to disclosure and copying under AS 40.25.110 - 40.25.120 remains a public record subject to disclosure and copying even if the record is used for, included in or relevant to litigation, including law enforcement proceedings, involving a public agency, except that with respect to a person involved in litigation, the records sought shall be disclosed in accordance with the rules of procedure applicable in a court or an administrative adjudication.<ref>[http://touchngo.com/lglcntr/akstats/Statutes/Title40/Chapter25/Section122.htm ''AS 40.96.122'']</ref>
  
Alaska's law governing the purpose of requests was changed in 2003 and 2006 to limit the use of records requested through APRA in litigation encouraging the use of trial discovery rules as opposed to the APRA.  In ''[[Brady v. State of Alaska]]'', a 1998 ruling of the Alaskan Supreme Court, the court said that the part of APRA that limits the public records process for parties to lawsuits is "inexplicable" and that "an equal protection challenge to this provision "is not, at first blush, implausible".<ref name=OGG>[http://www.rcfp.org/ogg/item.php?t=full&state=AK&level=R1A2 ''Open Government Guide to the APRA'']</ref>
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Alaska's law governing the purpose of requests was changed in 2003 and 2006 to limit the use of records requested through APRA in litigation, encouraging the use of trial discovery rules as opposed to the APRA.  In [[Brady v. State of Alaska]], a 1998 ruling of the Alaskan Supreme Court, the court said that the part of APRA that limits the public records process for parties to lawsuits is "inexplicable" and that "an equal protection challenge to this provision "is not, at first blush, implausible".<ref name=OGG>[http://www.rcfp.org/ogg/item.php?t=full&state=AK&level=R1A2 ''Open Government Guide to the APRA'']</ref>
  
 
There are still some restrictions:
 
There are still some restrictions:
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* The FOI law in Alaska has also allowed privacy exemptions, which means that if a requestor is asking for medical, personnel, payroll or other similar records where disclosure to some people might constitute what the courts have described as an "unwarranted invasion of privacy", inquiring as to the purpose of the request may be permissible.
 
* The FOI law in Alaska has also allowed privacy exemptions, which means that if a requestor is asking for medical, personnel, payroll or other similar records where disclosure to some people might constitute what the courts have described as an "unwarranted invasion of privacy", inquiring as to the purpose of the request may be permissible.
  
===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Record use restrictions{{! (Sunshine Review)}}How can records be used?]]</span>===
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===How can records be used?===
 +
::''See also: [[Record use restrictions]]''
 +
 
 
The APRA doesn't set limits on what can be done with documents provided under the act.
 
The APRA doesn't set limits on what can be done with documents provided under the act.
  
 
Commercial interests are allowed to use lists they receive under APRA, such as the names and addresses compiled by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game from hunting and fishing licenses, because a 1990 change in APRA provided a statutory definition of "personal information" regarding privacy exemptions and the definition says that names, addresses and listed phone numbers do not fall under the definition of personal information.<ref name=OGG/>
 
Commercial interests are allowed to use lists they receive under APRA, such as the names and addresses compiled by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game from hunting and fishing licenses, because a 1990 change in APRA provided a statutory definition of "personal information" regarding privacy exemptions and the definition says that names, addresses and listed phone numbers do not fall under the definition of personal information.<ref name=OGG/>
  
===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Request response times by state{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Time allowed for response]]</span>===
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===Time allowed for response===
:'''''N/A'''''
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::''See also: [[Request response times by state]]''
 +
 
 
The Alaskan law does not specify a time requirement for responding to public records requests other than that the department must give a certified copy upon payment of the fee.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.25.110(a)]</ref>
 
The Alaskan law does not specify a time requirement for responding to public records requests other than that the department must give a certified copy upon payment of the fee.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/{t15441}/pageitems={body}? Alaska Statute 40.25.110(a)]</ref>
  
 
===Fees for records===
 
===Fees for records===
=====<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[How much do public records cost?{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Copy costs:]]</span>=====
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====Copy costs====
 +
::''See also: [[How much do public records cost?]]''
 +
 
 
The fee for duplication of public records, according to law, cannot exceed the "standard unit cost of duplication established by the public agency."<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/%7Bt15441%7D/pageitems=%7Bbody%7D? Alaska Code 45.25.110.b]</ref>  
 
The fee for duplication of public records, according to law, cannot exceed the "standard unit cost of duplication established by the public agency."<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/%7Bt15441%7D/pageitems=%7Bbody%7D? Alaska Code 45.25.110.b]</ref>  
Public agencies are at liberty to waive fees in the public interest. <ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/%7Bt15441%7D/pageitems=%7Bbody%7D? Alaska Code 45.25.110.d]</ref>
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Public agencies are at liberty to waive fees in the public interest.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/%7Bt15441%7D/pageitems=%7Bbody%7D? Alaska Code 45.25.110.d]</ref>
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 +
====Search fees====
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::''See also: [[Sunshine laws and search fees]]''
 +
 
 +
If the time required to research and collect the requested records exceeds five hours per calendar month, then the requestor is obligated to pay for the hourly labor at the rate of salary of those working.  This fee must be paid prior to receiving the records and can be charged prior to the research.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/%7Bt15441%7D/pageitems=%7Bbody%7D? 45.25.110.c]</ref>
  
=====<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Sunshine laws and search fees{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Search fees:]]</span>=====
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===Records commissions and ombudsmen===
:{{Passed}}
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::''See also: [[State records commissions]]''
If the time required to research and collect the requested records exceeds 5 hours per calender month, then the requestor is obligated to pay for the hourly labor at the rate of salary of those working.  This fee must be paid prior to receiving the records and can be charged prior to the research.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=*/doc/%7Bt15441%7D/pageitems=%7Bbody%7D? 45.25.110.c]</ref>
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===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[State records commissions{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Records commissions and ombudsmen:]]</span>===
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Alaska does not currently have a dedicated open records or open meetings commission.  However, the state does have a generic Ombudsman's office, which can receive records and open meetings complaints in addition to other complaints about governmental entities.
Alaska does not currently have a dedicated open records or open meetings commission.  However, the state does have a generic Ombudsman's office, which can receive records and open meetings complaints in addition to other complaints about governmental entities.  The office's website can be found at [http://ombud.alaska.gov/# http://ombud.alaska.gov].
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===<span style="border-bottom: 1px blue solid;">[[Role of the Attorney General{{! (Sunshine Review)}}Role of the Attorney General]]</span>===
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===Role of the Attorney General===
:<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" border-collapse="collapsed"><tr><td>[[File:AttorneyGeneral icon.jpg|right|26px|link=Ballotpedia:Portal:State Attorneys General]]</td><td>[[Alaska Attorney General|Attorney General of Alaska]]</td></tr></table>
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::''See also: [[Role of the Attorney General]]
  
 
There is currently no provision within the state open records law that empowers the State Department of Law to enforce the right of the public to access governmental records.
 
There is currently no provision within the state open records law that empowers the State Department of Law to enforce the right of the public to access governmental records.
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==Open meetings==
 
==Open meetings==
  
The [[Alaska Open Meetings Act]] states that "All meetings of a governmental body of a public entity of the state are open to the public". Participation in public meetings by the public may be made via teleconference, if so, materials to be considered at the meeting should also be made available at the teleconferencing location (if practicable).<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=44!2E62!2E310/doc/%7B@17529%7D/ ''Alaska Open Meetings Act''] section 44.62.310</ref> To read more please see: [[Alaska Open Meetings Act]].
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The [[Alaska Open Meetings Act]] states that, "All meetings of a governmental body of a public entity of the state are open to the public". Participation in public meetings by the public may be made via teleconference, if so, materials to be considered at the meeting should also be made available at the teleconferencing location (if practicable).<ref>[http://www.legis.state.ak.us/cgi-bin/folioisa.dll/stattx03/query=44!2E62!2E310/doc/%7B@17529%7D/ ''Alaska Open Meetings Act'' section 44.62.310]</ref>  
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Alaska FOIA procedures]]
 
* [[Alaska FOIA procedures]]
* [[Alaska transparency headlines]]
 
 
* [[Alaska transparency legislation]]
 
* [[Alaska transparency legislation]]
 
* [[Alaska transparency advocates]]
 
* [[Alaska transparency advocates]]
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* [http://www.rcfp.org/ogg/index.php?op=browse&state=AK Open Government Guide to Alaska]
 
* [http://www.rcfp.org/ogg/index.php?op=browse&state=AK Open Government Guide to Alaska]
 
* [http://wikifoia.pbwiki.com/Alaska past articles on Alaska]
 
* [http://wikifoia.pbwiki.com/Alaska past articles on Alaska]
* See sample [[proactive disclosure|transparency]] legislation at the [http://www.sunshinestandard.org Sunshine Standard]
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==References==
 
==References==
 
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==Relevant legal cases==
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::''See also: [[Court cases with an impact on state FOIA]] and [[Alaska sunshine lawsuits]]''
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Here is a list of lawsuits in Alaska (cases are listed alphabetically; to order them by year, please click the icon to the right of the "year" heading).
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Revision as of 22:39, 10 October 2013

WikiFOIA
Find your State
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2010
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Sunshine Nuances
Private Agencies, Public Dollars
Deliberative Process Exemption



The Alaska Public Records Act (APRA) is a series of laws designed to guarantee that the public has access to records of government bodies at all levels in Alaska. The law can be found in the Alaska Statutes, statute 40.25.110 - 40.25.125. As recently as 2003, the Alaskan Supreme Court said that access to public records is "a fundamental right" (see Fuller v. City of Homer).

The Alaska Open Meetings Act (AOMA) governs the methods by which public meetings are conducted. The law can be found in the Alaska Statutes, statute 44.62.310 - 44.62.470.

To learn more about how to make a public records request in this state, please see Alaska FOIA procedures

Transparency report card

A 2008 study, BGA - Alper Integrity Index, conducted by the Better Government Association and sponsored by Alper Services, ranked Alaska #40 in the nation with an overall percentage of 45.20%.[1]

A 2007 study, Graded state responsiveness to FOI requests, conducted by BGA and the NFOIC, gave Alaska three points out of a possible 100, a letter grade of "F" and a ranking of 48 out of the 50 states.[2]

A 2002 study, Freedom of Information in the USA, conducted by IRE and BGA, ranked Alaska's law as the 48th worst in the country, giving it a letter grade of "F".[3]

Features of the law

Sunshine variations Compare States: Sunshine variations
Click on the heading to compare your state's law to other state's transparency laws.

Declared legal intention

See also: Declared legal intentions across the U.S.

The Alaska Public Records Act contains no clearly distinguished declaration of legal intention. The opening lines of the law do, however, state, "Unless specifically provided otherwise, the public records of all public agencies are open to inspection by the public under reasonable rules during regular office hours."[4]

What records are covered?

See also: Defining public records

"Public records" are defined as "any document, paper, book, letter, drawing, map, plat, photo, photographic file, motion picture film, microfilm, microphotograph, exhibit, magnetic or paper tape, punched card, electronic record or other document of any other material, regardless of physical form or characteristic, developed or received under law or in connection with the transaction of official business."[5]

In 1990, the state legislature amended APRA to expand the definition of public records to specifically include drafts and memorializations of conversations.

Exemptions

See also: Exemptions to the Alaska Public Records Act

Deliberative process

There is no exception in the law for records of the governor.

However, an Alaska deliberative process exemption originated in the courts and extends the exemption for working papers and deliberative materials to both state and local officials with the intention of protecting the free flow of information.

In 1986, in the case of Doe v. Superior Court, the Alaskan Supreme Court ruled that there is a limited "executive" or "deliberative process" privilege in the Alaska Public Records Act that protects communications between the governor and his or her aides about policy matters. This decision related to internal communications about advice, opinions and recommendations. The decision was justified using the separation of powers argument.

In 2000, Gwich'in Steering Committee v. Office of the Governor modified the justification of the deliberative process exemption. The court said the privilege is intended to "protect the mental processes of governmental decision-makers from interference."[6]

In 2003, in Fuller v. City of Homer, the court extended the deliberative process to municipalities, given that they met the appropriate requirements. However, the court said that the City of Homer was wrong to claim that it could withhold access to staff documents under the "deliberative processes privilege," as it failed the balancing test established in City of Kenai v. Kenai Peninsula Newspapers.[7][8]

What agencies are covered?

See also: Defining public body

According to Alaska law, the public records of all public agencies are open to inspection during regular business hours. The law defines public "agency" as a "department, office, agency, state board, commission, public corporation or other organizational unit of or created under the executive branch of the state government" but specifically exempts the University of Alaska.[9]

Legislature

See also: Legislatures and transparency

The Alaska Public Records Act does not include the legislature within its definition of public body. Instead, public records issues within the legislature are decided by the rules of the legislature and have been ruled unenforceable by the courts.[10]

Privatized governmental agencies

See also: Private agency, public dollars and Private agency, public dollars-Alaska

The history of Alaskan case law presents one clear application of the records laws to private corporations. If a private corporation receives public funding and was established for the sole purpose of performing a public function, it is subject to the public records laws.

Who may request records?

See also: List of who can make public record requests by state

Anyone may request records in Alaska. The law states that the records are open to the "public" but does not elaborate more on what constitutes "public." It later states that "every person" may request records.[11]

Must a purpose be stated?

See also: States requiring a statement of purpose

According to APRA, a "public agency may not request a justification or explanation of need or intended use, but a public agency may inquire whether the person making the request is a party, or represents a party, involved in litigation with the state or a public agency to which the requested record is relevant. If so, the requestor shall be informed to make the request in accordance with applicable court rules."[12]

Litigation disclosure

The "litigation disclosure" statute in the law says, "A public record that is subject to disclosure and copying under AS 40.25.110 - 40.25.120 remains a public record subject to disclosure and copying even if the record is used for, included in or relevant to litigation, including law enforcement proceedings, involving a public agency, except that with respect to a person involved in litigation, the records sought shall be disclosed in accordance with the rules of procedure applicable in a court or an administrative adjudication.[13]

Alaska's law governing the purpose of requests was changed in 2003 and 2006 to limit the use of records requested through APRA in litigation, encouraging the use of trial discovery rules as opposed to the APRA. In Brady v. State of Alaska, a 1998 ruling of the Alaskan Supreme Court, the court said that the part of APRA that limits the public records process for parties to lawsuits is "inexplicable" and that "an equal protection challenge to this provision "is not, at first blush, implausible".[14]

There are still some restrictions:

  • The Alaska Supreme Court has ruled that in order to overcome a claim of executive or deliberative process privilege, a requester may be required to state reasons for seeking access so that the interests of the parties can be balanced against one another.
  • The FOI law in Alaska has also allowed privacy exemptions, which means that if a requestor is asking for medical, personnel, payroll or other similar records where disclosure to some people might constitute what the courts have described as an "unwarranted invasion of privacy", inquiring as to the purpose of the request may be permissible.

How can records be used?

See also: Record use restrictions

The APRA doesn't set limits on what can be done with documents provided under the act.

Commercial interests are allowed to use lists they receive under APRA, such as the names and addresses compiled by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game from hunting and fishing licenses, because a 1990 change in APRA provided a statutory definition of "personal information" regarding privacy exemptions and the definition says that names, addresses and listed phone numbers do not fall under the definition of personal information.[14]

Time allowed for response

See also: Request response times by state

The Alaskan law does not specify a time requirement for responding to public records requests other than that the department must give a certified copy upon payment of the fee.[15]

Fees for records

Copy costs

See also: How much do public records cost?

The fee for duplication of public records, according to law, cannot exceed the "standard unit cost of duplication established by the public agency."[16] Public agencies are at liberty to waive fees in the public interest.[17]

Search fees

See also: Sunshine laws and search fees

If the time required to research and collect the requested records exceeds five hours per calendar month, then the requestor is obligated to pay for the hourly labor at the rate of salary of those working. This fee must be paid prior to receiving the records and can be charged prior to the research.[18]

Records commissions and ombudsmen

See also: State records commissions

Alaska does not currently have a dedicated open records or open meetings commission. However, the state does have a generic Ombudsman's office, which can receive records and open meetings complaints in addition to other complaints about governmental entities.

Role of the Attorney General

See also: Role of the Attorney General

There is currently no provision within the state open records law that empowers the State Department of Law to enforce the right of the public to access governmental records.

Open meetings

The Alaska Open Meetings Act states that, "All meetings of a governmental body of a public entity of the state are open to the public". Participation in public meetings by the public may be made via teleconference, if so, materials to be considered at the meeting should also be made available at the teleconferencing location (if practicable).[19]

See also

External links


References

Relevant legal cases

See also: Court cases with an impact on state FOIA and Alaska sunshine lawsuits

Here is a list of lawsuits in Alaska (cases are listed alphabetically; to order them by year, please click the icon to the right of the "year" heading).


Lawsuit Year
Anchorage School District v. Anchorage Daily News 1989
Brady v. State of Alaska 1998
Capital Information Group v. Office of the Governor 1996
City of Kenai v. Kenai Peninsula Newspapers 1982
Doe v. Superior Court 1986
Fuller v. City of Homer 2003
Gwich'in Steering Committee v. Office of the Governor 2000
Municipality of Anchorage v. Anchorage Daily News 1990