Difference between revisions of "American Civil Liberties Union"

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{{Short organization profile |
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{{Short organization profile
name               = American Civil Liberties Union |
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|name = American Civil Liberties Union
organization image = |
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|image = American Civil Liberties Union.JPG
leadership          = Susan N. Herman |
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|president = Susan N. Herman  
website             = http://www.aclu.org/ |
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|vice-president =
}}{{tnr}}
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|chairman =
[[File:Aclu.jpg|center]]
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|executive director=Anthony D. Romero
The '''American Civil Liberties Union''' (ACLU) consists of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a [[501(c)(3)]] non-profit that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status.
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|political party =
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|year =
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|affiliated =
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|website = http://www.aclu.org/
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}}{{Cong features vnt}}The '''American Civil Liberties Union''' (ACLU) consists of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a [[501(c)(3)]] non-profit that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status.
  
The ACLU's stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States."<ref>[http://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0 ''American Civil Liberties Union'',"About Us," retrieved February 28, 2011]</ref> It works through litigation, legislation, and community education.
+
The ACLU's stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States."<ref>[http://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0 ''American Civil Liberties Union'', "About Us," accessed February 28, 2011]</ref>
  
"The ACLU today is the nation's largest public interest law firm, with a 50-state network of staffed, autonomous affiliate offices."<ref name=acluHistory/> "About 100 ACLU staff attorneys collaborate with about 2,000 volunteer attorneys in handling close to 6,000 cases annually."<ref name=acluHistory>[http://www.aclu.org/aclu-history ''American Civil Liberties Union'',"History," retrieved February 21, 2011]</ref>
+
"The ACLU today is the nation's largest public interest law firm, with a 50-state network of staffed, autonomous affiliate offices."<ref name=acluHistory/> "About 100 ACLU staff attorneys collaborate with about 2,000 volunteer attorneys in handling close to 6,000 cases annually."<ref name=acluHistory>[http://www.aclu.org/aclu-history ''American Civil Liberties Union'', "History," accessed February 21, 2011]</ref>
  
 +
==Leadership==
 +
*'''President:''' Susan N. Herman
 +
*'''Executive Director:''' Anthony D. Romero
 +
*'''Deputy Executive Director:''' Dorothy Ehrlich
 +
*'''Director of Washington Legislative Office:''' Laura Murphy
 +
*'''Director of Affiliate Support and Advocacy:''' Geri Rozanski
 +
*'''Legal Director:''' Steven Shapiro
 +
*'''Communications Director:''' Emily Tynes
 +
*'''Chief Development Officer:''' Mark Wier
 +
*'''General Counsel:''' Terence Dougherty
 +
 
==Rights of primary concern==
 
==Rights of primary concern==
 
*First Amendment rights
 
*First Amendment rights
 
*Equal protection under the law
 
*Equal protection under the law
 
*Right to due process
 
*Right to due process
*Right to privacy<ref>[http://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0 ''American Civil Liberites Union'',"About Us," retrieved February 21, 2011]</ref>
+
*Right to privacy<ref>[http://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0 ''American Civil Liberites Union'', "About Us," accessed February 21, 2011]</ref>
  
==Measures==
+
==2012 elections==
 +
According to ''OpenSecrets.org'', American Civil Liberties Union spent $16,740 in the 2012 election cycle.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000031473 ''Open Secrets'', "American Civil Liberties Union," accessed December 16, 2013]</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Endorsed candidates===
 +
In the 2012 election cycle, the ACLU supported the following candidates:<ref name="acs">[http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000031473 ''Open Secrets'', "American Civil Liberties Union," accessed December 16, 2013]</ref>
 +
*[[Barack Obama]]
 +
*[[Kelda Helen Roys]]
 +
*[[Bill Foster]]
 +
*[[Lois Frankel]]
 +
*[[Hakeem Jeffries]]
 +
*[[Jon Tester]]
 +
 
 +
===Expenditures===
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" margin-right: 3px; margin-top: 3px; margin-bottom:3px; margin-left:3px; style="background:none; width:600px;"
 +
! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Top 5 largest '''American Civil Liberties Union''' expenditures in 2012<ref name="acs"/>
 +
|-
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Candidate
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Party
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Office
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | For
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Against
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Total
 +
! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Desired Result
 +
|-
 +
| [[Barack Obama]] ||align="center"|{{bluedot}}||align="center"|N/A|| President||$14,490||$0||$14,490||[[Image:Yes.png|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Kelda Helen Roys]] ||align="center"|{{bluedot}}||align="center"|WI||House||$500||$0||$500||[[Image:No.png|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lois Frankel]] ||align="center"|{{bluedot}}||align="center"|FL|| House||$250||$0||$250||[[Image:Yes.png|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Bill Foster]] ||align="center"|{{bluedot}}||align="center"|IL|| House||$250||$0||$250||[[Image:Yes.png|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Hakeem Jeffries]] ||align="center"|{{bluedot}}||align="center"|NY|| House||$250||$0||$250||[[Image:Yes.png|center]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Ballot measures==
 
*Opposed [[California Proposition 14, Top Two Primaries Act (June 2010)]]
 
*Opposed [[California Proposition 14, Top Two Primaries Act (June 2010)]]
 
*Supported [[California Proposition 19, the Marijuana Legalization Initiative (2010)]]
 
*Supported [[California Proposition 19, the Marijuana Legalization Initiative (2010)]]
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# The ACLU donated $61,562.50 to help fund [[Washington Initiative 1000 (2008)]].
 
# The ACLU donated $61,562.50 to help fund [[Washington Initiative 1000 (2008)]].
 
# In some states, at times, the ACLU lends support to litigation efforts in support of initiative rights.  Examples include [[ACLU v. Lomax]].
 
# In some states, at times, the ACLU lends support to litigation efforts in support of initiative rights.  Examples include [[ACLU v. Lomax]].
 +
 +
==History==
 +
The American Civil Liberties Union was founded in 1920 by '''Roger Baldwin''' (along with several others including '''Crystal Eastman''' and '''Albert DeSilver''').
 +
<br>
 +
The organization was started in response to the "Palmer Raids," a series of arrests by then Attorney General Mitchell Palmer in 1919 and 1920. These arrests took place without warrants and the thousands that were detained were brutally treated.<ref name=history>[https://www.aclu.org/aclu-history ''ACLU,'' ACLU History, accessed March 9, 2014]</ref>
 +
<br>
 +
The ACLU's mission is to defend the rights of the people as set forth by the U.S. Constitution. The organization has more than 500,000 members including 200 attorneys on staff and thousands of volunteers.<ref name=history/>
 +
 +
===Structure and leadership===
 +
{| class="wikitable" width="450px" style="text-align:left" align=right
 +
|-
 +
! width="200px" | National Board of Directors
 +
! width="200px" | National Advisory Council
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
*83 members
 +
*Overall governing and policy-making body
 +
*Meets 4 times per year
 +
*Contains committees that study issues and make recommendations to the Board
 +
|
 +
* 90 members, including prominent Americans of different fields
 +
* Advises the Board of Directors on issues
 +
* No decision-making power
 +
* Members participate in Board's committees
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
====Structure====
 +
Self-described as the "largest public interest law firm," the ACLU is actually comprised of two distinct corporate entities: the ACLU and the ACLU Foundation.  While the two organizations share office space and employees, the former is primarily concerned with legislative [[lobbying]] while the latter handles legal proceedings and correspondence.<ref name=structure>[http://aclu.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000310 ''ProCon.org'', "ACLU Structure," March 2012]</ref>
 +
 +
The largest governing bodies of the ACLU are the National Board of Directors and the National Advisory Council.<ref name=structure/>
 +
 +
==Notable cases==
 +
The following tables display a selection of notable cases that the ACLU has been involved in, whether through representation or serving as an ''amicus curiae''.
 +
=Free speech=
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Court
 +
! Majority author or presiding judge
 +
! Summary
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/393/503 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District] (1969) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|Abe Fortas}} || Two siblings and a friend were suspended from school for wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War.  The Court overturned the district court's decision, finding that the students were entitled to free speech that did not impede the course of educational proceedings.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/424/1 Buckley v. Valeo] (1976) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || Decided ''per curiam'' || The Federal Election Campaign Act as amended in 1974 was partially struck down by the Court, which found that unlimited spending in campaigns was protected by the First Amendment. The ACLU filed a brief on the petitioner's behalf arguing that unlimited monetary contributions to campaigns represents absolute free speech.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/521/844 Reno v. ACLU] (1997) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}}|| {{JP|John Paul Stevens}} || The Court struck down parts of the Communications Decency Act of 1996, which regulated the transmission of online pornography as to prevent access by minors.  The majority stated that the Internet is akin to the press in being afforded full First Amendment protection of speech, although the provisions against obscenity and child pornography could be still enforced.
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
=Equal protection=
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Court
 +
! Majority author or presiding judge
 +
! Summary
 +
|-
 +
| {{JP|Brown v. Board of Education}} (1954) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|Earl Warren}} || The court overturned the ruling in {{JP|Plessy v. Ferguson}} (1986), finding that racial segregation in public schools violated the {{JP|Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution#Section 1|Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment}}.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/388/1 Loving v. Virginia] (1967) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|Earl Warren}} || An interracial couple was sentenced to one year in prison for violating Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924. ACLU lawyer Bernard Cohen defended the couple.  The Court found that the Virginia law violated the Equal Protection Clause.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/404/71 Reed v. Reed] (1971) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|Warren Burger}} || The Court struck down an Idaho law giving preferential treatment to men in deciding executors of estates, saying that the Equal Protection Clause prohibits sex-based discrimination.
 +
|}
 +
 +
=Privacy=
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Court
 +
! Majority author or presiding judge
 +
! Summary
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/410/113 Roe v. Wade] (1973)<hr>[http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/410/179 Doe v. Bolton] (1973) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|Harry Blackmun}} || The Court decided the cases the same day, ruling that the plaintiffs had their {{JP|Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Fourteenth Amendment}} due process rights violated by state laws restricting abortion.  The ACLU represented the plaintiff in the latter case.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/02-102 Lawrence v. Texas] (2003) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|Anthony Kennedy}} || The Court overturned the ruling in [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/478/186 Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)], which upheld Georgia's anti-sodomy law on the grounds that a constitutional protection for sexual privacy was not present.  The Lawrence ruling, based on the Fourteenth Amendment, effectively struck down all state-level anti-sodomy laws.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-479.ZS.html Safford Unified School District v. Redding] (2009) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|David Souter}} || The Court held that the {{JP|Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Fourth Amendment}} rights of a middle schooler were violated when school officials strip-searched her for drugs.
 +
|}
 +
 +
=Religious freedom=
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Name
 +
! Court
 +
! Majority author or presiding judge
 +
! Summary
 +
|-
 +
| Tennessee v. Scopes (a/k/a the Scopes Monkey Trial) (1925)<hr>[http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scopes/statcase.htm Scopes v. Tennessee] (1927) || {{JP|Tennessee Criminal Court}}<hr>{{JP|Tennessee Supreme Court}} || John T. Raulston<hr>Grafton Green|| John Scopes, a biology teacher, was charged with violating Tennessee's ban on the teaching of evolution.  Scopes was convicted and fined $100; his trial served more as a high-profile ideological showdown between William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution and ACLU lawyer Clarence Darrow (who infamously cross-examined Bryan) for the defense.  Scopes and Darrow appealed unsuccessfully, but the conviction was overturned on a technicality: the county judge decided the fine, not the jury as prescribed.<ref>[http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scopes/evolut.htm ''Douglas Linder'', "State v. John Scopes ('The Monkey Trial')," accessed March 7, 2014]</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| [http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/472/38/case.html Wallace v. Jaffree] (1985) || {{JP|U.S. Supreme Court}} || {{JP|John Paul Stevens}} || The Supreme Court overturned Alabama's "moment of silence" law, intended for public school students to briefly undertake "meditation or voluntary prayer" on {{JP|Establishment Clause of the First Amendment|First Amendment}} grounds.
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.aclupa.org/our-work/legal/legaldocket/intelligentdesigncase/dovertrialtranscripts/ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District] (2005) || {{JP|United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania}} || {{JP|John E. Jones}} || A district court ruled that the teaching of intelligent design in public schools violated the {{JP|Establishment Clause of the First Amendment}}.
 +
|}
 +
<headertabs/>
 +
 +
===Finances===
 +
The American Civil Liberties Union is a nonprofit organization. In 2012, the ACLU raised a total of $100,895,742. The following graph shows the different areas of funding for the fiscal year.<ref>[https://www.aclu.org/finances ''ACLU,'' ACLU Finances, accessed March 9, 2014]</ref>
 +
<pPie 3d percentages=true labels title=ACLU Income, 2012 colorscheme=excel>
 +
Grants and contributions,57
 +
Membership contributions,26
 +
Bequests,16
 +
Other Revenue,1
 +
</pPie>
 +
 +
===Additional reading===
 +
* Cottrell, Robert C. ''Roger Nash Baldwin and the American Civil Liberties Union''. New York: Columbia University Press. 2000.
 +
 +
==Recent news==
 +
This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term "'''American + Civil + Liberties + Union'''"
 +
:''All stories may not be relevant to this organization due to the nature of the search engine.''
 +
{{RSS|feed=http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&gl=us&q=American+Civil+Liberties+Union&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss|template=slpfeed|max=10|title=American Civil Liberties Union News Feed}}
 +
 +
==See also==
 +
* [[PACs and Super PACS]]
 +
* [[Political action committee]]
 +
* [[Super PAC]]
 +
* [[Federal Election Commission]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
Line 39: Line 205:
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
  
{{organizations}}
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<!------>
[[Category:National political organizations]]
+
{{Congress}}
[[Category:Ballot measure donors]]
+
 
{{pod stub}}
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[[Category:National influencers]][[Category:organizations]]{{winf category|Month=April 24, 2015|Reason=double check categories, this page may need more}}

Latest revision as of 14:00, 24 April 2015

American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union.JPG
President:Susan N. Herman
Executive Director:Anthony D. Romero
Website:http://www.aclu.org/
Portal:Congress
Features of Congress

Background
Federal Election CommissionDemocratic Congressional Campaign CommitteeNational Republican Congressional CommitteeFiling requirements for congressional candidatesClasses of United States SenatorsFilling vacancies in the U.S. SenatePresident Pro Tempore of the SenateUnited States Speaker of the HouseFilibuster

Sessions
114th Congress113th Congress112th Congress111th Congress110th Congress

Analysis
Lifetime voting recordsNet worth of United States Senators and RepresentativesStaff salaries of United States Senators and RepresentativesNational Journal vote ratings
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) consists of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a 501(c)(3) non-profit that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status.

The ACLU's stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States."[1]

"The ACLU today is the nation's largest public interest law firm, with a 50-state network of staffed, autonomous affiliate offices."[2] "About 100 ACLU staff attorneys collaborate with about 2,000 volunteer attorneys in handling close to 6,000 cases annually."[2]

Leadership

  • President: Susan N. Herman
  • Executive Director: Anthony D. Romero
  • Deputy Executive Director: Dorothy Ehrlich
  • Director of Washington Legislative Office: Laura Murphy
  • Director of Affiliate Support and Advocacy: Geri Rozanski
  • Legal Director: Steven Shapiro
  • Communications Director: Emily Tynes
  • Chief Development Officer: Mark Wier
  • General Counsel: Terence Dougherty

Rights of primary concern

  • First Amendment rights
  • Equal protection under the law
  • Right to due process
  • Right to privacy[3]

2012 elections

According to OpenSecrets.org, American Civil Liberties Union spent $16,740 in the 2012 election cycle.[4]

Endorsed candidates

In the 2012 election cycle, the ACLU supported the following candidates:[5]

Expenditures

Top 5 largest American Civil Liberties Union expenditures in 2012[5]
Candidate Party State Office For Against Total Desired Result
Barack Obama Democratic Party N/A President $14,490 $0 $14,490
Yes.png
Kelda Helen Roys Democratic Party WI House $500 $0 $500
No.png
Lois Frankel Democratic Party FL House $250 $0 $250
Yes.png
Bill Foster Democratic Party IL House $250 $0 $250
Yes.png
Hakeem Jeffries Democratic Party NY House $250 $0 $250
Yes.png

Ballot measures

Role in ballot initiatives

The ACLU plays a role in ballot initiative campaigns in two primary ways:

  1. In some states, local chapters of the ACLU endorse or oppose specific ballot initiatives. Examples include California Proposition 21 (2000).
  2. The ACLU donated $61,562.50 to help fund Washington Initiative 1000 (2008).
  3. In some states, at times, the ACLU lends support to litigation efforts in support of initiative rights. Examples include ACLU v. Lomax.

History

The American Civil Liberties Union was founded in 1920 by Roger Baldwin (along with several others including Crystal Eastman and Albert DeSilver).
The organization was started in response to the "Palmer Raids," a series of arrests by then Attorney General Mitchell Palmer in 1919 and 1920. These arrests took place without warrants and the thousands that were detained were brutally treated.[6]
The ACLU's mission is to defend the rights of the people as set forth by the U.S. Constitution. The organization has more than 500,000 members including 200 attorneys on staff and thousands of volunteers.[6]

Structure and leadership

National Board of Directors National Advisory Council
  • 83 members
  • Overall governing and policy-making body
  • Meets 4 times per year
  • Contains committees that study issues and make recommendations to the Board
  • 90 members, including prominent Americans of different fields
  • Advises the Board of Directors on issues
  • No decision-making power
  • Members participate in Board's committees

Structure

Self-described as the "largest public interest law firm," the ACLU is actually comprised of two distinct corporate entities: the ACLU and the ACLU Foundation. While the two organizations share office space and employees, the former is primarily concerned with legislative lobbying while the latter handles legal proceedings and correspondence.[7]

The largest governing bodies of the ACLU are the National Board of Directors and the National Advisory Council.[7]

Notable cases

The following tables display a selection of notable cases that the ACLU has been involved in, whether through representation or serving as an amicus curiae.

[edit]
Name Court Majority author or presiding judge Summary
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) U.S. Supreme Court Abe Fortas Two siblings and a friend were suspended from school for wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War. The Court overturned the district court's decision, finding that the students were entitled to free speech that did not impede the course of educational proceedings.
Buckley v. Valeo (1976) U.S. Supreme Court Decided per curiam The Federal Election Campaign Act as amended in 1974 was partially struck down by the Court, which found that unlimited spending in campaigns was protected by the First Amendment. The ACLU filed a brief on the petitioner's behalf arguing that unlimited monetary contributions to campaigns represents absolute free speech.
Reno v. ACLU (1997) U.S. Supreme Court John Paul Stevens The Court struck down parts of the Communications Decency Act of 1996, which regulated the transmission of online pornography as to prevent access by minors. The majority stated that the Internet is akin to the press in being afforded full First Amendment protection of speech, although the provisions against obscenity and child pornography could be still enforced.
Name Court Majority author or presiding judge Summary
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Earl Warren The court overturned the ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1986), finding that racial segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Loving v. Virginia (1967) U.S. Supreme Court Earl Warren An interracial couple was sentenced to one year in prison for violating Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924. ACLU lawyer Bernard Cohen defended the couple. The Court found that the Virginia law violated the Equal Protection Clause.
Reed v. Reed (1971) U.S. Supreme Court Warren Burger The Court struck down an Idaho law giving preferential treatment to men in deciding executors of estates, saying that the Equal Protection Clause prohibits sex-based discrimination.
Name Court Majority author or presiding judge Summary
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Doe v. Bolton (1973)
U.S. Supreme Court Harry Blackmun The Court decided the cases the same day, ruling that the plaintiffs had their Fourteenth Amendment due process rights violated by state laws restricting abortion. The ACLU represented the plaintiff in the latter case.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003) U.S. Supreme Court Anthony Kennedy The Court overturned the ruling in Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), which upheld Georgia's anti-sodomy law on the grounds that a constitutional protection for sexual privacy was not present. The Lawrence ruling, based on the Fourteenth Amendment, effectively struck down all state-level anti-sodomy laws.
Safford Unified School District v. Redding (2009) U.S. Supreme Court David Souter The Court held that the Fourth Amendment rights of a middle schooler were violated when school officials strip-searched her for drugs.
Name Court Majority author or presiding judge Summary
Tennessee v. Scopes (a/k/a the Scopes Monkey Trial) (1925)
Scopes v. Tennessee (1927)
Tennessee Criminal Court
Tennessee Supreme Court
John T. Raulston
Grafton Green
John Scopes, a biology teacher, was charged with violating Tennessee's ban on the teaching of evolution. Scopes was convicted and fined $100; his trial served more as a high-profile ideological showdown between William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution and ACLU lawyer Clarence Darrow (who infamously cross-examined Bryan) for the defense. Scopes and Darrow appealed unsuccessfully, but the conviction was overturned on a technicality: the county judge decided the fine, not the jury as prescribed.[8]
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985) U.S. Supreme Court John Paul Stevens The Supreme Court overturned Alabama's "moment of silence" law, intended for public school students to briefly undertake "meditation or voluntary prayer" on First Amendment grounds.
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District (2005) United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania John E. Jones A district court ruled that the teaching of intelligent design in public schools violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Finances

The American Civil Liberties Union is a nonprofit organization. In 2012, the ACLU raised a total of $100,895,742. The following graph shows the different areas of funding for the fiscal year.[9]

pChart

Additional reading

  • Cottrell, Robert C. Roger Nash Baldwin and the American Civil Liberties Union. New York: Columbia University Press. 2000.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term "American + Civil + Liberties + Union"

All stories may not be relevant to this organization due to the nature of the search engine.

American Civil Liberties Union News Feed

  • Loading...

See also

External links

References