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Article I, Michigan Constitution

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Michigan Constitution
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Preamble
Articles
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Article I of the Michigan Constitution is entitled Declaration of Rights and consists of 27 sections.

Section 1

Text of Section 1:

Political Power

All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their equal benefit, security and protection.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §1, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §1.

Section 2

Text of Section 2:

Equal Protection; Discrimination

No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall any person be denied the enjoyment of his civil or political rights or be discriminated against in the exercise thereof because of religion, race, color or national origin. The legislature shall implement this section by appropriate legislation.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §2, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964.

Section 3

Text of Section 3:

Assembly, Consultation, Instruction, Petition

The people have the right peaceably to assemble, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives and to petition the government for redress of grievances.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §3, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §2.

Section 4

Text of Section 4:

Freedom of Worship and Religious Belief; Appropriations

Every person shall be at liberty to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, or, against his consent, to contribute to the erection or support of any place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes or other rates for the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion. No money shall be appropriated or drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious sect or society, theological or religious seminary; nor shall property belonging to the state be appropriated for any such purpose. The civil and political rights, privileges and capacities of no person shall be diminished or enlarged on account of his religious belief.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §4, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §3.

Section 5

Text of Section 5:

Freedom of Speech and of Press

Every person may freely speak, write, express and publish his views on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right; and no law shall be enacted to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §5, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §4.

Section 6

Text of Section 6:

Bearing of Arms

Every person has a right to keep and bear arms for the defense of himself and the state.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §6, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §5.

Section 7

Text of Section 7:

Military Power Subordinate to Civil Power

The military shall in all cases and at all times be in strict subordination to the civil power.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §7, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §6.

Section 8

Text of Section 8:

Quartering of Soldiers

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner or occupant, nor in time of war, except in a manner prescribed by law.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §8, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §7.

Section 9

Text of Section 9:

Slavery and Involuntary Servitude

Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude unless for the punishment of crime, shall ever be tolerated in this state.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §9, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §8.

Section 10

Text of Section 10:

Attainder; Ex Post Facto Laws; Impairment of Contracts

No bill of attainder, ex post facto law or law impairing the obligation of contract shall be enacted.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §10, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §9.

Section 11

Text of Section 11:

Searches and Seizures

The person, houses, papers and possessions of every person shall be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures. No warrant to search any place or to seize any person or things shall issue without describing them, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation. The provisions of this section shall not be construed to bar from evidence in any criminal proceeding any narcotic drug, firearm, bomb, explosive or any other dangerous weapon, seized by a peace officer outside the curtilage of any dwelling house in this state.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §11, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Constitutionality: The last sentence of this section was held invalid as in conflict with U.S. Const., Amend. IV. Lucas v. People, 420 F.2d 259 (C.A. Mich. 1970); Caver v. Kropp, 306 F.Supp. 1329 (D.C. Mich. 1969); People v. Pennington, 383 Mich. 611, 178 N.W. 2d 460 (1970); People v. Andrews, 21 Mich. App. 731, 176 N.W. 2d 460 (1970). Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §10.

Section 12

Text of Section 12:

Habeas Corpus

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §12, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §11.

Section 13

Text of Section 13:

Conduct of Suits in Person or By Counsel

A suitor in any court of this state has the right to prosecute or defend his suit, either in his own proper person or by an attorney.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §13, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §12.

Section 14

Text of Section 14:

Jury Trials

The right of trial by jury shall remain, but shall be waived in all civil cases unless demanded by one of the parties in the manner prescribed by law. In all civil cases tried by 12 jurors a verdict shall be received when 10 jurors agree.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §14, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §13.

Section 15

Text of Section 15:

Double Jeopardy; Bailable Offenses; Commencement of Trial if Bail Denied; Bail Hearing; Effective Date

No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except that bail may be denied for the following persons when the proof is evident or the presumption great:

(a) A person who, within the 15 years immediately preceding a motion for bail pending the disposition of an indictment for a violent felony or of an arraignment on a warrant charging a violent felony, has been convicted of 2 or more violent felonies under the laws of this state or under substantially similar laws of the United States or another state, or a combination thereof, only if the prior felony convictions arose out of at least 2 separate incidents, events, or transactions.

(b) A person who is indicted for, or arraigned on a warrant charging, murder or treason.

(c) A person who is indicted for, or arraigned on a warrant charging, criminal sexual conduct in the first degree, armed robbery, or kidnapping with intent to extort money or other valuable thing thereby, unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant is not likely to flee or present a danger to any other person.

(d) A person who is indicted for, or arraigned on a warrant charging, a violent felony which is alleged to have been committed while the person was on bail, pending the disposition of a prior violent felony charge or while the person was on probation or parole as a result of a prior conviction for a violent felony. If a person is denied admission to bail under this section, the trial of the person shall be commenced not more than 90 days after the date on which admission to bail is denied. If the trial is not commenced within 90 days after the date on which admission to bail is denied and the delay is not attributable to the defense, the court shall immediately schedule a bail hearing and shall set the amount of bail for the person. As used in this section, “violent felony” means a felony, an element of which involves a violent act or threat of a violent act against any other person. This section, as amended, shall not take effect until May 1, 1979.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §15, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964;—Am. H.J.R. Q, approved Nov. 7, 1978, Eff. May 1, 1979. Effective date: The language certified by the Board of Canvassers was identical to House Joint Resolution Q of 1978, except for the deletion of the last sentence which contained the proposed May 1, 1979, effective date. The May 1, 1979, effective date provision of House Joint Resolution Q was not stated in the text of ballot Proposal K or in any of the material circulated by the Secretary of State, and was neither considered nor voted upon by the electors in the November 7, 1978, general election. Therefore, the effective date of Proposal K is December 23, 1978, which was the date 45 days after the election as provided by Const.

1963, Art. XII, §1. Op. Atty. Gen., No. 5533 (1979). Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §14.

Amendments

Section 16

Text of Section 16:

Bail; Fines; Punishments; Detention of Witnesses

Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed; cruel or unusual punishment shall not be inflicted; nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §16, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §15.

Section 17

Text of Section 17:

Self-Incrimination; Due Process of Law; Fair Treatment at Investigations

No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law. The right of all individuals, firms, corporations and voluntary associations to fair and just treatment in the course of legislative and executive investigations and hearings shall not be infringed.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §17, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §16.

Section 18

Text of Section 18:

Witnesses; Competency, Religious Beliefs

No person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §18, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §17.

Section 19

Text of Section 19:

Libels, Truth as Defense

In all prosecutions for libels the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and, if it appears to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the accused shall be acquitted.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §19, Eff. Jan 1. 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §18.

Section 20

Text of Section 20:

Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions

In every criminal prosecution, the accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, which may consist of less than 12 jurors in prosecutions for misdemeanors punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year; to be informed of the nature of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him or her; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his or her favor; to have the assistance of counsel for his or her defense; to have an appeal as a matter of right, except as provided by law an appeal by an accused who pleads guilty or nolo contendere shall be by leave of the court; and as provided by law, when the trial court so orders, to have such reasonable assistance as may be necessary to perfect and prosecute an appeal.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §20, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964;—Am. H.J.R. M, approved Aug. 8, 1972, Eff. Sept. 23, 1972;—Am. S.J.R. D, approved Nov. 8, 1994, Eff. Dec. 24, 1994. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §19.

Amendments

Section 21

Text of Section 21:

Imprisonment for Debt

No person shall be imprisoned for debt arising out of or founded on contract, express or implied, except in cases of fraud or breach of trust.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §21, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §20.

Section 22

Text of Section 22:

Treason; Definition, Evidence

Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless upon the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act or on confession in open court.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §22, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. II, §21.

Section 23

Text of Section 23:

Enumeration of Rights Not to Deny Others

The enumeration in this constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.[1]

History: Const. 1963, Art. I, §23, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964.

Section 24

Text of Section 24:

Rights of Crime Victims; Enforcement; Assessment Against Convicted Defendants

(1) Crime victims, as defined by law, shall have the following rights, as provided by law:

The right to be treated with fairness and respect for their dignity and privacy throughout the criminal justice process.
The right to timely disposition of the case following arrest of the accused.
The right to be reasonably protected from the accused throughout the criminal justice process.
The right to notification of court proceedings.
The right to attend trial and all other court proceedings the accused has the right to attend.
The right to confer with the prosecution.
The right to make a statement to the court at sentencing.
The right to restitution.
The right to information about the conviction, sentence, imprisonment, and release of the accused.

(2) The legislature may provide by law for the enforcement of this section. (3) The legislature may provide for an assessment against convicted defendants to pay for crime victims’ rights.[1]

History: Add. H.J.R. P, approved Nov. 8, 1988, Eff. Dec. 24, 1988.

Amendments

Section 25

Text of Section 25:

Marriage

To secure and preserve the benefits of marriage for our society and for future generations of children, the union of one man and one woman in marriage shall be the only agreement recognized as a marriage or similar union for any purpose.[1]

History: Add. Init., approved Nov. 2, 2004, Eff. Dec. 18, 2004.

Amendments

Section 26

Text of Section 26:

Affirmative Action Programs

(1) The University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University, and any other public college or university, community college, or school district shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.

(2) The state shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.

(3) For the purposes of this section "state" includes, but is not necessarily limited to, the state itself, any city, county, any public college, university, or community college, school district, or other political subdivision or governmental instrumentality of or within the State of Michigan not included in sub-section 1.

(4) This section does not prohibit action that must be taken to establish or maintain eligibility for any federal program, if ineligibility would result in a loss of federal funds to the state.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as prohibiting bona fide qualifications based on sex that are reasonably necessary to the normal operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.

(6) The remedies available for violations of this section shall be the same, regardless of the injured party's race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin, as are otherwise available for violations of Michigan anti-discrimination law.

(7) This section shall be self-executing. If any part or parts of this section are found to be in conflict with the United States Constitution or federal law, the section shall be implemented to the maximum extent that the United States Constitution and federal law permit. Any provision held invalid shall be severable from the remaining portions of this section.

(8) This section applies only to action taken after the effective date of this section.

(9) This section does not invalidate any court order or consent decree that is in force as of the effective date of this section.[1]

History: Add. Init., approved Nov. 7, 2006, Eff. Dec. 23, 2006.

Amendments

Section 27

Text of Section 27:

Human Embryo and Embryonic Stem Cell Research (1) Nothing in this section shall alter Michigan’s current prohibition on human cloning.

(2) To ensure that Michigan citizens have access to stem cell therapies and cures, and to ensure that physicians and researchers can conduct the most promising forms of medical research in this state, and that all such research is conducted safely and ethically, any research permitted under federal law on human embryos may be conducted in Michigan, subject to the requirements of federal law and only the following additional limitations and requirements:

(a) No stem cells may be taken from a human embryo more than fourteen days after cell division begins; provided, however, that time during which an embryo is frozen does not count against this fourteen day limit.

(b) The human embryos were created for the purpose of fertility treatment and, with voluntary and informed consent, documented in writing, the person seeking fertility treatment chose to donate the embryos for research; and

(i) the embryos were in excess of the clinical need of the person seeking the fertility treatment and would otherwise be discarded unless they are used for research; or

(ii) the embryos were not suitable for implantation and would otherwise be discarded unless they are used for research.

(c) No person may, for valuable consideration, purchase or sell human embryos for stem cell research or stem cell therapies and cures.

(d) All stem cell research and all stem cell therapies and cures must be conducted and provided in accordance with state and local laws of general applicability, including but not limited to laws concerning scientific and medical practices and patient safety and privacy, to the extent that any such laws do not:

(i) prevent, restrict, obstruct, or discourage any stem cell research or stem cell therapies and cures that are permitted by the provisions of this section; or

(ii) create disincentives for any person to engage in or otherwise associate with such research or therapies or cures.

(3) Any provision of this section held unconstitutional shall be severable from the remaining portions of this section.[1]

History: Add. Init., approved Nov. 4, 2008, Eff. Dec. 19, 2008.

Amendments

See also

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