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Article VIII, Michigan Constitution

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Article VIII of the Michigan Constitution is entitled Education. It has four sections

Section 1

Text of Section 1:

Encouragement of Education

Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §1, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §1.

Section 2

Text of Section 2:

Free Public Elementary and Secondary Schools; Discrimination

The legislature shall maintain and support a system of free public elementary and secondary schools as defined by law. Every school district shall provide for the education of its pupils without discrimination as to religion, creed, race, color or national origin. Nonpublic schools, prohibited aid. No public monies or property shall be appropriated or paid or any public credit utilized, by the legislature or any other political subdivision or agency of the state directly or indirectly to aid or maintain any private, denominational or other nonpublic, pre-elementary, elementary, or secondary school. No payment, credit, tax benefit, exemption or deductions, tuition voucher, subsidy, grant or loan of public monies or property shall be provided, directly or indirectly, to support the attendance of any student or the employment of any person at any such nonpublic school or at any location or institution where instruction is offered in whole or in part to such nonpublic school students. The legislature may provide for the transportation of students to and from any school.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §2, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964;—Am. Init., approved Nov. 3, 1970, Eff. Dec. 19, 1970. Constitutionality: That portion of second sentence of second paragraph of this section, prohibiting use of public money to support attendance of any student or employment of any person at any location or institution where instruction is offered in whole or in part to nonpublic students, was held unconstitutional, void, and unenforceable because it contravened free exercise of religion guaranteed by the United States Constitution and was violative of equal protection of laws provisions of United States Constitution. Traverse City School District v. Attorney General, 384 Mich. 390, 185 N.W. 2d 9 (1971). Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §9.

Section 3

Text of Section 3:

State Board of Education; Duties

Leadership and general supervision over all public education, including adult education and instructional programs in state institutions, except as to institutions of higher education granting baccalaureate degrees, is vested in a state board of education. It shall serve as the general planning and coordinating body for all public education, including higher education, and shall advise the legislature as to the financial requirements in connection therewith. Superintendent of public instruction; appointment, powers, duties. The state board of education shall appoint a superintendent of public instruction whose term of office shall be determined by the board. He shall be the chairman of the board without the right to vote, and shall be responsible for the execution of its policies. He shall be the principal executive officer of a state department of education which shall have powers and duties provided by law. State board of education; members, nomination, election, term. The state board of education shall consist of eight members who shall be nominated by party conventions and elected at large for terms of eight years as prescribed by law. The governor shall fill any vacancy by appointment for the unexpired term. The governor shall be ex-officio a member of the state board of education without the right to vote. Boards of institutions of higher education, limitation. The power of the boards of institutions of higher education provided in this constitution to supervise their respective institutions and control and direct the expenditure of the institutions’ funds shall not be limited by this section.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §3, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §§2, 6.

Section 4

Text of Section 4:

Higher Education Institutions; Appropriations, Accounting, Public Sessions of Boards

The legislature shall appropriate moneys to maintain the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan College of Science and Technology, Central Michigan University, Northern Michigan University, Western Michigan University, Ferris Institute, Grand Valley State College, by whatever names such institutions may hereafter be known, and other institutions of higher education established by law. The legislature shall be given an annual accounting of all income and expenditures by each of these educational institutions. Formal sessions of governing boards of such institutions shall be open to the public.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §4, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §10.

Section 5

Text of Section 5:

University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University; Controlling Boards

The regents of the University of Michigan and their successors in office shall constitute a body corporate known as the Regents of the University of Michigan; the trustees of Michigan State University and their successors in office shall constitute a body corporate known as the Board of Trustees of Michigan State University; the governors of Wayne State University and their successors in office shall constitute a body corporate known as the Board of Governors of Wayne State University. Each board shall have general supervision of its institution and the control and direction of all expenditures from the institution’s funds. Each board shall, as often as necessary, elect a president of the institution under its supervision. He shall be the principal executive officer of the institution, be ex-officio a member of the board without the right to vote and preside at meetings of the board. The board of each institution shall consist of eight members who shall hold office for terms of eight years and who shall be elected as provided by law. The governor shall fill board vacancies by appointment. Each appointee shall hold office until a successor has been nominated and elected as provided by law.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §5, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §§3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 16.

Section 6

Text of Section 6:

Other Institutions of Higher Education, Controlling Boards

Other institutions of higher education established by law having authority to grant baccalaureate degrees shall each be governed by a board of control which shall be a body corporate. The board shall have general supervision of the institution and the control and direction of all expenditures from the institution’s funds. It shall, as often as necessary, elect a president of the institution under its supervision. He shall be the principal executive officer of the institution and be ex-officio a member of the board without the right to vote. The board may elect one of its members or may designate the president, to preside at board meetings. Each board of control shall consist of eight members who shall hold office for terms of eight years, not more than two of which shall expire in the same year, and who shall be appointed by the governor by and with the advice and consent of the senate. Vacancies shall be filled in like manner.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §6, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964.

Section 7

Text of Section 7:

Community and Junior Colleges; State Board, Members, Terms, Vacancies

The legislature shall provide by law for the establishment and financial support of public community and junior colleges which shall be supervised and controlled by locally elected boards. The legislature shall provide by law for a state board for public community and junior colleges which shall advise the state board of education concerning general supervision and planning for such colleges and requests for annual appropriations for their support. The board shall consist of eight members who shall hold office for terms of eight years, not more than two of which shall expire in the same year, and who shall be appointed by the state board of education. Vacancies shall be filled in like manner. The superintendent of public instruction shall be ex-officio a member of this board without the right to vote.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §7, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964.

Section 8

Text of Section 8:

Services for Disabled Persons

Institutions, programs, and services for the care, treatment, education, or rehabilitation of those inhabitants who are physically, mentally, or otherwise seriously disabled shall always be fostered and supported.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §8, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964;—Am. S.J.R. I, approved Nov. 3, 1998, Eff. Dec. 19, 1998. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §15.

Section 9

Text of Section 9:

Public Libraries, Fines

The legislature shall provide by law for the establishment and support of public libraries which shall be available to all residents of the state under regulations adopted by the governing bodies thereof. All fines assessed and collected in the several counties, townships and cities for any breach of the penal laws shall be exclusively applied to the support of such public libraries, and county law libraries as provided by law.

History: Const. 1963, Art. VIII, §9, Eff. Jan. 1, 1964. Former Constitution: See Const. 1908, Art. XI, §14.

External links

Michigan Constitution(See page 46)

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