Difference between revisions of "Ballot access requirements for political candidates in Arizona"

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::''See also: [[Arizona elections, 2014]]''  
 
::''See also: [[Arizona elections, 2014]]''  
  
Arizona will have a primary election on August 26, 2014 and a general election on November 4, 2014. Voters will elect candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:
+
Arizona held a primary election on August 26, 2014 and will hold a general election on November 4, 2014. Voters will elect candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:
 
* [[Arizona Gubernatorial election, 2014|Governor of Arizona]]
 
* [[Arizona Gubernatorial election, 2014|Governor of Arizona]]
 
* [[Arizona attorney general election, 2014|Attorney General of Arizona]]
 
* [[Arizona attorney general election, 2014|Attorney General of Arizona]]

Revision as of 05:42, 27 August 2014

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See also
This page contains extensive information about ballot access requirements for state and federal candidates running for elected office in the state of Arizona. Offices included are:

This page contains information on specific filing dates for each election year, how to become a candidate, how to create a political party, campaign finance requirements, state agency contacts involved in the election process, and term limits in Arizona. Information on running for election as a presidential candidate or for county and municipal offices is not included. This page reflects research completed in April 2014.

Note: If you have any questions or comments about this page, email us.

Year-specific dates

2014

See also: Arizona elections, 2014

Arizona held a primary election on August 26, 2014 and will hold a general election on November 4, 2014. Voters will elect candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:

The 2014 candidate filing period began April 28, 2014 and ended May 28, 2014.[1] For write-in candidates wishing to participate in the primary election the deadline to file was July 17, 2014. If they only wish to participate in the general election, their filing deadline is September 25, 2014. The deadline to file paperwork to create a new political party in time for the 2014 elections was February 27, 2014.[2] These deadlines, in addition to campaign finance deadlines, are included in the table below.[3][4]

Legend:      Ballot Access     Campaign Finance     Election Date




Dates and Requirements for Candidates in 2014
Deadline Event Type Event Description
January 31, 2014 Campaign Finance Non-election year report due
February 27, 2014 Ballot Access Deadline to file paperwork to create a new political party
April 28, 2014 Ballot Access Candidate filing period begins
May 28, 2014 Ballot Access Candidate filing deadline
June 30, 2014 Campaign Finance June 30 Report due
July 17, 2014 Ballot Access Write-in candidate filing deadline for primary election
August 19, 2014 Campaign Finance End of Qualifying Period Report due (Clean Elections Commission participating candidates only)
August 22, 2014 Campaign Finance Pre-election Report due
August 26, 2014 Election Date Primary election date
August 31, 2014 Campaign Finance Return of Primary Funds Report due (Clean Elections Commission participating candidates only)
September 25, 2014 Campaign Finance Post-election Report due
September 25, 2014 Ballot Access Write-in candidate filing deadline for general election
October 31, 2014 Campaign Finance Pre-election Report due
November 4, 2014 Election Date General election
December 4, 2014 Campaign Finance Post-election Report due
December 4, 2014 Campaign Finance Return of General Funds Report due (Clean Elections Commission participating candidates only)

Political parties

See also: List of political parties in the United States

As of January 2014, Arizona officially recognizes five political parties.[5] In order to be recognized by the state, a political party must fulfill certain requirements, which are detailed below in "Process to establish a political party."

Party Website link By-laws/Platform link
Americans Elect http://azamericanselect.blogspot.com/
Democratic http://azdem.org/ Party platform
Green http://azgp.org/ Party by-laws
Libertarian http://www.azlp.org/ Party platform
Republican http://www.azgop.org/ Party by-laws

In some states, a candidate may choose to have a label other than that of an officially recognized party appear alongside his or her name on the ballot. Such labels are called political party designations. A political party designation would be used when a candidate qualifies as an independent, but prefers to use a different label. Arizona does allow candidates to identify in this way. A total of 25 states allow candidates to use political party designations in non-presidential elections.{{{Reference}}}

The 11 states listed below (and Washington, D.C.) do not provide a process for political organizations to gain qualified status in advance of an election. Instead, in these states, an aspirant party must first field candidates using party designations. If the candidate or candidates win the requisite votes, the organization may then be recognized as an official political party. In these states, a political party can be formed only if the candidate in the general election obtains a specific number of votes. The number of votes required and type of race vary from state to state. Details can be found on the state-specific requirements pages.[6]

Events

Petition deadline upheld

On May 16, 2014, United States District Court Judge Neil Wake upheld the state's petition deadline for newly-qualifying political parties. In his opinion in Arizona Green Party v. Bennett, Wake held that the deadline as established is necessary in order to allow the state sufficient time to prepare for the qualifying party's primary election (which occurs six months after the petition filing deadline).[7]

Some opponents of the deadline point to the United States Supreme Court's ruling in Anderson v. Celebrezze, which held that Ohio's early filing deadline for independent presidential candidates violated the voting and associational rights of the candidates' supporters. The Green Party has filed a notice of appeal.[7]

Ballot access bill repealed

In June 2013, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed Arizona House Bill 2305 into law. The law set up changes to election procedures, including increasing signature requirements for minor party candidates to get on the ballot, and garnered many protests. Opponents to House Bill 2305 successfully referred the bill to voters in a veto referendum for the November 4, 2014 general election ballot. In January 2014, the Arizona House Judiciary Committee repealed the law on a 4-2 vote with House Bill 2196.[8] On February 10, 2014, House Bill 2196 passed the Arizona House Rules Committee, and the Arizona State Senate Judiciary Committee passed Senate Bill 1270, identical to House Bill 2196, with a 6-3 vote.[9][10] The Arizona House of Representatives passed House Bill 2196 on February 13, 2014, and the Arizona State Senate passed it on February 20, 2014. It was signed into law by Gov. Jan Brewer on February 27, 2014, officially repealing House Bill 2305.[11][12][13]

Process to establish a political party

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 16, Chapter 5 of the Arizona Revised Statutes

Qualifying for ballot access

To establish a recognized political party in Arizona, the group wishing to qualify as a party must file a petition with the Arizona Secretary of State containing signatures of registered voters equal to at least one and one-third percent of the votes cast for governor at the last general election.[14] In 2014, the total number of signatures required to gain ballot access as a new political party was 23,041.[2]

In order to gain statewide recognition, at least five counties must be indicated as the counties where signers of the petition are registered to vote, and at least 10 percent of the total required number of signatures must come from registered voters in counties with populations of less than 500,000 people.[14]

This petition must be filed 180 days before the primary election. If the Secretary of State's Office determines the party has enough valid signatures determined by a random sampling of 20 percent of the total, the party will be recognized.[15] Once recognized, the party will be represented by its own ballot in the next regularly scheduled primary election and accorded its own column on the general election ballot.[14]

Maintaining ballot access

Once recognized, a new political party will be qualified through the next two regularly scheduled general elections. After those two elections, the party will no longer be recognized unless it qualifies for continued recognition or files a new petition for recognition.[14] To qualify for continued recognition, either the party's candidate for governor must receive at least five percent of the votes cast in the gubernatorial election, or two-thirds of one percent of all registered voters in the state must have affiliated with the party by October 1 in the year preceding the general election.[16] For an example of how many votes or affiliated voters this might take, look to the table below.

Votes cast for governor in 2010 Number of votes needed to maintain party status Number of registered voters as of October 1, 2013 Number of registered voters needed to affiliate to maintain party status
1,728,081[17] 86,404 3,224,727[18] 21,498

Convention requirements

The state committee of a political party must meet no later than the fourth Saturday in January following a general election. At this meeting, a chairman, secretary and treasurer must be elected from its membership. The current chairman of the state committee must notify all state committeemen of the time and place of the meeting at least 10 days before the meeting will be held.[19]

Process to become a candidate

Figure 1: This is the Nomination Paper for political party candidates running for election in Arizona.
See also: Arizona signature requirements

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 16, Chapter 3 of the Arizona Revised Statutes

Candidates in Arizona may access the ballot as political party candidates, as independent candidates or as write-in candidates. Before any candidate, regardless of how they decide to access the ballot, can accept contributions, make expenditures, distribute campaign literature or circulate petitions, they must file a Political Committee Statement of Organization or a $500 Threshold Exemption Statement. All candidates file with the Arizona Secretary of State.[1]

Political party candidates

Political party candidates are nominated at the primary election.[20] If no candidate is elected at the primary election for a specific office, no candidate for that office can appear on the general election ballot for that political party.[21]

Political party candidates must file their nomination documents during the candidate filing period, which begins 120 days before the primary and ends 90 days before the primary. At the time of filing, a candidate must be a qualified elector residing in the geographic area represented by the office sought. The following documents must be filed in order to gain ballot access:[22]

  • A financial disclosure statement
  • An affidavit ascertaining that the candidate will be eligible to hold office if elected
  • A nomination paper including the following information:
    • Candidate’s residence address
    • Name of the party with which the candidate is affiliated
    • Office the candidate seeks, with district or precinct, if applicable
    • The candidate’s name as the candidate wishes it to appear on the ballot
    • Date of the primary and corresponding general election (if successful at the primary) at which the candidate wishes to be elected
  • A nomination petition

Nomination petitions must be signed by qualified electors who are eligible to vote for the office the candidate seeks. To calculate the number of signatures needed to be collected on the petition, the voter registration totals as of March 1 of the year of the election should be used. Look to the table below for signature requirements based on the office sought.[23]

Office sought Minimum signatures required Maximum signatures allowed
U.S. Senator or state executive office At least one-half of one percent of the total statewide voter registration of the candidate's party** No more than 10 percent of registered voters affiliated with the candidate's political party statewide
U.S. Representative At least one percent of registered voters affiliated with the candidate's political party in the district the candidate seeks to represent No more than 10 percent of registered voters affiliated with the candidate's political party in the district the candidate seeks to represent
State legislative office At least one percent of registered voters affiliated with the candidate's political party in the district the candidate seeks to represent No more than three percent of registered voters affiliated with the candidate's political party in the district the candidate seeks to represent
**Note: In July 2014, the Arizona Secretary of State announced that the state would no longer enforce a requirement that signatures come from at least three counties in the state. The decision was made following a lawsuit filed by the Arizona Public Integrity Alliance and four Maricopa County voters. The suit alleged that this requirement violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by "impermissibly diluting the value of signatures from citizens in more populous counties and increasing the value of signatures from citizens in less populous counties."[24]
Examples of signature requirements for established party candidates
Office sought Political party Total registered voters affiliated with the party in the district as of October 1, 2013[18] Minimum number of signatures needed
State executive office Democratic Party 964,088 4,820
State executive office Republican Party 1,129,845 5,649
Arizona's 1st Congressional District Democratic Party 140,376 702
Arizona State Senate District 1 Republican Party 60,400 302

Newly qualified political party candidates

Newly qualified political party candidates must file all the same documents and at the same time as other political party candidates. The only difference in how they file is how many signatures are needed on their qualifying petitions. Candidates from political parties that have been established for at least one election cycle collect a certain number of signatures depending on voter registration totals. Candidates of newly qualified political parties must instead file signatures equal to at least one-tenth of one percent of the total vote cast for the winning presidential or gubernatorial candidate at the last general election in the district the candidate seeks to represent.[23]

In 2012, 1,233,654 votes were cast for Mitt Romney, the winning presidential candidate in Arizona, meaning that new party candidates seeking state executive office in 2014 would need to collect 1,234 signatures on their qualifying petitions.[25]

Independent candidates

Candidates may not run as independent if they are representing a party that failed to fulfill the requirements to qualify as a party for the primary election, nor can they run if they tried to qualify as a political party candidate for the primary election and failed to submit enough signatures.[26]

Independent candidates may be nominated by petition to run in the general election. The nomination petition may be filed along with the financial disclosure statement during the candidate filing period, which begins 120 days before the primary election and ends 90 days before the primary election.[26]

An independent candidate's nomination petition must be signed by registered voters eligible to vote for the office the candidate seeks who have not signed a political party candidate’s petition. The number of signatures required on the petition is equal to at least three percent of all registered voters who are not affiliated with a recognized political party in the district the candidate seeks to represent. The voter registration totals should be used from calculations as of March 1 of the year of the election. Though the number of signatures required to gain ballot access as an independent is related to the number of registered voters who are not affiliated with recognized political parties, the affiliation of those signing the petitions does not matter as long as they have not already signed a political party candidate's petition.[26]

Write-in candidates

Candidates may not file as write-in candidates if:[27]

  • They ran in the primary election and failed to get elected.
  • They did not file enough signatures to be allowed ballot access when previously filing for primary ballot access.
  • They filed nomination petitions to run in the general election but did not submit enough valid signatures to gain ballot access.

Write-in votes will not be counted unless the candidate written in on the ballot filed a nomination paper and financial disclosure form no later than 5 p.m. on the 40th day before the election in which the candidate seeks to run. The nomination paper must include:[27]

  • The candidate's name and signature
  • The candidate's residence address or description of place of residence and post office address
  • The candidate's age
  • The length of time the candidate has been a resident of the state
  • The candidate's date of birth.

Petition requirements

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 16, Chapter 3 of the Arizona Revised Statutes

In some cases, political parties and/or candidates may need to obtain signatures via the petition process to gain ballot access. This section outlines the laws and regulations pertaining to petitions and circulators in Arizona.

Petitions

Petitions in Arizona are used by political party candidates and independent candidates to access the ballot. They are also used to qualify new political party parties. No matter the intended use of the petition, it should follow this format:[28][29]

  • Petitions should be presented on paper 11 inches long and 8.5 inches wide.
  • Petitions should have a caption explaining the purpose of the petition followed by a body of the petition explaining the intent of the petitioners.
  • There should be 10 signature lines, numbered consecutively and spaced one-half of an inch apart.
  • The signature portion of the petition must be divided into four columns headed by the following titles:
    • Signatures
    • Printed name
    • Residence address
    • Date of signing

Nomination petitions must be labeled "partisan" or "nonpartisan."[30] They may also contain a photograph of the candidate seeking nomination.[28]

Each signer of a nomination petition may sign only one petition per office, unless more than one candidate is to be elected for that office. In that case, signers may sign as many nomination petitions as there are candidates that will be elected to the office.[31]

Circulators

All petitions must be signed by the circulator who circulated them, and the circulator's name should be printed or typed beneath the signature. The circulator's residence address should also be included on the petition. If a circulator is not a resident of the state, he or she must register with the Arizona Secretary of State.[28]

Circulators must verify that every name on the petition was signed in their presence on the date indicated and that, to the best of the circulator's knowledge, each signer was a qualified elector living at the residence address given.[31]

Challenges to petitions

If an elector wishes to challenge the validity of a petition filed with the Arizona Secretary of State, he or she must do so no later than 5 p.m. on the 10th day, excluding weekends and holidays, after the close of the candidate filing period. In order to challenge a petition, the elector must specify the petition page number, line number and reason for each signature challenged. Failure to specify this information will result in the dismissal of the challenge. The superior court will hear and render a decision on the challenge within 10 days of it being filed.[32]

Campaign finance

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 16, Chapter 6 of the Arizona Revised Statutes

The campaign finance reporting process for candidates seeking state office in Arizona is outlined below. Candidates seeking federal office must file with the Federal Election Commission. Reporting details for federal candidates are not included in this section.

Reporting

Candidates in Arizona file campaign finance reports with the Arizona Secretary of State through an online system. The system can be accessed here.

Committees

Before candidates can file campaign finance reports, they must form a candidate committee. To do this, they must set up the candidate committee through the online reporting system, print the Statement of Organization form, sign it along with the named chairman and treasurer of the committee (the candidate may serve in both positions) and mail it to the Secretary of State's Office. Contact information for the Arizona Secretary of State can be found below under "Election-related agencies." Candidates cannot accept contributions, make expenditures, distribute literature or obtain signatures on petitions until they receive confirmation that the Statement of Organization form has been received. If any information given on the original Statement of Organization changes, the candidate committee must file an amended Statement of Organization within five days of the change.[33]

If candidates will receive or spend less than $500 on their campaign, the $500 Threshold Exemption form should be filed instead. Candidate committees under this exemption do not have to file campaign finance reports. If more than $500 is raised or spent after filing such a form, the candidate committee will have to file a Statement of Organization and begin filing campaign finance reports. Committees under the $500 Threshold Exemption must terminate as soon as an election cycle has come to a close.[33]

Reports

Campaign finance reports must cover all financial transactions related to the campaign starting the day the candidate committee files the Statement of Organization and continuing until the day the candidate committee files a Termination Statement. Campaign finance reports must be filed even if no financial activity occurred during the reporting period.[33][3] Reports should include:[34]

  • The amount of cash on hand at the beginning of the reporting period.
  • The total amount and itemized list of all receipts.
  • The date given, amount of contribution and identification of any individual who gave more than $50, any political committee who made a contribution, any person endorsed or guaranteed a loan, any person who provided a rebate, refund or offset operating expenses for the campaign and any person who provided a dividend or interest during the reporting period.
  • The total amount and itemized list of all disbursements.
  • The name and address of each recipient of an expenditure.
  • An itemized account of campaign debts and extensions of credit.

The schedule to file campaign finance reports can be found in the table below.[3][35]

Report Covers Due date
Non-election year report 21 days after the last election through December 31 of the next year January 31 following the last day of the report
June 30 Report January 1 through May 31 of the year of the election in which the candidate is running June 30
Pre-election Report First date not covered on the last filed report through the 12th day before the election Four days before the election
Post-election Report 11th day before the election through 20 days after the election 30 days after the election
Additional Report Contributions of $1,000 or more from a single contributor less than 20 days before an election Within 72 hours after receiving such a contribution

If any of the reports listed above are not filed in a timely manner, the Secretary of State's Office will send written notice to the candidate committee within 15 days of the report's due date. The mandatory fine is $10 for each business day the report is not filed after the due date, up to a maximum of $450. If the late report is not filed within 15 days of receiving written notice from the Secretary of State, the fine increases to $25 per day, up to a maximum of $1,000. Late reports will not be accepted unless the fines attached to them are paid at the time of filing.[33][36]

Termination Statement

A Termination Statement can be filed when the chairman and treasurer can certify that the candidate committee will no longer receive any contributions or make any disbursements, that any surplus funds have been disposed of and that there are no outstanding debts owed.[33] Surplus funds can be disposed of in any of the following ways:[37]

  • Transfer funds to a new candidate committee for a future election.
  • Return funds to the contributor.
  • Contribute funds to a county, state or local committee of a political party.
  • Donate funds to a charitable, tax-exempt organization.
  • If successful in the election, transfer funds to the candidate’s officeholder expense account.

Citizens Clean Elections Commission

To participate in the Citizens Clean Elections Commission (CCEC), candidates must agree to not accept funds from special interests and to adhere to additional limitations and reporting. In return, participating candidates receive public funding for their campaigns.[4]

Candidates wishing to participate in the CCEC have to file an Application for Certification with the Secretary of State. This form must be signed by the candidate and notarized.[33] An Application for Certification Report must be filed along with the Application for Certification if the candidate has already filed a Statement of Organization to cover any campaign transactions that have occurred prior to applying for participation in the CCEC.[4]

Once the CCEC accepts a candidate's application, the candidate is considered a participating candidate and must adhere to the CCEC's rules and regulations. However, the participating candidate must still qualify in order to receive funding. In order to qualify, the participating candidate must collect $5 qualifying contributions from registered voters in the district of the office the candidate seeks. Participating candidates may start collecting these qualifying contributions on August 1 of the year before the election and must file them, with an End of Qualifying Period Report, one week before the primary. The number of qualifying contributions needed varies depending on the office sought. For details, look to the table below.[4]

Office sought Number of qualifying contributions needed
Governor 4,500
Secretary of State 2,800
Attorney General 2,800
Treasurer 1,700
Superintendent of Public Instruction 1,700
Corporation Commission 1,700
Mine Inspector 650
State legislature 250

Once the qualifying contributions and Qualifying Contributions Report have been submitted, participating candidates will receive funding based on the office sought, as shown in the table below. Participating candidates may not make expenditures in excess of the cash they have on hand, which includes early contributions as well as funding from the CCEC.[4]

Office sought Funding for primary election Funding for general election
Governor $753,616 $1,130,424
Secretary of State $195,280 $292,920
Attorney General $195,280 $292,920
Treasurer $97,620 $146,430
Superintendent of Public Instruction $97,620 $146,430
Corporation Commission $97,620 $146,430
Mine Inspector $48,825 $73,238
State legislature $15,253 $22,880

Below is a list of the additional reports required from candidates participating in the CCEC.[4]

Report Covers Due date
Application for Certification Report Any campaign transactions that occurred since the candidate filed a Statement of Organization Must be filed when the Application for Certification is filed, but only if the candidate already filed a Statement of Organization
End of Qualifying Period Report All $5 qualifying contributions collected by the candidate One week before the primary election
Return of Primary Funds Report All campaign transactions through primary election day and any leftover funds, which must be returned to the CCEC when the report is filed Five days after the primary election
Return of General Funds Report All campaign transactions through general election day and any leftover funds, which must be returned to the CCEC when the report is filed 30 days after the general election

Contribution limits

The following contribution limits apply to one election at a time.[38]

Office sought From individuals or single, uncertified political committees From certified political committees From political parties or political organizations
State legislative office $2,500 $5,000 $10,020
Statewide office $2,500 $5,010 $100,110

Election-related agencies

See also: State election agencies

Candidates running for office may require some form of interaction with the following agencies:

Office of the Secretary of State:

Why: Oversees candidate filing and reporting and all election procedures.
Capitol Executive Tower, 7th Floor
1700 W. Washington Street
Phoenix, AZ 85007-2808
Telephone: (602) 542-8683
Fax: (602) 542-1575
http://www.azsos.gov/

Citizens Clean Elections Commission:

Why: Administers alternative campaign financing system for candidates who choose to participate and oversees contribution limits for all candidates.
1616 W. Adams, Suite 110
Phoenix, AZ 85007
Telephone: 602-364-3477
Fax: 602-364-3487
Email: ccec@azcleanelections.gov
http://www.azcleanelections.gov/home.aspx

Term limits

Arizona state executives and legislators have term limits. These limits were established by Propsition 107, which was passed by voters in 1992 to amend Section 1, Article 5 of the Arizona Constitution.

State executives

Portal:State Executive Officials
See also: State executives with term limits, States with gubernatorial term limits and Arizona state executive official elections, 2014

The state executive term limits in Arizona are as follows:[39]

The state executives who are term-limited in 2014 are:

Name Party Office
Jan Brewer Ends.png Republican Governor
Ken Bennett Ends.png Republican Secretary of State
Gary Pierce Ends.png Republican Corporation Commissioner

State legislators

See also: State legislatures with term limits

A state legislator in Arizona may serve no more than four consecutive terms (equivalent to eight years) in either the Arizona State Senate or the Arizona House of Representatives.[40]

2014

See also: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2014 and Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2014

No state senators will be termed out in 2014, but three state representatives will be termed out:

  • Democratic Party 1 Democrat
  • Republican Party 2 Republicans

They are:

Name Party Chamber District
Andy Tobin Ends.png Republican State House District 1
John Kavanagh Ends.png Republican State House District 23
Chad Campbell Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 24

2012

See also: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2012 and Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2012

A total of seven state legislators were termed out in 2012.

2010

See also: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2010 and Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2010

A total of 23 state legislators were termed out in 2010.

Congressional partisanship

Portal:Congress
See also: List of United States Representatives from Arizona and List of United States Senators from Arizona

Here is the current partisan breakdown of the congressional members from Arizona:

Congressional Partisan Breakdown from Arizona
Party U.S. Senate U.S. House Total
     Democratic Party 0 5 5
     Republican Party 2 4 6
TOTALS as of September 2014 2 9 11

State legislative partisanship

Portal:State legislatures

Here is the current partisan breakdown of members of the state legislature of Arizona:

State Senate

Party As of September 2014
     Democratic Party 13
     Republican Party 16
     Vacancy 1
Total 30

State House

Party As of September 2014
     Democratic Party 24
     Republican Party 36
Total 60


See also

External links

Official state and federal links

Forms

News

Other information

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Arizona Secretary of State, "Candidate Checklist," accessed March 17, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 Arizona Secretary of State Website, "2014 Election Important Dates," accessed November 4, 2013
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 6, Section 913," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Citizens Clean Election Commission, "Participating Candidate Guide," accessed March 18, 2014
  5. Arizona Secretary of State, "State of Arizona Registration Report," updated January 17, 2014
  6. E-mail consultation with ballot access expert Richard Winger in January 2014.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ballot Access News, "U.S. District Court Judge Upholds Arizona's February Petition Deadline for Newly-Qualifying Parties," May 16, 2014
  8. AZCentral.com, "Arizona House Judiciary Committee votes to repeal controversial election bill," January 30, 2014
  9. Ballot Access News, "Arizona Bill that Repeals Ballot Access Restriction Moves Ahead," February 11, 2014
  10. Ballot Access News, "Repeal of Arizona 2013 Ballot Access Restriction Moves Closer," February 12, 2014
  11. Ballot Access News, "Arizona House Repeals 2013 Ballot Access Restriction," February 14, 2014
  12. Ballot Access News, "Arizona Legislature Repeals 2013 Ballot Access Restriction," February 21, 2014
  13. Ballot Access News, "Arizona Governor Signs Bill that Repeals Ballot Access Restriction," February 27, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 5, Section 801," accessed March 17, 2014
  15. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 5, Section 803," accessed March 17, 2014
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named azstatute16-804
  17. United States Census Bureau, "Vote Cast for and Governor Elected by State: 2007 to 2010," accessed March 24, 2014
  18. 18.0 18.1 Arizona Secretary of State, "State of Arizona Registration Report," Updated October 21, 2013
  19. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 5, Section 826," accessed March 17, 2014
  20. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 301," accessed March 17, 2014
  21. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 302," accessed March 17, 2014
  22. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 311," accessed March 17, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 322," accessed March 17, 2014
  24. Election Law Blog, "Citizens Successfully Challenge Unconstitutional Arizona Ballot Access Law," July 24, 2014
  25. Federal Election Commission, "Federal Elections 2012," Updated July 2013
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 341," accessed March 17, 2014
  27. 27.0 27.1 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 312," accessed March 17, 2014
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 315," accessed March 17, 2014
  29. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 5, Section 801," accessed March 17, 2014
  30. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 314," accessed March 17, 2014
  31. 31.0 31.1 Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 321," accessed March 17, 2014
  32. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 3, Section 351," accessed March 17, 2014
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 Arizona Secretary of State, "A Filing Guide for Arizona's Campaign Finance Web-based Reporting System," accessed March 18, 2014
  34. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 6, Section 915," accessed March 18, 2014
  35. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 6, Section 913.01," accessed March 18, 2014
  36. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 6, Section 918," accessed March 18, 2014
  37. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 6, Section 915.01," accessed March 18, 2014
  38. Arizona Revised Statutes, "Title 16, Chapter 6, Section 905," accessed March 18, 2014
  39. Arizona Constitution, "Article V, Section 1, Version 2," accessed November 4, 2013
  40. State of Arizona 1992 Ballot Proposition Voting Guide, "Proposition 107," accessed November 4, 2013