Difference between revisions of "Ballot access requirements for political candidates in Iowa"

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search
(2014)
Line 64: Line 64:
 
==Petition requirements==
 
==Petition requirements==
 
{{iaballotpetitions}}
 
{{iaballotpetitions}}
 +
 +
==Campaign finance==
 +
[[File:IA Statement of Organization.jpg|thumb|300px|''Figure 1:'' This is a Statement of Organization form for candidates running for election in Iowa.]]
 +
{{iacandidatecampaignfinance}}
  
 
==Election-related agencies==
 
==Election-related agencies==
Line 113: Line 117:
 
{{iahousepartisan}}
 
{{iahousepartisan}}
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
[[File:IA Statement of Organization.jpg|thumb|300px|''Figure 1:'' This is a Statement of Organization form for candidates running for election in Iowa.]]
 
 
*[[Iowa elections, 2014]]
 
*[[Iowa elections, 2014]]
 
*[[Campaign finance requirements for Iowa ballot measures]]
 
*[[Campaign finance requirements for Iowa ballot measures]]

Revision as of 11:56, 14 January 2014

Policypedia
Policypedia-Election logo.jpg

Ballot access for major and minor party candidates
Redistricting
State ballot access information
AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyoming
See also
This page contains extensive information about ballot access requirements for state and federal candidates running for elected office in the state of Iowa. Offices included are:

This page contains information on specific filing dates for each election year, how to become a candidate, how to create a political party, campaign finance requirements, state agency contacts involved in the election process, and term limits in Iowa. Information on running for election as a presidential candidate or for county and municipal offices is not included. This page reflects research completed in April 2014.

Note: If you have any questions or comments about this page, email us.

Year-specific dates

2014

See also: Iowa elections, 2014

Iowa will have a primary election on June 3, 2014 and a general election on November 4, 2014. Voters will elect candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:

The filing deadline for primary candidates is March 14, 2014. Only the two major parties, Democratic and Republican, may participate in the primary election. For general election candidates the filing deadline is August 15, 2014.[1]

Legend:      Ballot Access     Campaign Finance     Election Date




Dates and Requirements for Candidates in 2014
Deadline Event Type Event Description
March 14, 2014 Ballot Access Candidate filing deadline for the primary election
June 3, 2014 Election Date Primary election date
August 15, 2014 Ballot Access Candidate filing deadline for the general election
November 4, 2014 Election Date General election

Political parties

See also: List of political parties in the United States

As of November 2013, Iowa officially recognizes two political parties. In order to be officially recognized, a party's candidate for president or governor must receive at least two percent of the votes cast in the general election.[2]

Party Website link By-laws/Platform link
Democratic http://www.iowademocrats.org/ Party platform
Republican http://www.iowagop.org/ Party platform

In most states, the term "Independent" means unaffiliated with a political party. In Iowa, however, that term denotes an affiliation with the Independent Non-party Political Organization (NPPO). Because candidates in Iowa can show affiliation with any NPPO on their nominating petitions, a candidate who wishes to remain unaffiliated must check the box marked "Not affiliated with any organization" on the nominating petition. Candidates with that checked off will be listed as "Nominating Petition Candidates" on the ballot.[3]

Process to establish a political party

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Section 43, Title II of the Iowa Code

To be officially recognized as a political party in Iowa, a political organization's candidate must receive at least two percent of the votes cast for president or governor in the last general election.[4][5] If the political organization's candidate did not receive enough votes, it is considered a Non-party Political Organization, or NPPO. NPPOs do not need to file any special paperwork to be recognized by the state.[4] However, they do have name restrictions. NPPOs cannot use a name that is longer than five words, and they cannot use the name, or part of the name, of any officially recognized political party.[6]

For an NPPO to be officially established as a political party, it must do the following:[4]

  • Put a candidate for president or governor on the general election ballot.
  • That candidate must then receive at least two percent of the votes for that office.
  • Once the first two conditions are met, the organization must file an Application for Political Party Status with the Iowa Secretary of State. This must be done after the state's canvass of votes but within one year of the general election date.
  • The new political party's candidate for president or governor must continue to receive two percent of the vote at the general election in order to maintain its status as a political party. If a candidate does not receive enough votes, the party's status will be revoked and the process will have to be repeated.

For an example of the number of votes required to be established as a political party, look to the table below.

Votes cast in 2012 presidential election Number of votes needed to be officially recognized by the state
1,582,180[7] 31,644

Process to become a candidate

Quick facts about Lieutenant Governors
  • 45 states have Lt. governors, 43 of them fill the office by election
  • 21 states, including Iowa, elect Lt. governors on a single ticket with the governor at both the primary and general elections
  • 5 states elect Lt. governors separately from Governors at the primary and then put the top two vote-getters together on the general election ballot
  • 17 states elect Lt. governors separately from the Governor

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title II of the Iowa Code

The state allows any registered voter to challenge a candidate's nominating petition, as long as it is done in writing and within 74 days of the corresponding election.[8][9]

There are four ways a candidate may get on the ballot:

  • By primary election[10]
    • Candidates accessing the ballot by running in the primary election must be members of a recognized political party. Non-party Political Organizations (NPPOs) are not allowed to participate in the primary election.
    • These candidates must file an Affidavit of Candidacy and nominating petitions with the Iowa Secretary of State during the primary election filing period, which begins 99 days before the primary and ends at 5 p.m. on the 81st day before the primary.[11] The Affidavit of Candidacy and the nominating petitions must be filed together or else they will be rejected.
    • For the number of signatures needed on nominating petitions, see the table below.
Office Sought Number of signatures needed
Governor or United States Senator Equal to one percent of the voters of the candidate’s party, in each of at least 10 counties of the state and in total no less than one half of one percent of the total votes the candidate's party received in the last general election[12]
State executive office (other than governor) 1,000, including 50 from each of at least 10 counties in the state[12]
United States Representative Equal to two percent of the voters of the candidate’s party in the last general election in each of at least one half of the counties in the representative district and in total no less than one percent of the total vote of the candidate's party in that district[12]
State Senator 100 from the senatorial district[12]
State Representative 50 from the representative district[12]
  • By political party convention[13]
    • If a political party fails to nominate a candidate at the primary election, they may hold a convention after the primary to nominate a candidate. That candidate must then file a political party convention certificate and an Affidavit of Candidacy.
    • The deadline to file the convention certificate and Affidavit of Candidacy is the same as the general election filing deadline. However, political party convention candidates may file their documents before the filing period begins for general election candidates.
  • By Non-party Political Organization (NPPO) convention[13]
    • NPPOs are allowed to hold conventions to nominate their candidates. However, in order to qualify their nominations, they must meet the following requirements:[14]
      • To nominate a candidate to a state executive office or the United States Senate, 250 eligible electors, meaning people who meet all the requirements to register to vote whether or not they are registered, must attend the convention, and 25 counties must be represented by at least one eligible elector each.
      • To nominate a candidate to the United States House of Representatives, 50 eligible electors who are residents of the congressional district the candidate seeks to represent must attend, including one eligible elector from at least half of the counties in the district.
      • To nominate a candidate to the Iowa State Senate, 20 eligible electors who are residents of the senatorial district must attend, including one eligible elector from one half of the precincts in the senatorial district.
      • To nominate a candidate to the Iowa House of Representatives, 10 eligible electors who are residents of the representative district must attend, including one eligible elector from one half of the precincts in the representative district.
    • Conventions may be held at any time as long as it is before the general election filing deadline.[4]
    • After the convention, the NPPO must provide a list of those who attended the convention, including their addresses, to the Iowa Secretary of State, along with a convention certificate and Affidavit of Candidacy for the candidate nominated.[4] These documents must be filed together or else they will be rejected.[13] They must be filed during the general election filing period, which begins 99 days before the general election and ends at 5 p.m. 81 days before the general election.[9]
  • By petition[13]
    • Candidates who are not affiliated with any political party or NPPO are nominated in this manner. It is also a way for NPPO candidates to be elected if the NPPO cannot meet the convention attendance requirements.
    • Petition candidates must file an Affidavit of Candidacy and nominating petition with the Iowa Secretary of State. These forms must be filed together by 5 p.m. 81 days before the general election or else they will be rejected.[9]
    • NPPO candidates designate the name of their NPPO on the nominating petition. Unaffiliated candidates must check the box that says, “Not affiliated with any organization,” on the nominating petition. On the ballot, it will say "Nominated by petition" next to their name.
    • The table below shows the signature requirements necessary for obtaining ballot access by petition.
Office Sought Number of signatures needed
United States Senator or State executive office 1,500 collected from at least 10 counties[13]
United States Representative 375 from the representative district[13]
State Senator 100 from the senatorial district[15]
State Representative 50 from the representative district[15]

Petition requirements

In some cases, political parties and/or candidates may need to obtain signatures via the petition process to gain ballot access. This section outlines the laws and regulations pertaining to petitions and circulators in Iowa.

In Iowa, most candidates are required to file nominating petitions with the Iowa Secretary of State. Any eligible elector may sign a candidate's nominating petition. Eligible electors do not have to be registered to vote, but they do need to be U.S. citizens, Iowa residents, and 18 years old or older. Eligible electors cannot be judged incompetent to vote in a court of law, claim the right to vote anywhere else or be convicted felons, unless a president or governor has reinstated their voting rights.[2]

There is no limit to the number of nominating petitions an eligible elector may sign for different candidates. When signing a nominating petition, eligible electors must include their address with their signature. P.O. Box addresses will not be counted.[2]

There is no start date for collecting signatures on nominating petitions. They may be collected at any time; however, those who sign the petition must still be considered eligible electors when the petition is filed, and it must be filed by 5 p.m. 81 days before the election.[2][16][17] Candidates may sign their own nominating petitions as long as they are considered eligible electors in the district they are seeking to represent.[2]

The state code does not establish circulator requirements. Specifically, there are no residency requirements for circulators.

Campaign finance

Figure 1: This is a Statement of Organization form for candidates running for election in Iowa.

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title II, Chapter 68A of the Iowa Code

Candidates seeking state office in Iowa must file campaign finance reports with the Iowa Ethics and Campaign Disclosure Board. Candidates seeking federal office must file with the Federal Election Commission. Reporting details for federal candidates are not included in this section.

Reporting Requirements

  • All reports included in this section must be filed electronically with the Iowa Ethics and Campaign Disclosure Board here.[18]
  • Once campaign contributions or expenditures exceed a total of $750 in a calendar year, a candidate must designate one committee to monitor campaign funds and file disclosure statements. Within 10 days of organizing such a committee, a Statement of Organization must filed.[19][20]
  • Candidates must file four main reports covering four reporting periods during an election year.[21] The reports must disclose the amount of cash on hand and the total amount of contributions given to the candidate’s committee during the reporting period, including the name and address of each person who made one or more contributions of money or in-kind donations to the candidate’s committee equalling $25 or more in a calendar year. Disbursements made by the candidate’s committee as well as the amount and nature of any debts owed by the candidate’s committee must also be reported.[22] The statutory reporting deadlines and reporting periods are listed below.
    • The report covering financial activity from January 1 to May 14 is due on May 19.[23]
    • The report covering financial activity from May 15 to July 14 is due on July 19.[23]
    • The report covering financial activity from July 15 to October 14 is due on October 19.[23]
    • The report covering financial activity from October 15 to December 31 is due on January 19 of the preceding year.[23]
  • Candidates may also have to file supplemental reports in addition to the four main reports. These are due if contributions exceeding a certain amount are received after a main report has been filed but before a primary, special or general election is held. These reports must cover financial activity starting the day after the last day covered in the most recent report through the Tuesday prior to the election. These reports are only required if contributions of money or in-kind donations during this time period exceed:[21]
  • During non-election years, candidates must file a report covering the entire year's financial activity. This report is due on January 19 of the following year.[21]

Permitted uses of campaign funds

  • Campaign funds are only to be used for campaign purposes, educational expenses or other expenses associated with the duties of office and constituency services. They cannot be used for personal expenses or personal benefit. The following list describes permitted uses of campaign funds.[24]
    • Advertising and general expenses associated with a campaign.
    • Travel and lodging expenses for campaign or officeholder purposes. This includes training sessions, workshops and meals, as long as they are for campaign purposes.
    • Contributions to political parties and county central committees.
    • Fundraiser tickets for a candidate or PAC event for up to two people, as long as they attend.
    • Purchase or lease of campaign equipment, such as copiers and computers, and office space.
    • Payment of salaries for campaign staff.
    • Contributions to charitable organizations.
    • Mailings, including newsletters or holiday cards, sent to constituents.
  • The following list describes uses of campaign funds that are not permitted.[24][25]
    • Personal services of attorney or accountant. Paying for these services is permitted if the service rendered is campaign related.
    • Clothing or laundry expenses, unless the clothing is for campaign advertising.
    • Purchase or lease of a motor vehicle, unless the vehicle is used for campaign purposes.
    • Mortgage or rental payments for residency.
    • Membership in professional organizations or service organizations, unless the service organization was joined solely to enhance candidacy.
    • Contributions to a PAC (except for the two tickets allowed for a fundraiser).
    • Contributions to a candidate (except for the two tickets allowed for a fundraiser or when paying joint expenses).
    • Satisfaction of personal debts other than campaign loans.
    • Payments of items or services clearly in excess of the fair market value price.

Contribution and expenditure limits

In addition to the above reporting requirements and permitted uses of campaign funds, candidates must also adhere to the following contribution and expenditure limits:

  • A candidate’s committee must not accept or make contributions from or to any other candidate’s committee, including candidates in other states or for federal office, unless the two committees are for the same candidate.[25]
  • Using contributions from an unknown source is prohibited.[26]
  • Knowingly accepting a contribution or expenditure made by one person in the name of another person is prohibited.[27]
  • Candidate's committees are prohibited from accepting contributions from an insurance company, savings and loan association, bank, credit union, or corporation.[28]

Election-related agencies

See also: State election agencies

Candidates running for office will require some form of interaction with the following agencies:

Iowa Secretary of State Office:

Why: Oversees candidate filing and election procedures.
First Floor, Lucas Building
321 E. 12th St.
Des Moines, IA 50319
Telephone: 515-281-0145
Toll Free: 1-888-767-8683
Fax: 515-281-4682
Email: sos@sos.iowa.gov
http://sos.iowa.gov/elections/

Iowa Ethics and Campaign Disclosure Board:

Why: Oversees financial reporting for campaigns.
510 E 12th St, Ste 1A
Des Moines, IA 50319
Telephone: (515) 281-4028
Fax: (515) 281-4073
Email: sharon.wright@iowa.gov
http://www.iowa.gov/ethics/

Term limits

State executives

Portal:State Executive Officials
See also: State executives with term limits and States with gubernatorial term limits

Iowa does not place term limits on state executives.

State legislators

See also: State legislatures with term limits

Iowa does not place term limits on state legislators.

Congressional partisanship

Portal:Congress
See also: List of United States Representatives from Iowa and List of United States Senators from Iowa

Here is the current partisan breakdown of the congressional members from Iowa:

Congressional Partisan Breakdown from Iowa
Party U.S. Senate U.S. House Total
     Democratic Party 1 2 3
     Republican Party 1 2 3
TOTALS as of December 2014 2 4 6

State legislative partisanship

Portal:State legislatures

Here is the current partisan breakdown of members of the state legislature of Iowa:

State Senate

Party As of December 2014
     Democratic Party 26
     Republican Party 24
Total 50

State house

Party As of December 2014
     Democratic Party 47
     Republican Party 52
     Vacancy 1
Total 100

See also

External links

Official state and federal links

Forms

Other information

References

  1. Iowa Secretary of State, "State of Iowa Election Calendar," Accessed November 11, 2013
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Iowa Secretary of State, "Candidate's Guide to the Primary Election," Accessed January 13, 2014
  3. Iowa Secretary of State, "Candidate's Guide to the General Election," Accessed January 13, 2014
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Iowa Secretary of State Website, "Forming a Political Party in Iowa," accessed January 13, 2014
  5. Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 43.2," accessed January 13, 2014
  6. Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 43.121," accessed January 13, 2014
  7. Federal Election Commission, "Federal Elections 2012," accessed January 13, 2014
  8. Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 43.24," accessed January 13, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 44.4," accessed January 13, 2014
  10. Iowa Secretary of State, "Candidate's Guide to the Primary Election," accessed January 13, 2014
  11. Iowa Secretary of State, "Title II, Section 43.11," accessed January 13, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 43.20," accessed January 13, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Iowa Secretary of State, "Candidate's Guide to the General Election," accessed January 13, 2014
  14. Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 44.1," accessed January 13, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 45.1," accessed January 13, 2014
  16. Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 43.11," accessed January 13, 2014
  17. Iowa Code, "Title II, Section 44.4," accessed January 13, 2014
  18. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 401," accessed January 14, 2014
  19. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 202," accessed January 14, 2014
  20. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 201," accessed January 14, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 402," accessed January 14, 2014
  22. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 402A," accessed January 14, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Iowa Ethics and Disclosure Board Website, "Reporting Dates," accessed January 14, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 Iowa Ethics and Disclosure Board Website, "Uses of Campaign Funds," accessed January 14, 2014
  25. 25.0 25.1 Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 302," accessed January 14, 2014
  26. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 501," accessed January 14, 2014
  27. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 502," accessed January 14, 2014
  28. Iowa Code, "Title II, Chapter 68A, Section 503," accessed January 14, 2014