Difference between revisions of "Barack Obama"

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|Term limits = 2 (4 year terms)
 
|Term limits = 2 (4 year terms)
 
|Next election =
 
|Next election =
|Prior office =United States Senator
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|Prior office =[[United States Senate|United States Senator]]
|Prior office years =January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008
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|Prior office years =2005–2008
|Prior office 2 =
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|Prior office 2 =[[Illinois State Senate|Illinois state Senator]]
|Prior office 2 years =
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|Prior office 2 years =1997-2005
 
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|Citations =
 
|Citations =
 
|Birthday =August 4, 1961
 
|Birthday =August 4, 1961
|Place of birth =
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|Place of birth = Honolulu, HI
 
|Profession =Politician, Lawyer
 
|Profession =Politician, Lawyer
 
|Religion =
 
|Religion =
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|Personal website =
 
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{{tnr}}'''Barack Hussein Obama II''' (born August 4, 1961) was elected the 44th and current President of the United States in 2008. He was sworn in January of 2009. Obama successfully won election to a second term on November 6, 2012.<ref name="reelect">[http://www.thecincinnatiherald.com/news/2012-11-10/Front_Page/Obama_reelected_to_historic_second_term.html ''The Cincinnati Herald,'' "Obama re-elected to historic second term," November 10, 2012]</ref>
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{{tnr}}'''Barack Hussein Obama II''' (b. August 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii) is currently the 44th President of the United States. He was first elected November 4, 2008 and was sworn in January of 2009. Obama successfully won election to a second term on November 6, 2012.<ref name="reelect">[http://www.thecincinnatiherald.com/news/2012-11-10/Front_Page/Obama_reelected_to_historic_second_term.html ''The Cincinnati Herald,'' "Obama re-elected to historic second term," November 10, 2012]</ref>
  
 
Previously, he served as the junior [[United States]] Senator from [[Illinois]] and was the nominee of the [[Democratic Party|Democratic Party]] in the 2008 presidential election. He is the first African American to win enough support for the nomination of any major American political party and became the first African American president in the [[United States]].  
 
Previously, he served as the junior [[United States]] Senator from [[Illinois]] and was the nominee of the [[Democratic Party|Democratic Party]] in the 2008 presidential election. He is the first African American to win enough support for the nomination of any major American political party and became the first African American president in the [[United States]].  
  
Born to a Kenyan father and an American mother, he spent most of his childhood and adolescent years in Honolulu, Hawaii. At age six, he moved to Jakarta, Indonesia, where he lived with his mother and Indonesian stepfather for four years. A graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, Obama worked as a community organizer, university professor, political activist, and lawyer before serving in the [[Illinois Legislature|Illinois Senate]] from 1997 to 2004.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/08/AR2007020802262.html Obama Forged Political Mettle In Illinois Capitol] By Peter Slevin, Washington Post Friday, February 9, 2007</ref>
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==Biography==
  
Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he announced his campaign for U.S. Senate in January 2003. After winning a landslide primary victory in March 2004 to become the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in November 2004 with 70% of the vote.
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Born on August 4, 1961, to a Kenyan father and an American mother, he spent most of his childhood and adolescent years in Honolulu, Hawaii. His parents separated when he was an infant and divorced before he turned three. At age six, he moved to Jakarta, Indonesia, where he lived with his mother and Indonesian stepfather for four years. At age ten, Obama was sent back to [[Hawaii]] to live with his grandparents. He attended Punahou Academy and graduated with honors in 1979.<ref name="biobio"/> Obama's father, Barack Obama, Sr., died in a car accident in Kenya in 1982.  His mother, Ann Dunham, died of ovarian cancer in 1995.<ref name="fastfacts"/>
  
As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, he cosponsored legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. In the 110th Congress, he sponsored legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for returned U.S. military personnel. After  announcing his first presidential campaign in February 2007, Obama emphasized ending the Iraq war, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care as top national priorities.
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Obama graduated from Columbia University in 1983 and earned his law degree from Harvard University in 1991.<ref name="fastfacts"/> While interning with Sidley & Austin in 1989, he met Michelle Robinson the two began dating.<ref name="biobio"/> He helped organize voter registration drives during the Clinton campaign, lectured at the University of Chicago law school and practiced law after graduating. As a civil rights lawyer, he tried cases dealing with discrimination, voters' rights and community organizers. In 1995 he published his autobiography titled ''Dreams from My Father''. He and Robinson married on October 3, 1992.<ref name="fastfacts"/>
  
==Biography==
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He was elected to the [[Illinois Legislature|Illinois Senate]] in 1997 and served until 2004.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/08/AR2007020802262.html ''Washington Post'', "Obama Forged Political Mettle In Illinois Capitol," February 9, 2007]</ref> Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he announced his campaign for U.S. Senate in January 2003. After winning a landslide primary victory in March 2004 to become the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in November 2004 with 70% of the vote.<ref name="biobio"/>
Obama was born on August 4 1961, in Honolulu, [[Hawaii]], to Barack Obama, Sr., of Nyangoma-Kogelo, Siaya District, Kenya, and Ann Dunham, of Wichita, [[Kansas]] who was largely descended from pre-revolutionary British settlers to the United States, although she did have a great great grandfather, Falmouth Kearney who emigrated from Ireland in the mid 19th century.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.wargs.com/political/obama.html|title=Ancestry of Barack Obama|author=William Addams Reitwiesner|accessdate=2008-06-04}}</ref><ref name=Barry>{{cite news | first=Kirsten | last=Scharnberg | coauthors=Kim Barker | title=The Not-So-Simple Story of Barack Obama's Youth | date=March 25 2007 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-070325obama-youth-story,0,5069625.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-13}} {{cite web | title=Meet Barack | url=http://www.barackobama.com/about/ | publisher=BarackObama.com | accessdate=2008-04-13}} See also: Obama (1995), Chapter 1.</ref> His parents met while both were attending the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was enrolled as a foreign student.<ref>Obama (1995), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see {{cite news | title=Barack Obama: Creation of Tales|date=November 1 2004 | url=http://www.nationmedia.com/EastAfrican/01112004/Features/PA2-2212.html | work=East African | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> They separated when he was two years old and later divorced.<ref>Obama (1995), pp. 125–126. See also: {{cite news | first=Tim | last=Jones | title=Obama's Mom: Not Just a Girl from Kansas | date=March 27 2007 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-0703270151mar27,1,3372079.story?coll=chi-news-hed | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> After her divorce, Dunham married Lolo Soetoro, and the family moved to Soetoro's home country of Indonesia in 1967, where Obama attended local schools in Jakarta until he was ten years old.<ref name=Barry /> He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979.<ref>{{cite news | first=Peter | last=Serafin | title=Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics | date=March 21 2004 | url=http://starbulletin.com/2004/03/21/news/story4.html | work=Honolulu Star-Bulletin | accessdate=2008-04-13}} See also: Obama (1995), Chapters 3 and 4.</ref> Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, California, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.<ref>{{cite web | title=Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83 | date=January 29 2007 | url=http://www.oxy.edu/x2526.xml | publisher=Occidental College | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.<ref>{{cite news | first=Shira | last=Boss-Bicak | title=Barack Obama ’83: Is He the New Face of The Democratic Party? | date=January 2005 | url=http://www.college.columbia.edu/cct/jan05/cover.php | work=Columbia College Today|accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref>
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Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983, then worked at Business International Corporation and New York Public Interest Research Group before moving to Chicago, Illinois in 1985 to take a job as a community organizer.<ref>{{cite news | first=Janny | last=Scott | title=Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say | date=October 30 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/us/politics/30obama.html | work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-13}} {{cite news | first=Bob | last=Secter | coauthors=John McCormick | title=Portrait of a Pragmatist | date=March 30 2007 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0703300121mar30,1,282774.story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-hed | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-13}} </ref><ref name=NRLizza>{{cite news | first=Ryan | last=Lizza | title=The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education | format=alternate link | date=March 19 2007 | url=http://www.pickensdemocrats.org/info/TheAgitator_070319.htm | work =New Republic | accessdate=2008-04-13}} Obama (1995), pp. 135–139.</ref> He entered Harvard Law School in 1988.<ref>{{cite news | first=Michael | last=Levenson | coauthors= Jonathan Saltzman | title=At Harvard Law, a Unifying Voice | date=January 28 2007 | url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2007/01/28/at_harvard_law_a_unifying_voice/?page=full | work=Boston Globe | accessdate=2008-04-13}} See also: {{cite news | first=John | last=Heilemann | title=When They Were Young | date=October 22 2007 | url=http://nymag.com/news/features/39321/ | work=The New York Magazine | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> His election in 1990 as the first black president of the ''Harvard Law Review'' was widely reported.<ref>{{cite news |author=Butterfield, Fox |title=First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DC1631F935A35751C0A966958260 |work=The New York Times |page=A20 |date=February 6, 1990 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} {{cite news |author=Ybarra, Michael J. |title=Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/28797353.html?dids=28797353:28797353&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT |format=paid archive |work=Chicago Tribune |page=3 |date=February 7, 1990 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} {{cite news |author=Matchan, Linda |title=A Law Review breakthrough |url=http://search.boston.com/local/Search.do?s.sm.query=&s.author=Linda+Matchan&s.tab=globe&s.si%28simplesearchinput%29.sortBy=-articleprintpublicationdate&docType=&date=&s.startDate=1990-02-15&s.endDate=1990-02-15 |format=paid archive |work=The Boston Globe |page=29 |date=February 15, 1990 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} {{cite news |author=Corr, John |title=From mean streets to hallowed halls |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_trackval=PI&s_search_type=customized&s_dispstring=Author(John%20Corr)%20AND%20date(02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced-0=(John%20Corr)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes |format=paid archive |work=The Philadelphia Inquirer |page=C01 |date=February 27, 1990 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} {{cite news |author=Drummond, Tammerlin |title=Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/60017156.html?dids=60017156:60017156&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT |format=paid archive |work=Los Angeles Times |page=E1 |date=March 12, 1990 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} {{cite news |author=Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) |title=Law Review's first black president aims to help poor |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=MH&p_theme=realcities2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_site=miami&s_trackval=MH&s_dispstring=Title(Law%20Review's%20first%20black%20president%20aims%20to%20help%20poor)%20AND%20date(04/18/1990%20to%2004/18/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=04/18/1990%20to%2004/18/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Law%20Review's%20first%20black%20president%20aims%20to%20help%20poor)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes |format=paid archive |work=The Miami Herald |page=C01 |date=April 18, 1990 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} See also: {{cite news |author=Kantor, Jodi |title=In law school, Obama found political voice |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/us/politics/28obama.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all |work=The New York Times |page=1 |date=January 28, 2007 |accessdate=2008-05-02}} Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.</ref> Obama graduated with a J.D. ''magna cum laude'' from Harvard in 1991, then returned to Chicago where he headed a voter registration drive and began writing his first book, ''Dreams from My Father'', a memoir published in 1995.<ref>{{cite news | first=Marie C | last=Kodama | title=Obama Left Mark on HLS | date=January 19 2007 | url=http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=516664 | work=Harvard Crimson | accessdate=2008-04-13}} See also: Obama (1995), p. xiii and {{cite news | first=Gretchen | last=Reynolds | title=Vote of Confidence | date=January 1993 | url=http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-Confidence/ | work=Chicago Magazine | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref>
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He announced his candidacy for the United States presidency in February 2007 and defeated [[Hillary Clinton]] in the Democratic primary before defeating [[John McCain]] in the presidential election in 2008. He was sworn in as the first African-American president on January 20, 2009. Obama then ran for re-election in 2012, defeating [[Mitt Romney]]. He was sworn in for his second term on January 21, 2013.<ref name="biobio"/>
  
Between 1993 and 2002, Obama served on the board of the Woods Fund of Chicago, a philanthropic organization providing grants to Chicago's disadvantaged people and communities.<ref name="woods">{{cite web | url=http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080519/berman | title=Obama Under the Weather | publisher=The Nation | accessdate=2008-05-05 |last=Barman | first=Ari | date=May 1, 2008}}</ref>
 
 
Obama taught constitutional law part-time at the University of Chicago Law School from 1993 until his election to the U.S. Senate in 2004.<ref>{{cite news | first=Abdon M | last=Pallasch | title=Professor Obama was a Listener, Students Say | date=February 12 2007 | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/elections/253391,CST-NWS-prof12.article | work=Chicago Sun-Times | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref>
 
 
Obama worked as an associate attorney with Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland from 1993 to 2002. After 1996, he worked at the firm only during the summer, when the Illinois Senate was not in session.<ref name="legal career">{{cite news | title=Law Graduate Obama Got His Start in Civil Rights Practice | date=February 19 2007 | publisher=''International Herald Tribune'' | url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/02/20/america/NA-POL-US-Obama-Attorney-at-Law.php | work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-01-04}}</ref> Obama worked on cases where the firm represented community organizers, pursued discrimination claims, and dealt voting rights issues. He also spent time on real estate transactions, filing incorporation papers and defending clients against minor lawsuits.<ref name="lawyer days"/> Mostly he drew up briefs, contracts, and other legal documents as a junior associate on legal teams.<ref name="lawyer days">{{cite news | url=http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/la-na-obamalegal6apr06,0,6774732,full.story | title=Obama's lawyer days: brief and not all civil rights | first=Dan | last=Moran | publisher=Los Angeles Times | date=2008-04-08 | accessdate=2008-04-15}}</ref> Obama also did some work on taxpayer-supported building rehabilitation loans for Rezmar Corp.<ref>{{cite news | title=Obama and his Rezko ties | date=April 23 2007 | publisher=''Chicago Sun-Times'' | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/metro/353829,CST-NWS-rez23.article | work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-03-30}}</ref> which is co-owned by his long-time political supporter Tony Rezko.
 
 
==Career==
 
==Career==
===U.S. Presidency===
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Below is an abbreviated outline of Obama's academic, professional and political career:<ref name="biobio">[http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369?page=1 ''Biography.com'', "Barack Obama biography," accessed November 14, 2013]</ref><ref name="fastfacts">[http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/26/us/barack-obama---fast-facts/ ''CNN'', "Barack Obama Fast Facts," January 20, 2013]</ref><ref name="wapobio">[http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/barack-obama/gIQAp4524O_topic.html#at-a-glance ''Washington Post'', "Who Runs Gov: Barack Obama," accessed November 14, 2013]</ref>
===U.S. Senate career===
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*1983: Graduated from Columbia University
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4 2005.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://obama.senate.gov/about/ | title=About Barack Obama | accessdate=2008-04-27 | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office}}</ref> Though a newcomer to Washington, he recruited a team of established, high-level advisers devoted to broad themes that exceeded the usual requirements of an incoming first-term senator.<ref>{{cite news | first=Charles | last=Babington | coauthors=Shailagh Murray | title=For Now, an Unofficial Rivalry | date=December 8 2006 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701755.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Mike | last=Dorning | title=Obama's Policy Team Loaded with All-Stars | date=September 17 2007 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-obama_mon_nusep17,1,4819101,full.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He hired Pete Rouse, a 30-year veteran of national politics and former chief of staff to Senate Democratic Leader Tom Daschle, as his chief of staff, and economist Karen Kornbluh, former deputy chief of staff to Secretary of the Treasury Robert Rubin, as his policy director.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jodi | last=Enda | title=Great Expectations | date=February 5 2006 | url=http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?articleId=10828 | work=The American Prospect | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Perry | last=Bacon Jr. | title=The Outsider's Insider | date=August 27 2007 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/26/AR2007082601446.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He recruited Samantha Power, author on human rights and genocide, and former Clinton administration officials Anthony Lake and Susan E. Rice as foreign policy advisers.<ref>{{cite news | first=James | last=Traub | title=Is (His) Biography (Our) Destiny? | date=November 4 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/04/magazine/04obama-t.html | work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Neil | last=King | title=Obama Tones Foreign-Policy Muscle | date=September 5 2007 | url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118895877299317784.html | work=Wall Street Journal | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Lynn | last=Sweet | title=Obama Taps Influential Foreign Policy Experts | date=May 10 2007 | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/sweet/379187,CST-EDT-sweet10.article | work=Chicago Sun-Times | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
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*1989: Interned at Sidley & Austin law firm
 
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*1991: Earned law degree magna cum laude from Harvard University
The Senate historian lists Obama as the fifth African American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/h_multi_sections_and_teasers/Photo_Exhibit_African_American_Senators.htm | title=Breaking New Ground: African American Senators | publisher=U.S. Senate Historical Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus during his time in Congress.<ref>{{cite web | title=Member Info | url=http://www.house.gov/kilpatrick/cbc/member_info.html | publisher=Congressional Black Caucus | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Jeff | last=Zeleny | title=When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His Point—With Subtlety | date=June 26 2005 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-050626obama-race,1,7205709.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> ''CQ Weekly'', a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007, and the ''National Journal'' ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007.<ref>{{cite news | first=David | last=Nather | title=The Space Between Clinton and Obama | date=January 14 2008 | url=http://public.cq.com/docs/cqw/weeklyreport110-000002654703.html | work=CQ Weekly | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Tom | last=Curry | title=What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal | date=February 21 2008 | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23276453/ | work=MSNBC | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url=http://nj.nationaljournal.com/voteratings| title=Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007 | work=National Journal | date=January 31 2008 | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> Asked about the ''Journal'''s characterization of his voting record, Obama expressed doubts about the survey's methodology, blaming "old politics" labeling of political positions as "conservative" or "liberal" for creating predispositions that prevent problem-solving.<ref>{{cite news | title=Obama Interview | format=transcript | date=February 12 2008 | publisher=Politico | url=http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=0B213312-3048-5C12-000E0262A76D6B18 | work=WJLA-TV | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Robin | last=Toner | title=Obama's Promise of a New Majority | date=March 23 2008 | publisher=also [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/25/us/politics/25obama.html NYT version] (published 2008-03-25) | url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/03/23/america/liberal.php | work=International Herald Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-30}}</ref>
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*1992: Organized voter registration drives for Clinton campaign
 
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*1992-1996: Attorney for Miner, Barnhill & Galland
====Legislation====
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*1992-2004: Part-time Lecturer and Professor at University of Chicago Law School
Consistent with his interests in conservation, Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
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*1997-2005: Illinois state Senator
Obama took an active role in the Senate's drive for improved border security and immigration reform. In 2005, he cosponsored the "Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act" introduced by Republican [[John McCain]] of [[Arizona]].<ref>{{cite web | first=109th Congress, 1st Session | last=U.S. Senate | title=S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act | date=May 12 2005 | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SN01033: | publisher=Thomas | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He later added three amendments to the "Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act", which passed the Senate in May 2006, but failed to gain majority support in the House of Representatives.<ref>{{cite news | title=Immigration Bill Divides House, Senate | date=September 22 2006 | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-09-22-immigration_x.htm | work=USA Today | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite web | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/060525-obama_statement_on_senate_passage_of_immigration_reform_bill/index.html | title=Obama Statement on Senate Passage of Immigration Reform Bill | date=May 25 2006 | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act, authorizing construction of fencing and other security improvements along the United States–Mexico border.<ref>{{cite news | title=Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence | date=November 20 2006 | url=http://cbs2chicago.com/local/local_story_324192245.html | work=CBS 2 (Chicago) | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> President Bush signed the Secure Fence Act into law in October 2006, calling it "an important step toward immigration reform."<ref>{{cite web | title=President Bush Signs Secure Fence Act | date=October 26 2006 | url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/10/20061026.html | publisher=White House | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
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*2005-2009: United States Senator from Illinois
 
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*2009-Present: President of the United States of America
Partnering with Republican Senators [[Richard Lugar]] of [[Indiana]] and then [[Tom Coburn]] of [[Oklahoma]], Obama successfully introduced two initiatives bearing his name. "Lugar–Obama" expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons, including shoulder-fired missiles and anti-personnel mines.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/070111-lugar-obama_non/ | title=Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President | date=January 11 2007 | publisher=Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Richard G | last=Lugar | coauthors=Barack Obama | title=Junkyard Dogs of War | date=December 3 2005 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/02/AR2005120201509.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}} The Lugar–Obama initiative subsequently received $48 million in funding. {{cite web | url=http://lugar.senate.gov/press/record.cfm?id=278019 | title=Obama, Lugar Secure Funding for Implementation of Nonproliferation Law | publisher=Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office | date=June 28 2007 | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> The "Coburn–Obama Transparency Act" authorized the establishment of ''USAspending.gov'', a web search engine launched in December 2007 and run by the Office of Management and Budget.<ref>{{cite news | first=John | last=McCormack | title=Google Government Gone Viral | date=December 21 2007 | url=http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/014/502njiqx.asp | work=Weekly Standard | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite web | title=President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act | date=September 26 2006 | url=http://coburn.senate.gov/ffm/index.cfm?FuseAction=LegislativeFloorAction.Home&ContentRecord_id=eb582f19-802a-23ad-41db-7a7cb464cfdb | publisher=Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}} The site provides the name and location of each entity receiving a Federal award, the funding agency, and the amount of the grant or contract. {{cite web | title=About This Site | url=http://www.usaspending.gov/aboutthissite.php | publisher=USAspending.gov | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> After Illinois residents complained of waste water contamination by a neighboring nuclear plant, Obama sponsored legislation requiring plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks.<ref>{{cite news |last=McIntire |first=Mike | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/03/us/politics/03exelon.html | title=Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate | date=February 3 2008 |
+
work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> A compromise version of the bill was subsequently blocked by partisan disputes and later reintroduced.<ref>{{cite news | first=Michael | last=Dobbs | title=Obama's 'Backroom Deal'? | date=February 14 2008 | url=http://blog.washingtonpost.com/fact-checker/2008/02/obamas_backroom_deal.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the "Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act," marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.<ref>{{cite web | title=Democratic Republic of the Congo | date=April 2006 | url=http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/international/drc0406.shtml | publisher=United States Conference of Catholic Bishops | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite web | title=The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo | date=January 5 2007 | url=http://www.theirc.org/news/the-irc-welcomes-new-us-law.html | publisher=International Rescue Committee | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
+
 
+
In January 2007, Obama worked with Democrat Russ Feingold of Wisconsin to eliminate gifts of travel on corporate jets by lobbyists to members of Congress and require disclosure of bundled campaign contributions under the "Honest Leadership and Open Government Act," which was signed into law in September 2007.<ref>{{cite news | first=Nathaniel | last=Weixel | title=Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel | date=November 15 2007 | url=http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/feingold-obama-go-after-corporate-jet-travel-2007-11-15.html | work=The Hill | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Nathaniel | last=Weixel | title=Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation | date=December 5 2007 | url=http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/lawmakers-press-fec-on-bundling-regulation-2007-12-05.html | work=The Hill | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | title=Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 | date=September 24 2007 | publisher=Federal Election Commission | url=http://www.fec.gov/press/press2007/20070924travel.shtml | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act (S. 453), a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, including fraudulent flyers and automated phone calls, as witnessed in the 2006 midterm elections.<ref>{{cite news | first=Seth | last=Stern | title=Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation | date=January 31 2007 | publisher=The New York Times | url=http://www.nytimes.com/cq/2007/01/31/cq_2213.html | work=CQPolitics.com | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite web | first=110th Congress, 1st Session | last=U.S. Senate | title=S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007 | date=January 31 2007 | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:SN00453: | publisher=Thomas | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | title=Honesty in Elections | date=January 31 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/31/opinion/31wed1.html | work=The New York Times | format=editorial | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> Obama's energy initiatives scored pluses and minuses with environmentalists, who welcomed his sponsorship with McCain of a climate change bill to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by two-thirds by 2050, but were skeptical of his support for a bill promoting liquefied coal production.<ref>{{cite news | first=Hebert | last=H. Josef | title=Congress Begins Tackling Climate Issues | date=January 29 2007 | publisher=CBS News | url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/29/ap/politics/mainD8MV8LBG0.shtml| work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Elizabeth | last=Williamson | title=The Green Gripe With Obama: Liquefied Coal Is Still… Coal | date=January 10 2007 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/09/AR2007010901503.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> Obama also introduced the "Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007," a bill to cap troop levels in Iraq, begin phased redeployment, and remove all combat brigades from Iraq before April 2008.<ref>{{cite news | first=E. Kasak | last=Krystin | title=Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home |date=February 7 2007 | publisher=The Times (Munster, Indiana) | url =http://nwitimes.com/articles/2007/02/07/news/illiana/doc65cc98d8dc6506b28625727b0011edb5.txt | work=Medill News Service | accessdate=2008-04-27}} "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee." {{cite web | first=110th Congress, 1st Session | last=U.S. Senate | title=S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007 | date=January 30 2007 | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:SN00433: | publisher=Thomas | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
+
 
+
Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges, and calling for an official review following reports that the procedure had been used inappropriately to reduce government costs.<ref>{{cite web | title=Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action | date=October 1 2007 | url=http://bond.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressRoom.NewsReleases&ContentRecord_id=5C1EBFEB-1321-0E36-BA7D-04630AEFAD31 | publisher=Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Philip | last=Dine | title=Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges | date=December 23 2007 | url=http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/srlinks.nsf/story/2E7CC823AD55667B862573A7007D12A2?OpenDocument | work=St. Louis Post-Dispatch | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He sponsored the "Iran Sanctions Enabling Act" supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, and joined Republican Chuck Hagel of Nebraska in introducing legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.<ref>{{cite news | first=Adam | last=Graham-Silverman | title=Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran | date=September 12 2007 | url =http://public.cq.com/docs/cqt/news110-000002583189.html | work=CQ Today | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref><ref name=ObamaSchiff>{{cite web | title=Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved | date=December 20 2007 | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/071220-obama_schiff_pr/ | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> A provision from the Obama–Hagel bill was passed by Congress in December 2007 as an amendment to the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill.<ref name=ObamaSchiff /> Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.<ref>{{cite web | title=Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members | date=August 2 2007 | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/070802-senate_passes_o_1/ | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
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====Committee assignments====
+
==Committee assignments==
=====2007-08=====
+
===U.S. Senator===
 +
====2007-08====
 
Obama served on the following committees:<ref>[http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDIR-2008-08-01/pdf/CDIR-2008-08-01-SENATECOMMITTEES.pdf ''Government Printing Office,'' "Standing Committees of the Senate, 110th Congress" (accessed June 25, 2013)]</ref>
 
Obama served on the following committees:<ref>[http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDIR-2008-08-01/pdf/CDIR-2008-08-01-SENATECOMMITTEES.pdf ''Government Printing Office,'' "Standing Committees of the Senate, 110th Congress" (accessed June 25, 2013)]</ref>
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations]]
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations]]
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**Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security
 
**Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs]]
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs]]
=====2005-06=====
+
====2005-06====
 
Obama served on the following committees:<ref>[http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDIR-2006-09-01/pdf/CDIR-2006-09-01-SENATECOMMITTEES.pdf ''Government Printing Office,'' "Standing Committees of the Senate, 109th Congress" (accessed June 25, 2013)]</ref>
 
Obama served on the following committees:<ref>[http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDIR-2006-09-01/pdf/CDIR-2006-09-01-SENATECOMMITTEES.pdf ''Government Printing Office,'' "Standing Committees of the Senate, 109th Congress" (accessed June 25, 2013)]</ref>
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works]]
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works]]
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*[[United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs]]
 
*[[United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs]]
  
As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama has made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. In August 2005, he traveled to Russia, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan. The trip focused on strategies to control the world's supply of conventional weapons, biological weapons, and weapons of mass destruction as a first defense against terrorist attacks.<ref>{{cite news | first=Christina | last=Larson | title=Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP | date=September 2006 | url=http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2006/0609.larson.html | work=Washington Monthly | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> Following meetings with U.S. military in Kuwait and Iraq in January 2006, he visited Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories. At a meeting with Palestinian students two weeks before Hamas won the legislative election, Obama warned that "the U.S. will never recognize winning Hamas candidates unless the group renounces its fundamental mission to eliminate Israel."<ref>{{cite news | first=Chuck | last=Goudie | title=Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor | date=January 12, 2006 | url =http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=local&id=3806933 | work=WJLS-TV | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He left for his third official trip in August 2006, traveling to South Africa, Kenya, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Chad. In a speech at the University of Nairobi, he spoke about political corruption and ethnic rivalries.<ref>{{cite news | title=Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud | date=August 28, 2006 | url=http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_1989646,00.html | work=News24.com | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> The speech touched off controversy among Kenyan leaders, some formally challenging Obama's remarks as unfair and improper, others defending his positions.<ref>{{cite news | first=Chris | last=Wamalwa | title=Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark | date=September 2, 2006 | url =http://www.eastandard.net/archives/cl/hm_news/news.php?articleid=1143957666 | work=The Standard (Nairobi) | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Vincent | last=Moracha | coauthors=Mangoa Mosota | title=Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims | date=September 4, 2006 | url=http://www.eastandard.net/archives/cl/hm_news/news.php?articleid=1143957752 | work=The Standard (Nairobi) | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
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==Issues==
 +
===U.S. Senator===
 +
Consistent with his interests in conservation, Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
 +
Obama took an active role in the Senate's drive for improved border security and immigration reform. In 2005, he cosponsored the "Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act" introduced by Republican [[John McCain]] of [[Arizona]].<ref>{{cite web | first=109th Congress, 1st Session | last=U.S. Senate | title=S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act | date=May 12 2005 | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SN01033: | publisher=Thomas | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He later added three amendments to the "Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act", which passed the Senate in May 2006, but failed to gain majority support in the House of Representatives.<ref>{{cite news | title=Immigration Bill Divides House, Senate | date=September 22 2006 | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-09-22-immigration_x.htm | work=USA Today | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite web | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/060525-obama_statement_on_senate_passage_of_immigration_reform_bill/index.html | title=Obama Statement on Senate Passage of Immigration Reform Bill | date=May 25 2006 | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act, authorizing construction of fencing and other security improvements along the United States–Mexico border.<ref>{{cite news | title=Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence | date=November 20 2006 | url=http://cbs2chicago.com/local/local_story_324192245.html | work=CBS 2 (Chicago) | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> President Bush signed the Secure Fence Act into law in October 2006, calling it "an important step toward immigration reform."<ref>{{cite web | title=President Bush Signs Secure Fence Act | date=October 26 2006 | url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/10/20061026.html | publisher=White House | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Partnering with Republican Senators [[Richard Lugar]] of [[Indiana]] and then [[Tom Coburn]] of [[Oklahoma]], Obama successfully introduced two initiatives bearing his name. "Lugar–Obama" expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons, including shoulder-fired missiles and anti-personnel mines.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/070111-lugar-obama_non/ | title=Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President | date=January 11 2007 | publisher=Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Richard G | last=Lugar | coauthors=Barack Obama | title=Junkyard Dogs of War | date=December 3 2005 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/02/AR2005120201509.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}} The Lugar–Obama initiative subsequently received $48 million in funding. {{cite web | url=http://lugar.senate.gov/press/record.cfm?id=278019 | title=Obama, Lugar Secure Funding for Implementation of Nonproliferation Law | publisher=Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office | date=June 28 2007 | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> The "Coburn–Obama Transparency Act" authorized the establishment of ''USAspending.gov'', a web search engine launched in December 2007 and run by the Office of Management and Budget.<ref>{{cite news | first=John | last=McCormack | title=Google Government Gone Viral | date=December 21 2007 | url=http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/014/502njiqx.asp | work=Weekly Standard | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite web | title=President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act | date=September 26 2006 | url=http://coburn.senate.gov/ffm/index.cfm?FuseAction=LegislativeFloorAction.Home&ContentRecord_id=eb582f19-802a-23ad-41db-7a7cb464cfdb | publisher=Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}} The site provides the name and location of each entity receiving a Federal award, the funding agency, and the amount of the grant or contract. {{cite web | title=About This Site | url=http://www.usaspending.gov/aboutthissite.php | publisher=USAspending.gov | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> After Illinois residents complained of waste water contamination by a neighboring nuclear plant, Obama sponsored legislation requiring plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks.<ref>{{cite news |last=McIntire |first=Mike | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/03/us/politics/03exelon.html | title=Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate | date=February 3 2008 |
 +
work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> A compromise version of the bill was subsequently blocked by partisan disputes and later reintroduced.<ref>{{cite news | first=Michael | last=Dobbs | title=Obama's 'Backroom Deal'? | date=February 14 2008 | url=http://blog.washingtonpost.com/fact-checker/2008/02/obamas_backroom_deal.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the "Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act," marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.<ref>{{cite web | title=Democratic Republic of the Congo | date=April 2006 | url=http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/international/drc0406.shtml | publisher=United States Conference of Catholic Bishops | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite web | title=The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo | date=January 5 2007 | url=http://www.theirc.org/news/the-irc-welcomes-new-us-law.html | publisher=International Rescue Committee | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
In January 2007, Obama worked with Democrat Russ Feingold of Wisconsin to eliminate gifts of travel on corporate jets by lobbyists to members of Congress and require disclosure of bundled campaign contributions under the "Honest Leadership and Open Government Act," which was signed into law in September 2007.<ref>{{cite news | first=Nathaniel | last=Weixel | title=Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel | date=November 15 2007 | url=http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/feingold-obama-go-after-corporate-jet-travel-2007-11-15.html | work=The Hill | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Nathaniel | last=Weixel | title=Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation | date=December 5 2007 | url=http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/lawmakers-press-fec-on-bundling-regulation-2007-12-05.html | work=The Hill | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | title=Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 | date=September 24 2007 | publisher=Federal Election Commission | url=http://www.fec.gov/press/press2007/20070924travel.shtml | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act (S. 453), a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, including fraudulent flyers and automated phone calls, as witnessed in the 2006 midterm elections.<ref>{{cite news | first=Seth | last=Stern | title=Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation | date=January 31 2007 | publisher=The New York Times | url=http://www.nytimes.com/cq/2007/01/31/cq_2213.html | work=CQPolitics.com | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite web | first=110th Congress, 1st Session | last=U.S. Senate | title=S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007 | date=January 31 2007 | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:SN00453: | publisher=Thomas | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | title=Honesty in Elections | date=January 31 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/31/opinion/31wed1.html | work=The New York Times | format=editorial | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> Obama's energy initiatives scored pluses and minuses with environmentalists, who welcomed his sponsorship with McCain of a climate change bill to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by two-thirds by 2050, but were skeptical of his support for a bill promoting liquefied coal production.<ref>{{cite news | first=Hebert | last=H. Josef | title=Congress Begins Tackling Climate Issues | date=January 29 2007 | publisher=CBS News | url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/29/ap/politics/mainD8MV8LBG0.shtml| work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-27}} {{cite news | first=Elizabeth | last=Williamson | title=The Green Gripe With Obama: Liquefied Coal Is Still… Coal | date=January 10 2007 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/09/AR2007010901503.html | work=Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> Obama also introduced the "Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007," a bill to cap troop levels in Iraq, begin phased redeployment, and remove all combat brigades from Iraq before April 2008.<ref>{{cite news | first=E. Kasak | last=Krystin | title=Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home |date=February 7 2007 | publisher=The Times (Munster, Indiana) | url =http://nwitimes.com/articles/2007/02/07/news/illiana/doc65cc98d8dc6506b28625727b0011edb5.txt | work=Medill News Service | accessdate=2008-04-27}} "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee." {{cite web | first=110th Congress, 1st Session | last=U.S. Senate | title=S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007 | date=January 30 2007 | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:SN00433: | publisher=Thomas | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges, and calling for an official review following reports that the procedure had been used inappropriately to reduce government costs.<ref>{{cite web | title=Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action | date=October 1 2007 | url=http://bond.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressRoom.NewsReleases&ContentRecord_id=5C1EBFEB-1321-0E36-BA7D-04630AEFAD31 | publisher=Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}} See also: {{cite news | first=Philip | last=Dine | title=Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges | date=December 23 2007 | url=http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/srlinks.nsf/story/2E7CC823AD55667B862573A7007D12A2?OpenDocument | work=St. Louis Post-Dispatch | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> He sponsored the "Iran Sanctions Enabling Act" supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, and joined Republican Chuck Hagel of Nebraska in introducing legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.<ref>{{cite news | first=Adam | last=Graham-Silverman | title=Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran | date=September 12 2007 | url =http://public.cq.com/docs/cqt/news110-000002583189.html | work=CQ Today | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref><ref name=ObamaSchiff>{{cite web | title=Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved | date=December 20 2007 | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/071220-obama_schiff_pr/ | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref> A provision from the Obama–Hagel bill was passed by Congress in December 2007 as an amendment to the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill.<ref name=ObamaSchiff /> Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.<ref>{{cite web | title=Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members | date=August 2 2007 | url=http://obama.senate.gov/press/070802-senate_passes_o_1/ | publisher=Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office | accessdate=2008-04-27}}</ref>
  
 
==Elections==
 
==Elections==
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====2008====
 
====2008====
 +
In 2008, Obama defeated [[John McCain]] (R), [[Ralph Nader]] (Peace and Freedom), [[Bob Barr]] (L), Chuck Baldwin (Constitution) and Cynthia McKinney (Green) in the Presidential election on November 4, 2008
 
{{2008PresResults}}
 
{{2008PresResults}}
  
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In March 2008, a controversy broke out concerning Obama's 23-year relationship to his former pastor Jeremiah Wright.<ref name="Obama's Pastor">{{cite news | url=http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Story?id=4443788 | title=Obama's Pastor: God Damn America, U.S. to Blame for 9/11 | author=Brian Ross | coauthors=Rehab el-Buri|publisher=''ABC News'' | date=March 13 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-17}} See also: {{cite news | url=http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2008/03/for-the-record.html | title=For The Record | work=The Daily Dish | publisher=''The Atlantic'' |date=March 16 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-18 | last=Sullivan | first=Andrew}}</ref> After ABC News broadcast racially and politically charged Media clip|clips from sermons by Rev. Wright,<ref name="Obama's Pastor" /><ref>{{cite news |url=http://elections.foxnews.com/2008/03/14/obamas-spiritual-adviser-questioned-us-role-in-spread-of-hiv-sept-11-attacks/ | title=Obama’s Pastor’s Sermon: ‘God Damn America’ | publisher=FOXNews | author=Jeff Goldblatt | date=March 14 2008 | accessdate=2008-04-04}}</ref> Obama responded by condemning Wright's remarks and ending Wright's relationship with the campaign.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23634881/ |title=Controversial minister leaves Obama campaign | publisher=MSNBC|date=2008-03-14|accessdate=2008-04-28|first=Alex|last=Johnson}}</ref> Obama delivered a speech, during the controversy, entitled "A More Perfect Union"<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0319/p25s01-uspo.html | title=Remarks by Barack Obama: 'A More Perfect Union' | author=Barack Obama | work=The Christian Science Monitor | date=March 18 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-18}}</ref> that addressed issues of race. After Wright reiterated some of his remarks in a speech at the National Press Club,<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/28/us/politics/28text-wright.html | title=Reverend Wright at the National Press Club | publisher=The New York Times | work=CQ Transcriptions | date=April 28, 2008 | accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Obama strongly denounced Wright, who he said "[presented] a world view that contradicts who I am and what I stand for."<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24371827 | title=Obama denounces former pastor | publisher=MSNBC.com | accessdate=2008-05-14 | date=April 29, 2008 | work=The Associated Press}}</ref> Obama's association with Bill Ayers was also questioned in an ABC debate. Ayers, whose radical activism had taken the form of planting bombs in the early 1970's,<ref>http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/taking_liberties_in_philadelphia.html</ref> hosted the announcement of Obama's 1996 State Senate campaign and had joined the board of the Woods Foundation, where Obama was already a member, in 1999.<ref name="woods"/><ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24196396/ | title=Ex-radical Ayers in eye of campaign storm | publisher=MSNBC | accessdate=2008-05-05 | last=Curry | first=Tom | date=April 18, 2008}}</ref> On May 31, 2008 Barack Obama resigned from the Chicago Trinity Church in a further public speech, Obama said he made the decision after racially charged comments by visiting Catholic priest Michael Pfleger were made towards Hillary Clinton.<ref> {{cite news | url=http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2008/05/31/obama-resigns-from-controversial-church/ | title =Obama resigns from controversial church | publisher=CNN | accessdate=2008-05-31 | |date=May 31 2008}}</ref>   
 
In March 2008, a controversy broke out concerning Obama's 23-year relationship to his former pastor Jeremiah Wright.<ref name="Obama's Pastor">{{cite news | url=http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Story?id=4443788 | title=Obama's Pastor: God Damn America, U.S. to Blame for 9/11 | author=Brian Ross | coauthors=Rehab el-Buri|publisher=''ABC News'' | date=March 13 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-17}} See also: {{cite news | url=http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2008/03/for-the-record.html | title=For The Record | work=The Daily Dish | publisher=''The Atlantic'' |date=March 16 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-18 | last=Sullivan | first=Andrew}}</ref> After ABC News broadcast racially and politically charged Media clip|clips from sermons by Rev. Wright,<ref name="Obama's Pastor" /><ref>{{cite news |url=http://elections.foxnews.com/2008/03/14/obamas-spiritual-adviser-questioned-us-role-in-spread-of-hiv-sept-11-attacks/ | title=Obama’s Pastor’s Sermon: ‘God Damn America’ | publisher=FOXNews | author=Jeff Goldblatt | date=March 14 2008 | accessdate=2008-04-04}}</ref> Obama responded by condemning Wright's remarks and ending Wright's relationship with the campaign.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23634881/ |title=Controversial minister leaves Obama campaign | publisher=MSNBC|date=2008-03-14|accessdate=2008-04-28|first=Alex|last=Johnson}}</ref> Obama delivered a speech, during the controversy, entitled "A More Perfect Union"<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0319/p25s01-uspo.html | title=Remarks by Barack Obama: 'A More Perfect Union' | author=Barack Obama | work=The Christian Science Monitor | date=March 18 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-18}}</ref> that addressed issues of race. After Wright reiterated some of his remarks in a speech at the National Press Club,<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/28/us/politics/28text-wright.html | title=Reverend Wright at the National Press Club | publisher=The New York Times | work=CQ Transcriptions | date=April 28, 2008 | accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Obama strongly denounced Wright, who he said "[presented] a world view that contradicts who I am and what I stand for."<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24371827 | title=Obama denounces former pastor | publisher=MSNBC.com | accessdate=2008-05-14 | date=April 29, 2008 | work=The Associated Press}}</ref> Obama's association with Bill Ayers was also questioned in an ABC debate. Ayers, whose radical activism had taken the form of planting bombs in the early 1970's,<ref>http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/taking_liberties_in_philadelphia.html</ref> hosted the announcement of Obama's 1996 State Senate campaign and had joined the board of the Woods Foundation, where Obama was already a member, in 1999.<ref name="woods"/><ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24196396/ | title=Ex-radical Ayers in eye of campaign storm | publisher=MSNBC | accessdate=2008-05-05 | last=Curry | first=Tom | date=April 18, 2008}}</ref> On May 31, 2008 Barack Obama resigned from the Chicago Trinity Church in a further public speech, Obama said he made the decision after racially charged comments by visiting Catholic priest Michael Pfleger were made towards Hillary Clinton.<ref> {{cite news | url=http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2008/05/31/obama-resigns-from-controversial-church/ | title =Obama resigns from controversial church | publisher=CNN | accessdate=2008-05-31 | |date=May 31 2008}}</ref>   
  
Obama lost six out of the next nine contests. During April and May 2008 Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Oregon held primaries. Obama won North Carolina and Oregon, and Clinton won the rest, with an aggregate result of Obama remaining ahead in pledged delegates after these contests; during the same period, Obama received endorsements from more superdelegates than Clinton.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24583678/ | title=Superdelegates put Obama within reach | publisher=MSNBC.com | work=The Associated Press | date=May 12, 2008 | accessdate=2008-05-13}}</ref> On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat half of the [[Michigan]] and [[Florida]] delegates at the national convention, narrowing the delegate gap between Clinton and Obama, and increasing the number of delegates needed to win the nomination; but Obama retained a lead even after Clinton won the Puerto Rico primary on June 1.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://freeinternetpress.com/story.php?sid=16916/ | title=Clinton Wins Puerto Rico Primary | publisher=Free Internet Press | work=The Associated Press | date=June 1, 2008 | accessdate=2008-06-01}}</ref> On June 3, Clinton won the [[South Dakota]] primary while Obama won [[Montana]].<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSWAT00958520080604 ''Reuters'', "Clinton wins South Dakota Democratic contest: media," June 3, 2008]</ref><ref>[http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2008/06/03/1105572.aspx ''MSNBC.com'', "Obama wins Montana, gains 9 supers," June 4, 2008]</ref> On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the 2118 delegate mark and became the Democratic presumptive nominee.<ref>[http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/06/03/election.democrats/index.html ''CNN.com'', "Obama: I will be the Democratic nominee," June 4, 2008]</ref> Obama is the first African American to be the presumptive nominee of a major political party,<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20090226163525/http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23809081-23109,00.html ''Herald Sun'', "Obama clinches nomination," June 4, 2008]</ref> and the first to be born in Hawaii.<ref>[http://www.khon2.com/home/ticker/19516119.html]</ref>
+
Obama lost six out of the next nine contests. During April and May 2008 Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Oregon held primaries. Obama won North Carolina and Oregon, and Clinton won the rest, with an aggregate result of Obama remaining ahead in pledged delegates after these contests; during the same period, Obama received endorsements from more superdelegates than Clinton.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24583678/ | title=Superdelegates put Obama within reach | publisher=MSNBC.com | work=The Associated Press | date=May 12, 2008 | accessdate=2008-05-13}}</ref> On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat half of the [[Michigan]] and [[Florida]] delegates at the national convention, narrowing the delegate gap between Clinton and Obama, and increasing the number of delegates needed to win the nomination; but Obama retained a lead even after Clinton won the Puerto Rico primary on June 1.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://freeinternetpress.com/story.php?sid=16916/ | title=Clinton Wins Puerto Rico Primary | publisher=Free Internet Press | work=The Associated Press | date=June 1, 2008 | accessdate=2008-06-01}}</ref> On June 3, Clinton won the [[South Dakota]] primary while Obama won [[Montana]].<ref>s[http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSWAT00958520080604 ''Reuters'', "Clinton wins South Dakota Democratic contest: media," June 3, 2008]</ref><ref>[http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2008/06/03/1105572.aspx ''MSNBC.com'', "Obama wins Montana, gains 9 supers," June 4, 2008]</ref> On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the 2118 delegate mark and became the Democratic presumptive nominee.<ref>[http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/06/03/election.democrats/index.html ''CNN.com'', "Obama: I will be the Democratic nominee," June 4, 2008]</ref> Obama is the first African American to be the presumptive nominee of a major political party,<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20090226163525/http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23809081-23109,00.html ''Herald Sun'', "Obama clinches nomination," June 4, 2008]</ref> and the first to be born in Hawaii.<ref>[http://www.khon2.com/home/ticker/19516119.html]</ref>
  
 
In his victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota, Obama said: "After 54 hard-fought contests, our primary season has finally come to an end. Tonight we mark the end of one historic journey with the beginning of another, a journey that will bring a new and better day to America. Because of you tonight I can stand here and say that I will be the Democratic nominee for president of the United States of America." Paying tribute to his rival Hillary Clinton, he said she had made him a "better candidate."He congratulated her on the race she had run "throughout this contest" and also praised former President [[Bill Clinton]]'s economic policies. In her own speech in New York, Clinton showed no sign of suspending her presidential campaign. She told cheering supporters: "Now the question is, 'Where do we go from here?' And given how far we've come, and where we need to go as a party, it's a question I don't take lightly. This has been a long campaign and I will be making no decisions tonight." Earlier, she had signaled her interest in joining Obama's ticket as a potential vice-president.<ref>{{cite news | first = Jeff and Michael Luo | last = Zeleny | title = Obama Clinches Nomination | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/us/politics/04cnd-campaign.html | publisher = New York Times | date = 2008-06-04 | accessdate = 2008-06-04}}</ref>
 
In his victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota, Obama said: "After 54 hard-fought contests, our primary season has finally come to an end. Tonight we mark the end of one historic journey with the beginning of another, a journey that will bring a new and better day to America. Because of you tonight I can stand here and say that I will be the Democratic nominee for president of the United States of America." Paying tribute to his rival Hillary Clinton, he said she had made him a "better candidate."He congratulated her on the race she had run "throughout this contest" and also praised former President [[Bill Clinton]]'s economic policies. In her own speech in New York, Clinton showed no sign of suspending her presidential campaign. She told cheering supporters: "Now the question is, 'Where do we go from here?' And given how far we've come, and where we need to go as a party, it's a question I don't take lightly. This has been a long campaign and I will be making no decisions tonight." Earlier, she had signaled her interest in joining Obama's ticket as a potential vice-president.<ref>{{cite news | first = Jeff and Michael Luo | last = Zeleny | title = Obama Clinches Nomination | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/us/politics/04cnd-campaign.html | publisher = New York Times | date = 2008-06-04 | accessdate = 2008-06-04}}</ref>
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|Content =  
 
|Content =  
 
<big>'''2004'''</big>
 
<big>'''2004'''</big>
 +
 +
{{Ilsengenelecbox04}}
  
 
In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate, enlisting political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announcing his candidacy in January 2003.<ref>{{cite news | first=Scott | last=Helman | title=Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb | date=October 12 2007 | url=http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/10/12/early_defeat_launched_a_rapid_political_climb/ | work=Boston Globe | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.<ref>{{cite news | last=Davey | first=Monica | title=Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/07/politics/campaign/07ILLI.html | work=The New York Times | date=March 7 2004 | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.<ref>{{cite news | first=Ben | last=Wallace-Wells | title=Obama's Narrator | date=April 1 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01axelrod.t.html | work=The New York Times Magazine | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.<ref>{{cite news | first=Monica | last=Davey | title=From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat | date=May 17 2004 | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9400E4D61431F934A25750C0A9629C8B63 | work =New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-13}} See also: {{cite news | first=John S | last=Jackson | title=The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race | date=August 2006 | publisher=Southern Illinois University | url=http://www.siu.edu/~ppi/PDF/papers/Obama.pdf | work=Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref>
 
In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate, enlisting political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announcing his candidacy in January 2003.<ref>{{cite news | first=Scott | last=Helman | title=Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb | date=October 12 2007 | url=http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/10/12/early_defeat_launched_a_rapid_political_climb/ | work=Boston Globe | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.<ref>{{cite news | last=Davey | first=Monica | title=Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/07/politics/campaign/07ILLI.html | work=The New York Times | date=March 7 2004 | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.<ref>{{cite news | first=Ben | last=Wallace-Wells | title=Obama's Narrator | date=April 1 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01axelrod.t.html | work=The New York Times Magazine | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref> He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.<ref>{{cite news | first=Monica | last=Davey | title=From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat | date=May 17 2004 | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9400E4D61431F934A25750C0A9629C8B63 | work =New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-13}} See also: {{cite news | first=John S | last=Jackson | title=The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race | date=August 2006 | publisher=Southern Illinois University | url=http://www.siu.edu/~ppi/PDF/papers/Obama.pdf | work=Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute | accessdate=2008-04-13}}</ref>
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}}
 
}}
  
==Issues==
+
==Campaign donors==
 +
{{Comprehensive donor history
 +
|Name=Obama
 +
|Editdate=October 14, 2013
 +
|year=2004
 +
|link=<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pres12/index.php ''OpenSecrets.org'', "2012 Presidential Race," accessed October 14, 2013]</ref><ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/index.php ''OpenSecrets.org'', "2008 Presidential Race," accessed October 14, 2013]</ref><ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/races/summary.php?id=ILS2&cycle=2004 ''OpenSecrets.org'', "2004 Race: Illinois Senate," accessed October 14, 2013]</ref>
 +
|party=Democratic
 +
|totalraised2012=715677692
 +
|result2012=Won
 +
|office2012=U.S. Presidency (Incumbent)
 +
|totalraised2010=744985624
 +
|result2010=Won
 +
|office2010=U.S. Presidency
 +
|totalraised2008=14964184
 +
|result2008=Won
 +
|office2008=U.S. Senate (Illinois)
 +
}}
 +
===2012===
 +
[[File:Obama 2012 funding.jpg|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Obama's campaign funds before the 2012 election.]]
 +
Obama won re-election to the U.S. Presidency in 2012. During that election cycle, Obama's campaign committee raised a total of $715,677,692 and spent $683,546,548.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pres12/candidate.php?id=N00009638 ''OpenSecrets.org'' "Barack Obama 2012 Election Cycle," accessed October 14, 2013]</ref>
 +
====Cost per vote====
 +
Obama spent $10.37 per vote received in 2012.
 +
 
 +
====Campaign donors====
 +
{{Congress donor box 2012
 +
|winner = Y
 +
|Chamber = U.S. Presidency
 +
|party = Democratic
 +
|total raised = $715,677,692
 +
|total spent = $683,546,548
 +
|opponent raised = $446,135,997
 +
|opponent spent = $433,281,516
 +
|org1 = University of California
 +
|org2 = Microsoft Corp.
 +
|org3 = Google Inc.
 +
|org4 = U.S. Government
 +
|org5 = Harvard University
 +
|orgdonor1 = $1,212,245
 +
|orgdonor2 = $814,645
 +
|orgdonor3 = $801,770
 +
|orgdonor4 = $728,647
 +
|orgdonor5 = $668,368
 +
|ind1 = Retired
 +
|ind2 = Lawyers/Law Firms
 +
|ind3 = Education
 +
|ind4 = Health Professionals
 +
|ind5 = Business Services
 +
|inddonor1 = $54,522,578
 +
|inddonor2 = $27,533,147
 +
|inddonor3 = $21,615,820
 +
|inddonor4 = $10,456,340
 +
|inddonor5 = $8,646,106
 +
|}}
 +
===2008===
 +
[[File:Obama 2008 funding.jpg|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Obama's campaign funds before the 2008 election.]]
 +
Obama won election to the U.S. Presidency in 2008. During that election cycle, Obama's campaign committee raised a total of $744,985,624 and spent $729,519,581.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/index.php?cycle=2008 ''OpenSecrets.org'' "2008 Election Cycle," accessed October 14, 2013]</ref>
 +
====Cost per vote====
 +
Obama spent $10.50 per vote received in 2008.
 +
 
 +
====Campaign donors====
 +
{{Congress donor box 2008
 +
|winner = Y
 +
|Chamber = U.S. Presidency
 +
|party = Democratic
 +
|total raised = $744,985,624
 +
|total spent = $729,519,581
 +
|opponent raised = $368,039,764
 +
|opponent spent = $333,375,676
 +
|org1 = University of California
 +
|org2 = Goldman Sachs
 +
|org3 = Harvard University
 +
|org4 = Microsoft Corp.
 +
|org5 = JPMorgan Chase and Co.
 +
|orgdonor1 = $1,799,460
 +
|orgdonor2 = $1,034,615
 +
|orgdonor3 = $900,909
 +
|orgdonor4 = $854,717
 +
|orgdonor5 = $847,895
 +
|ind1 = Lawyers/Law Firms
 +
|ind2 = Retired
 +
|ind3 = Education
 +
|ind4 = Securities and Investment
 +
|ind5 = Health Professionals
 +
|inddonor1 = $46,988,063
 +
|inddonor2 = $43,213,842
 +
|inddonor3 = $25,418,843
 +
|inddonor4 = $16,580,277
 +
|inddonor5 = $13,864,142
 +
|}}
 +
===2004===
 +
[[File:Obama 2004 funding.jpg|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Obama's campaign funds before the 2004 election.]]
 +
Obama won election to the [[United States Senate|U.S. Senate]] in 2004. During that election cycle, Obama's campaign committee raised a total of $14,964,184 and spent $14,371,464.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/races/summary.php?id=ILS2&cycle=2004 ''OpenSecrets.org'' "2004 Race: Illinois Senate," accessed October 14, 2013]</ref>
 +
====Cost per vote====
 +
Obama spent $3.99 per vote received in 2004.
 +
 
 +
====Campaign donors====
 +
{{Congress donor box 2004
 +
|winner = Y
 +
|Chamber = U.S. Senate
 +
|party = Democratic
 +
|total raised = $14,964,184
 +
|total spent = $14,371,464
 +
|opponent raised = $2,803,878
 +
|opponent spent = $2,664,471
 +
|org1 = University of Chicago
 +
|org2 = Kirkland & Ellis
 +
|org3 = Henry Crown & Co.
 +
|org4 = Sidley, Austin et al
 +
|org5 = Exelon Corp.
 +
|orgdonor1 = $153,054
 +
|orgdonor2 = $96,138
 +
|orgdonor3 = $76,000
 +
|orgdonor4 = $75,682
 +
|orgdonor5 = $73,450
 +
|ind1 = Lawyers/Law Firms
 +
|ind2 = Securities and Investment
 +
|ind3 = Retired
 +
|ind4 = Real Estate
 +
|ind5 = Education
 +
|inddonor1 = $2,325,317
 +
|inddonor2 = $1,184,036
 +
|inddonor3 = $798,870
 +
|inddonor4 = $623,460
 +
|inddonor5 = $532,946
 +
|}}
 +
==Political positions==
 
===Defense===
 
===Defense===
 
Obama made several statements in a campaign video released in October, 2007 related to defense spending and nuclear weapons. In addition to promising to end the war in Iraq, Obama stated that he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars. He stated that he will stop investing in missile defense systems, that he will not weaponize space, that he will "slow development of future combat systems," and that he would work towards a world without nuclear weapons. To achieve this goal, Obama wishes to end development of new nuclear weapons, to reduce the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, to enact a global ban on production of fissile material, and to seek negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.<ref>{{cite news |people=Barack Obama |date2=2007-10-22 |title=Obama-Caucus4Priorities |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7o84PE871BE |format=flv |publisher=Obama '08 |accessdate=2008-05-18}}</ref>
 
Obama made several statements in a campaign video released in October, 2007 related to defense spending and nuclear weapons. In addition to promising to end the war in Iraq, Obama stated that he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars. He stated that he will stop investing in missile defense systems, that he will not weaponize space, that he will "slow development of future combat systems," and that he would work towards a world without nuclear weapons. To achieve this goal, Obama wishes to end development of new nuclear weapons, to reduce the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, to enact a global ban on production of fissile material, and to seek negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.<ref>{{cite news |people=Barack Obama |date2=2007-10-22 |title=Obama-Caucus4Priorities |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7o84PE871BE |format=flv |publisher=Obama '08 |accessdate=2008-05-18}}</ref>
Line 212: Line 339:
  
 
===Transparency===
 
===Transparency===
:''Main article: [[Sunshinereview:Barack Obama|Barack Obama transparency on Sunshine Review]]''
+
:''Main article: [[Barack Obama|Barack Obama transparency on Sunshine Review]]''
 
Obama sponsored the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006. This act allowed for greater transparency in government at the federal level and also established the website [http://usaspending.gov/ usaspending.gov] a resource on federal spending.
 
Obama sponsored the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006. This act allowed for greater transparency in government at the federal level and also established the website [http://usaspending.gov/ usaspending.gov] a resource on federal spending.
 
==Personal==
 
Obama grew up with his half-sister Maya Kassandra Soetoro, the daughter his mother had with her second husband. Obama also has seven other half-siblings; his father had six other sons and one daughter.<ref name="Auma">{{cite news | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/familytree/545465,BSX-News-wotreew09.article | title=AUMA OBAMA:Her restlessness, her independence | author=Scott Fornek | publisher=''Chicago Sun Times'' | date=2007-09-09|accessdate=2008-03-23}}</ref>
 
 
Obama met his wife, Michelle Robinson, in June 1989 when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.<ref>Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: {{cite news | first=Sarah | last=Brown | title=Obama '85 Masters Balancing Act | date=December 7 2005 | work=Daily Princetonian | url=http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/archives/2005/12/07/news/14049.shtml | accessdate=2008-04-28}} {{cite news | first=Eric | last=Tucker | title=Family Ties: Brown Coach, Barack Obama | date=March 1 2007 | publisher=ABC News | url =http://www.abcnews.go.com/Sports/wireStory?id=2916437 | work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial offers to date.<ref>Obama (2006), p. 329.</ref> They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.<ref>{{cite news | first=Scott | last=Fornek | title=Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet' | date=October 3 2007 | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/585261,CST-NWS-wedding03.stng | work=Chicago Sun-Times | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998, followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.<ref>Obama (1995), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: {{cite web | title=Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama | url=http://www.gannettnewsservice.com/?cat=153 | work=Gannett News Service | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 
 
Applying the proceeds of a $2&nbsp;million book deal, the family paid off debts in 2005 and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6&nbsp;million house in neighboring Kenwood.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jeff | last=Zeleny | title=The First Time Around: Sen. Obama's Freshman Year | date=December 24 2005 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/chi-051224obama,1,1815354.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> The land adjacent to their house was simultaneously sold to the wife of developer and Obama supporter, Tony Rezko. This deal provoked media scrutiny of Obama's relationship with Rezko, who was indicted in October 2006 for fraud and extortion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chicagobusiness.com/downloads/rezkoindict.pdf|title=Indictment - U.S. vs. Levine and Rezko|format=PDF publisher=Chicago Business | accessdate=2008-05-30}}</ref> In December 2007, ''Money'' magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.<ref>{{cite news | title=Obama's Money | date=December 7 2007 | url=http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/moneymag/0712/gallery.candidates.moneymag/5.html | publisher=CNNMoney.com | accessdate=2008-04-28}} See also:
 
{{cite news | first=Zachary A | last=Goldfarb | title=Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates | date=March 24 2007 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/24/AR2007032400305.html | work=The Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million, up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005, mostly from sales of his books.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jeff | last=Zelany | title=Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/17/us/politics/17obama.html | date=April 17 2008 | work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 
 
Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jodi | last=Kantor | title=One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow | date=June 1 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/01/us/politics/01hoops.html | work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-28}} See also: {{cite news | title=The Love of the Game | format=video | date=April 15 2008 | publisher=YouTube (BarackObama.com) | url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1Lqm5emQl4 | work=[http://www.hbo.com/realsports/stories/2008/episode.133.s1.html HBO: Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel] | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Before announcing his presidential candidacy, he began a well-publicized effort to quit smoking. "I've never been a heavy smoker," Obama told the ''Chicago Tribune''. "I've quit periodically over the last several years. I've got an ironclad demand from my wife that in the stresses of the campaign I do not succumb. I've been chewing Nicorette strenuously."<ref> {{cite news | first=Christi | last=Parsons | title=Obama Launches an '07 Campaign—To Quit Smoking | date=February 6 2007 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-0702060167feb06,0,373462.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-28}} </ref> Replying to an ''Associated Press'' survey of 2008 presidential candidates' personal tastes, he specified "architect" as his alternate career choice and "chili" as his favorite meal to cook.<ref>{{cite news | title=Questions for the Candidates | date=May 15 2007 | publisher=USA Today | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2007-05-17-2380332271_x.htm | work =Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Asked to name a "hidden talent," Obama answered: "I'm a pretty good poker player."<ref>{{cite news | title=Gambling Buddies: Obama Flush with Poker Prowess | date=September 24 2007 | publisher=CNN | url =http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/09/24/obama.poker.ap/index.html | work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 
 
In ''The Audacity of Hope'', Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his Kenyan father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his Indonesian stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."<ref>Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: {{cite news | first=Barack | last=Obama | title=My Spiritual Journey | date=October 23 2006 | url =http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579,00.html | work=Time | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 
  
 
===Books===
 
===Books===
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Writing about Obama's political image in a March 2007 ''Washington Post'' opinion column, Eugene Robinson characterized him as "the personification of ''both-and''," a messenger who rejects "either-or" political choices, and could "move the nation beyond the culture wars" of the 1960s.<ref>{{cite news | first=Eugene | last=Robinson | title=The Moment for This Messenger? | date=March 13 2007 | url =http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/12/AR2007031200983.html | work =The Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-07}} See also: {{cite news | last=Senior | first=Jennifer | title=Dreaming of Obama | date=October 2 2006 | work=New York Magazine| url=http://www.newyorkmetro.com/news/politics/21681/index.html |accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref> Obama, who defines himself in ''The Audacity of Hope'' as "a Democrat, after all," has been criticized by progressive commentator David Sirota for demonstrating too much "Senate clubbiness", and was encouraged to run for the U.S. presidency by conservative columnist George Will.<ref>Obama (2006), p. 10. Sirota wrote that Obama's confirmation of Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State and his reluctant support of a Senate [[filibuster]] opposing President Bush's nomination of Samuel Alito to the U.S. Supreme Court may disappoint "those who see him as a bold challenger of the system".{{cite news | first=David | last=Sirota | title=Mr. Obama Goes to Washington | date=June 26 2006 | url=http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060626/sirota | work=The Nation | accessdate=2008-04-07}}{{cite news | first=George F | last=Will | title=Run Now, Obama | date=December 14 2006 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/13/AR2006121301901.html | work=The Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-07}} Other praise by conservative media:{{cite web|url=http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2008/01/bainbridge-asks.html|title=The Daily Dish}} conservative commentator Andrew Sullivan defends his praise for Obama, theatlantic.com, January 2008 [http://www.insightmag.com/Media/MediaManager/washwatch_4.htm Washington Watch: Obama's fund-raising record reveals weakness of Hillary's campaign] Conservative editor Jeffrey T. Kuhner praises Obama.</ref> But in a December 2006 ''Wall Street Journal'' editorial headlined "The Man from Nowhere," Ronald Reagan speech writer Peggy Noonan advised Will and other "establishment" commentators to avoid becoming too quickly excited about Obama's still early political career.<ref>{{cite news | first=Peggy | last=Noonan | title=The Man From Nowhere|date=December 15 2006 | url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/columnists/pnoonan/?id=110009388 | work=OpinionJournal (Wall Street Journal) | accessdate=2008-04-07}} See also: Obama (2006), pp. 122–124. For Noonan's comments on Obama winning the January 2008 Iowa Caucus, see: {{cite news | first=Peggy | last=Noonan | title=Out With the Old, In With the New | date=January 4 2008 | url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/columnists/pnoonan/?id=110011083 | work=OpinionJournal (Wall Street Journal) | accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref> Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image, saying in an October 2007 campaign speech, "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."<ref>{{cite news | first=Mike | last=Dorning | title=Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK | format=paid archive | date=October 4 2007 | url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/1353513781.html?dids=1353513781:1353513781&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+4%2C+2007&author=Mike+Dorning | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-07}} See also: {{cite news | first=Toby | last=Harnden | title=Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide | date=October 15 2007 | url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/10/12/wobama112.xml | work=Daily Telegraph | accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref>
 
Writing about Obama's political image in a March 2007 ''Washington Post'' opinion column, Eugene Robinson characterized him as "the personification of ''both-and''," a messenger who rejects "either-or" political choices, and could "move the nation beyond the culture wars" of the 1960s.<ref>{{cite news | first=Eugene | last=Robinson | title=The Moment for This Messenger? | date=March 13 2007 | url =http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/12/AR2007031200983.html | work =The Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-07}} See also: {{cite news | last=Senior | first=Jennifer | title=Dreaming of Obama | date=October 2 2006 | work=New York Magazine| url=http://www.newyorkmetro.com/news/politics/21681/index.html |accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref> Obama, who defines himself in ''The Audacity of Hope'' as "a Democrat, after all," has been criticized by progressive commentator David Sirota for demonstrating too much "Senate clubbiness", and was encouraged to run for the U.S. presidency by conservative columnist George Will.<ref>Obama (2006), p. 10. Sirota wrote that Obama's confirmation of Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State and his reluctant support of a Senate [[filibuster]] opposing President Bush's nomination of Samuel Alito to the U.S. Supreme Court may disappoint "those who see him as a bold challenger of the system".{{cite news | first=David | last=Sirota | title=Mr. Obama Goes to Washington | date=June 26 2006 | url=http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060626/sirota | work=The Nation | accessdate=2008-04-07}}{{cite news | first=George F | last=Will | title=Run Now, Obama | date=December 14 2006 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/13/AR2006121301901.html | work=The Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-07}} Other praise by conservative media:{{cite web|url=http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2008/01/bainbridge-asks.html|title=The Daily Dish}} conservative commentator Andrew Sullivan defends his praise for Obama, theatlantic.com, January 2008 [http://www.insightmag.com/Media/MediaManager/washwatch_4.htm Washington Watch: Obama's fund-raising record reveals weakness of Hillary's campaign] Conservative editor Jeffrey T. Kuhner praises Obama.</ref> But in a December 2006 ''Wall Street Journal'' editorial headlined "The Man from Nowhere," Ronald Reagan speech writer Peggy Noonan advised Will and other "establishment" commentators to avoid becoming too quickly excited about Obama's still early political career.<ref>{{cite news | first=Peggy | last=Noonan | title=The Man From Nowhere|date=December 15 2006 | url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/columnists/pnoonan/?id=110009388 | work=OpinionJournal (Wall Street Journal) | accessdate=2008-04-07}} See also: Obama (2006), pp. 122–124. For Noonan's comments on Obama winning the January 2008 Iowa Caucus, see: {{cite news | first=Peggy | last=Noonan | title=Out With the Old, In With the New | date=January 4 2008 | url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/columnists/pnoonan/?id=110011083 | work=OpinionJournal (Wall Street Journal) | accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref> Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image, saying in an October 2007 campaign speech, "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."<ref>{{cite news | first=Mike | last=Dorning | title=Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK | format=paid archive | date=October 4 2007 | url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/1353513781.html?dids=1353513781:1353513781&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+4%2C+2007&author=Mike+Dorning | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-07}} See also: {{cite news | first=Toby | last=Harnden | title=Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide | date=October 15 2007 | url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/10/12/wobama112.xml | work=Daily Telegraph | accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref>
  
 +
==Analysis==
 +
===Net Worth===
 +
:: ''See also: [[Net Worth of United States Senators and Representatives]]''
 +
====2011====
 +
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by ''OpenSecrets.org'', Obama's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $2,566,014.00 and $8,265,000.00. That averages to $5,415,507.00, which ranked 8th among executive branch members.  His average net worth decreased by %2.6 from 2010.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/CIDsummary.php?CID=N00009638&year=2011 ''OpenSecrets.org'', "Barack Obama (D), 2011"]</ref>
 +
====2010====
 +
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by ''OpenSecrets.org'', Obama's net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $2,802,012.00 and $11,830,000.00. That averages to $7,316,006.00, which ranked 9th among executive branch members.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/CIDsummary.php?CID=N00009638&year=2010 ''OpenSecrets.org'', "Barack Obama (D), 2010"]</ref>
 +
===Elected office turnover===
 +
====2012 elections====
 +
According to ''[http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball Sabato's Crystal Ball]'', the Democratic party gained 8 [[United States House of Representatives|U.S. House]] seats and 2 [[United States Senate|Senate]] seats in 2012.
 +
 +
In state government elections, the Democratic party lost one governor's office and gained control of two state legislatures.<ref name="crystal ball"/>
 +
====2010 elections====
 +
According to ''[http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball Sabato's Crystal Ball]'', the Democratic party lost 63 [[United States House of Representatives|U.S. House]] seats and 6 [[United States Senate|Senate]] seats in 2010.  The House turnover was the largest differential since the 1948 general election.
 +
 +
In state government elections, the Democratic party lost 8 governors' offices and lost control of 10 state legislatures.  The turnover in state legislature control was the largest differential since the 1974 general election.<ref name="crystal ball">[http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/the-presidencys-political-price/ ''Sabato's Crystal Ball'', "The Presidency's Political Price," August 1, 2013]</ref>
 +
 +
==Personal==
 +
Obama grew up with his half-sister Maya Kassandra Soetoro, the daughter his mother had with her second husband. Obama also has seven other half-siblings; his father had six other sons and one daughter.<ref name="Auma">{{cite news | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/familytree/545465,BSX-News-wotreew09.article | title=AUMA OBAMA:Her restlessness, her independence | author=Scott Fornek | publisher=''Chicago Sun Times'' | date=2007-09-09|accessdate=2008-03-23}}</ref>
 +
 +
Obama met his wife, Michelle Robinson, in June 1989 when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.<ref>Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: {{cite news | first=Sarah | last=Brown | title=Obama '85 Masters Balancing Act | date=December 7 2005 | work=Daily Princetonian | url=http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/archives/2005/12/07/news/14049.shtml | accessdate=2008-04-28}} {{cite news | first=Eric | last=Tucker | title=Family Ties: Brown Coach, Barack Obama | date=March 1 2007 | publisher=ABC News | url =http://www.abcnews.go.com/Sports/wireStory?id=2916437 | work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial offers to date.<ref>Obama (2006), p. 329.</ref> They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.<ref>{{cite news | first=Scott | last=Fornek | title=Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet' | date=October 3 2007 | url=http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/585261,CST-NWS-wedding03.stng | work=Chicago Sun-Times | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998, followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.<ref>Obama (1995), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: {{cite web | title=Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama | url=http://www.gannettnewsservice.com/?cat=153 | work=Gannett News Service | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 +
 +
Applying the proceeds of a $2&nbsp;million book deal, the family paid off debts in 2005 and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6&nbsp;million house in neighboring Kenwood.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jeff | last=Zeleny | title=The First Time Around: Sen. Obama's Freshman Year | date=December 24 2005 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/chi-051224obama,1,1815354.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> The land adjacent to their house was simultaneously sold to the wife of developer and Obama supporter, Tony Rezko. This deal provoked media scrutiny of Obama's relationship with Rezko, who was indicted in October 2006 for fraud and extortion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chicagobusiness.com/downloads/rezkoindict.pdf|title=Indictment - U.S. vs. Levine and Rezko|format=PDF publisher=Chicago Business | accessdate=2008-05-30}}</ref> In December 2007, ''Money'' magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.<ref>{{cite news | title=Obama's Money | date=December 7 2007 | url=http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/moneymag/0712/gallery.candidates.moneymag/5.html | publisher=CNNMoney.com | accessdate=2008-04-28}} See also:
 +
{{cite news | first=Zachary A | last=Goldfarb | title=Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates | date=March 24 2007 | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/24/AR2007032400305.html | work=The Washington Post | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million, up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005, mostly from sales of his books.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jeff | last=Zelany | title=Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/17/us/politics/17obama.html | date=April 17 2008 | work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 +
 +
Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.<ref>{{cite news | first=Jodi | last=Kantor | title=One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow | date=June 1 2007 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/01/us/politics/01hoops.html | work=The New York Times | accessdate=2008-04-28}} See also: {{cite news | title=The Love of the Game | format=video | date=April 15 2008 | publisher=YouTube (BarackObama.com) | url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1Lqm5emQl4 | work=[http://www.hbo.com/realsports/stories/2008/episode.133.s1.html HBO: Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel] | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Before announcing his presidential candidacy, he began a well-publicized effort to quit smoking. "I've never been a heavy smoker," Obama told the ''Chicago Tribune''. "I've quit periodically over the last several years. I've got an ironclad demand from my wife that in the stresses of the campaign I do not succumb. I've been chewing Nicorette strenuously."<ref> {{cite news | first=Christi | last=Parsons | title=Obama Launches an '07 Campaign—To Quit Smoking | date=February 6 2007 | url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-0702060167feb06,0,373462.story | work=Chicago Tribune | accessdate=2008-04-28}} </ref> Replying to an ''Associated Press'' survey of 2008 presidential candidates' personal tastes, he specified "architect" as his alternate career choice and "chili" as his favorite meal to cook.<ref>{{cite news | title=Questions for the Candidates | date=May 15 2007 | publisher=USA Today | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2007-05-17-2380332271_x.htm | work =Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref> Asked to name a "hidden talent," Obama answered: "I'm a pretty good poker player."<ref>{{cite news | title=Gambling Buddies: Obama Flush with Poker Prowess | date=September 24 2007 | publisher=CNN | url =http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/09/24/obama.poker.ap/index.html | work=Associated Press | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 +
 +
In ''The Audacity of Hope'', Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his Kenyan father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his Indonesian stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."<ref>Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: {{cite news | first=Barack | last=Obama | title=My Spiritual Journey | date=October 23 2006 | url =http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579,00.html | work=Time | accessdate=2008-04-28}}</ref>
 
==Recent news==
 
==Recent news==
 
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term '''Barack + Obama'''.
 
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term '''Barack + Obama'''.
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:''All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.''
 
:''All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.''
  
<rss>http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&gl=us&q=Barack+Obama&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss|template=slpfeed|max=10|title=Barack Obama News Feed</rss>
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{{RSS|feed=http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&gl=us&q=Barack+Obama&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss|template=slpfeed|max=10|title=Barack Obama News Feed}}
 
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==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Portal:Elections]]
+
*[[Portal:Congress|United States Congress]]
 
*[[Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election]]
 
*[[Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election]]
 +
*[[Possible 2016 U.S. Presidential candidates]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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*[http://www.youtube.com/user/BarackObamadotcom Barack Obama on YouTube]
 
*[http://www.youtube.com/user/BarackObamadotcom Barack Obama on YouTube]
 
*[http://www.myspace.com/barackobama Barack Obama on MySpace]
 
*[http://www.myspace.com/barackobama Barack Obama on MySpace]
 
==Additional reading==
 
*Curry, Jessica. "[http://www.chicagolife.net/content/politics/Barack_Obama Barack Obama: Under the Lights]", ''Chicago Life'', Fall 2004. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
*Graff, Garrett. "[http://www.washingtonian.com/articles/mediapolitics/1836.html The Legend of Barack Obama]", ''Washingtonian'', November 1 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
*Lizza, Ryan. "[http://men.style.com/gq/features/landing?id=content_5841 Above the Fray]", ''GQ'', September 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
*MacFarquhar, Larissa. "[http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?]", ''New Yorker'', May 7 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
*Mundy, Liza. "[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/08/AR2007080802038.html A Series of Fortunate Events]", ''The Washington Post Magazine'', August 12 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
*Wallace-Wells, Ben. "[http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/13390609/campaign_08_the_radical_roots_of_barack_obama Destiny's Child]", ''Rolling Stone'', February 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
*Zutter, Hank De. "[http://www.chicagoreader.com/obama/951208/ What Makes Obama Run?]", ''Chicago Reader'', December 8, 1995. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
 
 
===Cited works===
 
*{{cite book|last=Mendell|first=David|title=Obama: From Promise to Power|publisher=Amistad/HarperCollins|year=2007|url=http://www.harpercollins.com/book/index.aspx?isbn=9780060858209|id=ISBN 0-06-085820-6}}
 
*{{cite book|last=Obama|first=Barack|title=Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance|publisher=Times Books|year=2004|id=ISBN 1-4000-8277-3}}
 
*{{cite book|last=Obama|first=Barack|title=The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream|publisher=Crown Publishing Group|year=2006|id=ISBN 0-307-23769-9}}
 
  
 
==References==
 
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<small>This article was taken and modified from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama Wikipedia], the free encyclopedia under the GNU license.</small>
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Revision as of 19:27, 23 November 2013

Barack Hussein Obama II
Barack Obama.jpg
44th President of the United States
Incumbent
In office
January 20, 2009 - Present
Term ends
2017
Years in position 5
PartyDemocratic
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
First electedNovember 4, 2008
Term limits2 (4 year terms)
Prior offices
United States Senator
2005–2008
Illinois state Senator
1997-2005
Education
High schoolPunahou Academy
Bachelor'sColumbia University
J.D.Harvard University Law School
Personal
BirthdayAugust 4, 1961
Place of birthHonolulu, HI
ProfessionPolitician, Lawyer
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Barack Hussein Obama II (b. August 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii) is currently the 44th President of the United States. He was first elected November 4, 2008 and was sworn in January of 2009. Obama successfully won election to a second term on November 6, 2012.[1]

Previously, he served as the junior United States Senator from Illinois and was the nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2008 presidential election. He is the first African American to win enough support for the nomination of any major American political party and became the first African American president in the United States.

Biography

Born on August 4, 1961, to a Kenyan father and an American mother, he spent most of his childhood and adolescent years in Honolulu, Hawaii. His parents separated when he was an infant and divorced before he turned three. At age six, he moved to Jakarta, Indonesia, where he lived with his mother and Indonesian stepfather for four years. At age ten, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to live with his grandparents. He attended Punahou Academy and graduated with honors in 1979.[2] Obama's father, Barack Obama, Sr., died in a car accident in Kenya in 1982. His mother, Ann Dunham, died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[3]

Obama graduated from Columbia University in 1983 and earned his law degree from Harvard University in 1991.[3] While interning with Sidley & Austin in 1989, he met Michelle Robinson the two began dating.[2] He helped organize voter registration drives during the Clinton campaign, lectured at the University of Chicago law school and practiced law after graduating. As a civil rights lawyer, he tried cases dealing with discrimination, voters' rights and community organizers. In 1995 he published his autobiography titled Dreams from My Father. He and Robinson married on October 3, 1992.[3]

He was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1997 and served until 2004.[4] Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he announced his campaign for U.S. Senate in January 2003. After winning a landslide primary victory in March 2004 to become the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in November 2004 with 70% of the vote.[2]

He announced his candidacy for the United States presidency in February 2007 and defeated Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary before defeating John McCain in the presidential election in 2008. He was sworn in as the first African-American president on January 20, 2009. Obama then ran for re-election in 2012, defeating Mitt Romney. He was sworn in for his second term on January 21, 2013.[2]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Obama's academic, professional and political career:[2][3][5]

  • 1983: Graduated from Columbia University
  • 1989: Interned at Sidley & Austin law firm
  • 1991: Earned law degree magna cum laude from Harvard University
  • 1992: Organized voter registration drives for Clinton campaign
  • 1992-1996: Attorney for Miner, Barnhill & Galland
  • 1992-2004: Part-time Lecturer and Professor at University of Chicago Law School
  • 1997-2005: Illinois state Senator
  • 2005-2009: United States Senator from Illinois
  • 2009-Present: President of the United States of America

Committee assignments

U.S. Senator

2007-08

Obama served on the following committees:[6]

2005-06

Obama served on the following committees:[7]

Issues

U.S. Senator

Consistent with his interests in conservation, Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Obama took an active role in the Senate's drive for improved border security and immigration reform. In 2005, he cosponsored the "Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act" introduced by Republican John McCain of Arizona.[8] He later added three amendments to the "Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act", which passed the Senate in May 2006, but failed to gain majority support in the House of Representatives.[9] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act, authorizing construction of fencing and other security improvements along the United States–Mexico border.[10] President Bush signed the Secure Fence Act into law in October 2006, calling it "an important step toward immigration reform."[11]

Partnering with Republican Senators Richard Lugar of Indiana and then Tom Coburn of Oklahoma, Obama successfully introduced two initiatives bearing his name. "Lugar–Obama" expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons, including shoulder-fired missiles and anti-personnel mines.[12] The "Coburn–Obama Transparency Act" authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine launched in December 2007 and run by the Office of Management and Budget.[13] After Illinois residents complained of waste water contamination by a neighboring nuclear plant, Obama sponsored legislation requiring plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks.[14] A compromise version of the bill was subsequently blocked by partisan disputes and later reintroduced.[15] In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the "Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act," marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[16]

In January 2007, Obama worked with Democrat Russ Feingold of Wisconsin to eliminate gifts of travel on corporate jets by lobbyists to members of Congress and require disclosure of bundled campaign contributions under the "Honest Leadership and Open Government Act," which was signed into law in September 2007.[17] He introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act (S. 453), a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, including fraudulent flyers and automated phone calls, as witnessed in the 2006 midterm elections.[18] Obama's energy initiatives scored pluses and minuses with environmentalists, who welcomed his sponsorship with McCain of a climate change bill to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by two-thirds by 2050, but were skeptical of his support for a bill promoting liquefied coal production.[19] Obama also introduced the "Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007," a bill to cap troop levels in Iraq, begin phased redeployment, and remove all combat brigades from Iraq before April 2008.[20]

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges, and calling for an official review following reports that the procedure had been used inappropriately to reduce government costs.[21] He sponsored the "Iran Sanctions Enabling Act" supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, and joined Republican Chuck Hagel of Nebraska in introducing legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[22][23] A provision from the Obama–Hagel bill was passed by Congress in December 2007 as an amendment to the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill.[23] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[24]

Elections

U.S. President

2012

See also: Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election

Obama sought and won re-election as President of the United States in 2012.[1][1]

Mitt Romney ran for the Republican Party, while Gary Johnson ran as a Libertarian and Jill Stein ran for the Green Party.

U.S. presidential election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes Electoral votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngBarack Obama/Joe Biden Incumbent 51.3% 65,899,660 332
     Republican Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan 47.4% 60,932,152 206
     Libertarian Gary Johnson/Jim Gray 1% 1,275,804 0
     Green Jill Stein/Cheri Honkala 0.4% 469,501 0
Total Votes 128,577,117 538
Election Results Via: FEC official election results

Other candidates that appeared on the ballot received less than 0.1% of the vote. Those candidates included: Roseanne Barr, Rocky Anderson, Thomas Hoefling, Jerry Litzel, Jeff Boss, Merlin Miller, Randall Terry, Jill Reed, Richard Duncan, Andre Barnett, Chuck Baldwin, Barbara Washer, Tom Stevens, Virgil Goode, Will Christensen, Stewart Alexander, James Harris, Jim Carlson, Sheila Tittle, Peta Lindsay, Gloria La Riva, Jerry White, Dean Morstad and Jack Fellure.[25]

2008

In 2008, Obama defeated John McCain (R), Ralph Nader (Peace and Freedom), Bob Barr (L), Chuck Baldwin (Constitution) and Cynthia McKinney (Green) in the Presidential election on November 4, 2008

U.S. presidential election, 2008
Party Candidate Vote % Votes Electoral votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngBarack Obama/Joe Biden 53% 69,498,516 365
     Republican John McCain/Sarah Palin 45.7% 59,948,323 173
     Peace and Freedom Ralph Nader/Matt Gonzalez 0.6% 739,034 0
     Libertarian Bob Barr/Wayne Allyn Root 0.4% 523,715 0
     Constitution Chuck Baldwin/Darrell Castle 0.2% 199,750 0
     Green Cynthia McKinney/Rosa Clemente 0.1% 161,797 0
Total Votes 131,071,135 538
Election Results Via: Archives.gov official election results


Other candidates that appeared on the ballot received less than 0.1% of the vote. Those candidates included: Alan Keyes, Ron Paul, Gloria La Riva, Brian Moore, Roger Calero, Richard Duncan, James Harris, Charles Jay, John Joseph Polachek, Frank Edward McEnulty, Jeffrey J. Wamboldt, Thomas Robert Stevens, Gene C. Amondson, Jeffrey Jeff Boss, George Phillies, Ted Weill, Jonathan E. Allen and Bradford Lyttle.[26]

In February 2007, standing before the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.[27] Describing his working life in Illinois, and symbolically linking his presidential campaign to Abraham Lincoln's 1858 Lincoln's House Divided Speech|House Divided speech, Obama said: "That is why, in the shadow of the Old State Capitol, where Lincoln once called on a house divided to stand together, where common hopes and common dreams still live, I stand before you today to announce my candidacy for President of the United States of America."[28] Speaking at a Democratic National Committee (DNC) meeting one week before the February announcement, Obama called for putting an end to negative campaigning.[29] After announcing his presidential campaign Obama has emphasized ending the Iraq War, energy independence, and providing universal health care as his top three priorities.[30]

Obama's campaign raised $58 million during the first half of 2007, topping all other candidates and exceeding previous records for the first six months of any year before an election year.[31] Small donors, those contributing in increments of less than $200, accounted for $16.4 million of Obama's record-breaking total, more than any other Democratic candidate.[32] In the first month of 2008, his campaign brought in $36.8 million, the most ever raised in one month by a presidential candidate in the Democratic primaries.[33]

Obama was placed under Secret Service protection on May 3, 2007, the earliest ever for a U.S. presidential candidate.[34] With two months remaining before the first electoral contests in Iowa and New Hampshire, and national opinion polls showing him trailing Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Obama began directly charging his top rival with failing to clearly state her political positions.[35] Campaigning in Iowa, he told The Washington Post that as the Democratic nominee he would draw more support than Clinton from independent and Republican voters in the general election.[36]

Among the first four DNC-sanctioned state contests, Obama won more delegates than Clinton in Iowa, Nevada and South Carolina while winning an equal number in New Hampshire. On Super Tuesday, he emerged with 20 more delegates than Clinton.[37] He broke fundraising records in the first two months of 2008, raising over $90 million for his primary campaign while Clinton raised $45 million in the same period.[38] After Super Tuesday, Obama won the eleven remaining February primaries and caucuses.[39] Obama and Clinton split delegates and states nearly equally in Vermont, Texas, Ohio, and Rhode Island.[40]

In March 2008, a controversy broke out concerning Obama's 23-year relationship to his former pastor Jeremiah Wright.[41] After ABC News broadcast racially and politically charged Media clip|clips from sermons by Rev. Wright,[41][42] Obama responded by condemning Wright's remarks and ending Wright's relationship with the campaign.[43] Obama delivered a speech, during the controversy, entitled "A More Perfect Union"[44] that addressed issues of race. After Wright reiterated some of his remarks in a speech at the National Press Club,[45] Obama strongly denounced Wright, who he said "[presented] a world view that contradicts who I am and what I stand for."[46] Obama's association with Bill Ayers was also questioned in an ABC debate. Ayers, whose radical activism had taken the form of planting bombs in the early 1970's,[47] hosted the announcement of Obama's 1996 State Senate campaign and had joined the board of the Woods Foundation, where Obama was already a member, in 1999.[48][49] On May 31, 2008 Barack Obama resigned from the Chicago Trinity Church in a further public speech, Obama said he made the decision after racially charged comments by visiting Catholic priest Michael Pfleger were made towards Hillary Clinton.[50]

Obama lost six out of the next nine contests. During April and May 2008 Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Oregon held primaries. Obama won North Carolina and Oregon, and Clinton won the rest, with an aggregate result of Obama remaining ahead in pledged delegates after these contests; during the same period, Obama received endorsements from more superdelegates than Clinton.[51] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat half of the Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, narrowing the delegate gap between Clinton and Obama, and increasing the number of delegates needed to win the nomination; but Obama retained a lead even after Clinton won the Puerto Rico primary on June 1.[52] On June 3, Clinton won the South Dakota primary while Obama won Montana.[53][54] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the 2118 delegate mark and became the Democratic presumptive nominee.[55] Obama is the first African American to be the presumptive nominee of a major political party,[56] and the first to be born in Hawaii.[57]

In his victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota, Obama said: "After 54 hard-fought contests, our primary season has finally come to an end. Tonight we mark the end of one historic journey with the beginning of another, a journey that will bring a new and better day to America. Because of you tonight I can stand here and say that I will be the Democratic nominee for president of the United States of America." Paying tribute to his rival Hillary Clinton, he said she had made him a "better candidate."He congratulated her on the race she had run "throughout this contest" and also praised former President Bill Clinton's economic policies. In her own speech in New York, Clinton showed no sign of suspending her presidential campaign. She told cheering supporters: "Now the question is, 'Where do we go from here?' And given how far we've come, and where we need to go as a party, it's a question I don't take lightly. This has been a long campaign and I will be making no decisions tonight." Earlier, she had signaled her interest in joining Obama's ticket as a potential vice-president.[58]

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Obama is available dating back to 2004. Based on available campaign finance records, Obama raised a total of $1,475,627,500 during that time period. This information was last updated on October 14, 2013.[83][84][85]

Barack Obama's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. Presidency (Incumbent) Won $715,677,692
2010 U.S. Presidency Won $744,985,624
2008 U.S. Senate (Illinois) Won $14,964,184
Grand Total Raised $1,475,627,500

2012

Breakdown of the source of Obama's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Obama won re-election to the U.S. Presidency in 2012. During that election cycle, Obama's campaign committee raised a total of $715,677,692 and spent $683,546,548.[86]

Cost per vote

Obama spent $10.37 per vote received in 2012.

Campaign donors

2008

Breakdown of the source of Obama's campaign funds before the 2008 election.

Obama won election to the U.S. Presidency in 2008. During that election cycle, Obama's campaign committee raised a total of $744,985,624 and spent $729,519,581.[87]

Cost per vote

Obama spent $10.50 per vote received in 2008.

Campaign donors

2004

Breakdown of the source of Obama's campaign funds before the 2004 election.

Obama won election to the U.S. Senate in 2004. During that election cycle, Obama's campaign committee raised a total of $14,964,184 and spent $14,371,464.[88]

Cost per vote

Obama spent $3.99 per vote received in 2004.

Campaign donors

Political positions

Defense

Obama made several statements in a campaign video released in October, 2007 related to defense spending and nuclear weapons. In addition to promising to end the war in Iraq, Obama stated that he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars. He stated that he will stop investing in missile defense systems, that he will not weaponize space, that he will "slow development of future combat systems," and that he would work towards a world without nuclear weapons. To achieve this goal, Obama wishes to end development of new nuclear weapons, to reduce the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, to enact a global ban on production of fissile material, and to seek negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[89]

Economic affairs

On the role of government in economic affairs, Obama has written: "We should be asking ourselves what mix of policies will lead to a dynamic free market and widespread economic security, entrepreneurial innovation and upward mobility [...] we should be guided by what works."[90] Speaking before the National Press Club in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt, associating Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security with social Darwinism.[91] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[92] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama told the health care advocacy group Families USA that he supports universal healthcare in the United States.[93]

Education

Campaigning in New Hampshire in 2007, Obama announced an $18 billion plan for investments in early childhood education, math and science education, and expanded summer learning opportunities.[94] Obama's campaign distinguished his proposals to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[95]

Iraq

Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[96] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[97] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago Protests against the Iraq War in Federal Plaza,[98] speaking out against it.[99]

On March 16, 2003, the day President Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. 2003 invasion of Iraq|invasion of Iraq,[100] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd "It's not too late" to stop the war.[101]

Obama sought to make his early public opposition to the Iraq War before it started a major issue in his 2004 U.S. Senate campaign to distinguish himself from his Democratic primary rivals who supported the resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[102] and in his 2008 U.S. Presidential campaign, to distinguish himself from four Democratic primary rivals who voted for the resolution authorizing the war (Senators Clinton, Edwards, Biden, and Dodd).[103]

Speaking to the Chicago Council on Global Affairs in November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[104] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although not ruling out military action.[105] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[106][107][108] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[109]

Religion

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[110] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[111] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[112] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[113] Before the conference, 18 pro-life groups published an open letter stating, in reference to Obama's support for legal abortion: "In the strongest possible terms, we oppose Rick Warren's decision to ignore Senator Obama's clear pro-death stance and invite him to Saddleback Church anyway."[114] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[115]

Sudan

In a December 2005 Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[116] He divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[117] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[118]

Taxes

At the Tax Policy Center in September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[119] His plan sought to eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[120] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the $102,000 cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[121] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a emissions cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a 10 year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[122] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[123]

Transparency

Main article: Barack Obama transparency on Sunshine Review

Obama sponsored the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006. This act allowed for greater transparency in government at the federal level and also established the website usaspending.gov a resource on federal spending.

Books

Obama's first book, Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance, was published before his first run for political office. In it he recalls his childhood in Honolulu and Jakarta, college years in Los Angeles and New York City, and his employment as a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s. The book's last few chapters describe his first visit to Kenya, a journey to connect with his Luo family and heritage. In the preface to the 2004 revised edition, Obama explains that he had hoped the story of his family "might speak in some way to the fissures of race that have characterized the American experience."[124] In a 1995 review, novelist Paul Watkins wrote that Dreams "persuasively describes the phenomenon of belonging to two different worlds, and thus belonging to neither."[125] The audiobook edition earned Obama the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album of 2006.[126]

His second book, The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream, was published in October 2006 and soon rose to the top of the New York Times Best Seller hardcover list.[127] Its title came from a sermon delivered by Obama's former pastor, Jeremiah Wright. The paperback edition currently ranks fourth on The New York Times nonfiction list.[128] The Chicago Tribune credits large crowds that gathered at book signings with influencing Obama's decision to run for president.[129] Former U.S. presidential candidate Gary Hart said the book's self-portrayal presents "a man of relative youth yet maturity, a wise observer of the human condition, a figure who possesses perseverance and writing skills that have flashes of grandeur."[130] Reviewer Michael Tomasky writes that it does not contain "boldly innovative policy prescriptions that will lead the Democrats out of their wilderness," but does show Obama's potential to "construct a new politics that is progressive but grounded in civic traditions that speak to a wider range of Americans."[131] In February 2008, he won a Grammy award for the spoken word edition of Audacity.[126] Foreign language editions of the book have been published in Italian, Spanish, German, French, Danish and Greek.[132] The Italian edition was published in April 2007 with a preface by Walter Veltroni,[133] former Mayor of Rome, currently leader of Italy's Democratic Party and one of Obama's earliest supporters overseas.[134]

Barack Obama is reportedly writing a children's book.[135]

Cultural and political image

Supporters and critics have likened Obama's popular image to a cultural Rorschach test, a neutral persona on whom people can project their personal histories and aspirations.[136] Obama's own stories about his family origins reinforce what a May 2004 New Yorker magazine article described as his "everyman" image.[137] In Dreams from My Father, he ties his maternal family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy during the American Civil War.[138] Speaking to Jewish audiences during his 2004 campaign for U.S. Senate, he linked the linguistic root of his East African first name Barack to the Hebrew word baruch, meaning "blessed."[139] In an October 2006 interview on The Oprah Winfrey Show, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher. We've got it all."[140]

With his Kenyan father and American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[141] In January 2007, The End of Blackness author Debra Dickerson warned against drawing favorable cultural implications from Obama's political rise: "Lumping us all together," Dickerson wrote in Salon, "erases the significance of slavery and continuing racism while giving the appearance of progress."[142] Film critic David Ehrenstein, writing in a March 2007 Los Angeles Times article, compared the cultural sources of Obama's favorable polling among whites to those of "magical Negro" roles played by black actors in Hollywood movies.[143] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough," Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said, "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[144]

Writing about Obama's political image in a March 2007 Washington Post opinion column, Eugene Robinson characterized him as "the personification of both-and," a messenger who rejects "either-or" political choices, and could "move the nation beyond the culture wars" of the 1960s.[145] Obama, who defines himself in The Audacity of Hope as "a Democrat, after all," has been criticized by progressive commentator David Sirota for demonstrating too much "Senate clubbiness", and was encouraged to run for the U.S. presidency by conservative columnist George Will.[146] But in a December 2006 Wall Street Journal editorial headlined "The Man from Nowhere," Ronald Reagan speech writer Peggy Noonan advised Will and other "establishment" commentators to avoid becoming too quickly excited about Obama's still early political career.[147] Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image, saying in an October 2007 campaign speech, "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[148]

Analysis

Net Worth

See also: Net Worth of United States Senators and Representatives

2011

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Obama's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $2,566,014.00 and $8,265,000.00. That averages to $5,415,507.00, which ranked 8th among executive branch members. His average net worth decreased by %2.6 from 2010.[149]

2010

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Obama's net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $2,802,012.00 and $11,830,000.00. That averages to $7,316,006.00, which ranked 9th among executive branch members.[150]

Elected office turnover

2012 elections

According to Sabato's Crystal Ball, the Democratic party gained 8 U.S. House seats and 2 Senate seats in 2012.

In state government elections, the Democratic party lost one governor's office and gained control of two state legislatures.[151]

2010 elections

According to Sabato's Crystal Ball, the Democratic party lost 63 U.S. House seats and 6 Senate seats in 2010. The House turnover was the largest differential since the 1948 general election.

In state government elections, the Democratic party lost 8 governors' offices and lost control of 10 state legislatures. The turnover in state legislature control was the largest differential since the 1974 general election.[151]

Personal

Obama grew up with his half-sister Maya Kassandra Soetoro, the daughter his mother had with her second husband. Obama also has seven other half-siblings; his father had six other sons and one daughter.[152]

Obama met his wife, Michelle Robinson, in June 1989 when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[153] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial offers to date.[154] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[155] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998, followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[156]

Applying the proceeds of a $2 million book deal, the family paid off debts in 2005 and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[157] The land adjacent to their house was simultaneously sold to the wife of developer and Obama supporter, Tony Rezko. This deal provoked media scrutiny of Obama's relationship with Rezko, who was indicted in October 2006 for fraud and extortion.[158] In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[159] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million, up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005, mostly from sales of his books.[160]

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[161] Before announcing his presidential candidacy, he began a well-publicized effort to quit smoking. "I've never been a heavy smoker," Obama told the Chicago Tribune. "I've quit periodically over the last several years. I've got an ironclad demand from my wife that in the stresses of the campaign I do not succumb. I've been chewing Nicorette strenuously."[162] Replying to an Associated Press survey of 2008 presidential candidates' personal tastes, he specified "architect" as his alternate career choice and "chili" as his favorite meal to cook.[163] Asked to name a "hidden talent," Obama answered: "I'm a pretty good poker player."[164]

In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his Kenyan father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his Indonesian stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[165]

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External links

References

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  138. Obama (1995), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry Truman, see: Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (March 2 2007). "A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History", Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  Jordan, Mary (May 13 2007). "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  "Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises", Associated Press, CBS 2 (Chicago) (September 8 2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
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  145. Robinson, Eugene (March 13 2007). "The Moment for This Messenger?", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  See also: Senior, Jennifer (October 2 2006). "Dreaming of Obama", New York Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
  146. Obama (2006), p. 10. Sirota wrote that Obama's confirmation of Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State and his reluctant support of a Senate filibuster opposing President Bush's nomination of Samuel Alito to the U.S. Supreme Court may disappoint "those who see him as a bold challenger of the system".Sirota, David (June 26 2006). "Mr. Obama Goes to Washington", The Nation. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. Will, George F (December 14 2006). "Run Now, Obama", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  Other praise by conservative media:"The Daily Dish". http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2008/01/bainbridge-asks.html.  conservative commentator Andrew Sullivan defends his praise for Obama, theatlantic.com, January 2008 Washington Watch: Obama's fund-raising record reveals weakness of Hillary's campaign Conservative editor Jeffrey T. Kuhner praises Obama.
  147. Noonan, Peggy (December 15 2006). "The Man From Nowhere", OpinionJournal (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  See also: Obama (2006), pp. 122–124. For Noonan's comments on Obama winning the January 2008 Iowa Caucus, see: Noonan, Peggy (January 4 2008). "Out With the Old, In With the New", OpinionJournal (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
  148. Dorning, Mike (October 4 2007). "Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  See also: Harnden, Toby (October 15 2007). "Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide", Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
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  161. Kantor, Jodi (June 1 2007). "One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.  See also: "The Love of the Game" (video), HBO: Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel, YouTube (BarackObama.com) (April 15 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  162. Parsons, Christi (February 6 2007). "Obama Launches an '07 Campaign—To Quit Smoking", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  163. "Questions for the Candidates", Associated Press, USA Today (May 15 2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  164. "Gambling Buddies: Obama Flush with Poker Prowess", Associated Press, CNN (September 24 2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
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