By Any Means Necessary
By Any Means Necessary or BAMN is a left-wing civil rights activist group active in Michigan and California. The full name is the Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, Integration & Immigration Rights and Fight for Equality By Any Means Necessary. The group's name is derived from the slogan that Malcolm X coined, "by any means necessary."
BAMN activism has included legal challenges against the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative, rallies, protests, and confrontational activism. BAMN has been active in Michigan in claiming that some of the signatures collected in a 2005 petition drive to collect signatures to place the Michigan Civil Rights Amendment, Proposal 2 (2006) on the 2006 ballot were collected fraudulently when signature gatherers erroneously claimed that the measure promoted affirmative action. Although the MCRI passed in November 2006, BAMN has continued to pursue legal challenges in court.
Opponents of the group have criticized BAMN for tactics allegedly used during its rallies such as verbally assaulting people who disagree with their political program. The group has also been criticized for busing in students from the Metro Detroit area to BAMN protests.
The American Civil Liberties Union has reported that the FBI has investigated BAMN for potential involvement in unspecified "terrorist activities." According to the FBI, the group's protests were discussed in a meeting about terrorist activities.,