Difference between revisions of "California school districts"

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: ''See also: [[California school board elections, 2014]]''
 
: ''See also: [[California school board elections, 2014]]''
 
{{California SBE 2014}}
 
{{California SBE 2014}}
 
 
===Path to the ballot===
 
===Path to the ballot===
 
To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in California, a person must be:<ref name=CSBApamphlet/>
 
To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in California, a person must be:<ref name=CSBApamphlet/>

Revision as of 08:57, 8 July 2014

K-12 Education in California
Flag of California.png
Education facts
State Superintendent: Tom Torlakson
Number of students: 6,287,834[1]
Number of teachers: 268,689
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:23.4
Number of school districts: 1,187
Number of schools: 10,170
Graduation rate: 78%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $9,139[3]
See also
California Department of Education
California school districts
List of school districts in California
California
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in California
Glossary of education terms
California is home to 1,187 school districts, 10,170 schools and 6,287,834 K-12 students.[4]

Quick facts

State school administrators

Statistics

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, Academic Performance Index (API) scores and per-pupil spending per Average Daily Attendance (ADA).[5][6][7]

Enrollment, 2011-2012 API scores, 2011-2012 Per-pupil spending per ADA, 2012-2013
1.) Los Angeles Unified 1.) Hillsborough City 1.) New Jerusalem
2.) San Diego Unified 2.) Woodside Elementary 2.) Spencer Valley Elementary
3.) Long Beach Unified 3.) Los Altos 3.) Sausalito Marin City
4.) Fresno Unified 4.) Saratoga Union Elementary 4.) Death Valley Unified
5.) Elk Grove Unified 5.) Orinda Union Elementary 5.) Big Sur Unified
6.) Santa Ana Unified 6.) Santa Clara Elementary 6.) Desert Center Unified
7.) San Francisco Unified 7.) Lakeside Joint 7.) Mineral
8.) San Bernardino City Unified 8.) Las Lomitas Elementary 8.) Ravendale-Termo Elementary
9.) Corona-Norco Unified 9.) Moraga 9.) Belridge
10.) Capistrano Unified 10.) Reed Union Elementary 10.) Silver Fork Elementary

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in California as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[8]

Demographic information for California's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 42,486 0.68% 1.10%
Asian 693,313 11.16% 4.68%
African American 404,412 6.51% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 35,232 0.57% 0.42%
Hispanic 3,239,296 52.13% 24.37%
White 1,617,931 26.04% 51.21%
Two or more 181,534 2.92% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

In the news

Parent trigger law

On January 7, 2010, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the nation's first "parent trigger" education reform bill into law.[9] A parent trigger allows parents to intervene in the administration of an academically failing school in order to make substantive changes. These changes include the ability to replace school personnel related to the poor academic performance of the school, the ability to convert the school into a charter school and the ability to close the school.[10]

In order to enact a parent trigger, a majority of parents with children enrolled in or about to matriculate into the academically failing school must sign a petition. Up to 75 schools can be the subject of a single parent trigger petition. Parents involved in the petition process must disclose any financial or organizational support received for their effort, and charter school conversion advocates are forbidden from donating.[10] In California, a school must fail to meet Adequate Yearly Progress benchmarks for three consecutive years and also be in "corrective action" status for one year under the No Child Left Behind Act to be at risk of action under a parent trigger.[10]

Parents have invoked the law several times in the Los Angeles Unified School District, once in the Adelanto School District and once in the Compton Unified School District.[11] Efforts to invoke parent trigger laws proved controversial in all three school districts, and both the Adelanto and Compton petitions faced legal challenges from parent trigger law opponents.[12][13][14] In Compton, the parent trigger petitions were ruled invalid on technical grounds by the court.[15] In Adelanto, the petitioners won the court battle in 2012 and turned Desert Trails Elementary School into a charter school, the Desert Trails Preparatory Academy, which opened in 2013. In the Los Angeles Unified School District, several schools have confronted parent trigger petition efforts, including 24th Street Elementary School and Weigand Avenue Elementary School.[16][17][18][19]

State law

School board composition

California school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although some school board members are appointed to county boards of education and to fill vacancies until the next election for the seat is held. California school board elections typically follow one of these three methods, or a mixture thereof:[20]

  • At-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, regardless of geographic location.
  • Trustee area: Only voters residing in a specific geographic area within the school district may vote on certain candidates, who must also reside in that specific geographic area.
  • Trustee area at-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, but candidates must reside in specific geographic areas within the school district.

School boards can consist of three, five or seven members.[20] School board members serve four year terms, which are often staggered every two years.[20]

District types

California contains multiple types of school districts. The most prevalent are Unified districts (K-12), which contain both elementary and high schools, Elementary districts (K-6 or K-8), which contain only elementary schools and High School districts (9-12), which contain only high schools.

Term limits

California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members.[21] However, terms limits on school board members can still be imposed on the local level.

School board elections

Upcoming elections

See also: California school board elections, 2014

A total of 137 California school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections in 2014 for 394 seats. One board election was held in April 2014 and another was held in June 2014, while the remaining 135 districts will hold elections on November 4, 2014.

Here are several quick facts about California's school board elections in 2014:

The districts listed below served 3,075,427 K-12 students during the 2010-2011 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.[22] Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2014 California School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Long Beach Unified School District 4/8/2014 3 5 84,606
Twin Rivers Unified School District 6/3/2014 3 7 31,561
Alameda Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,906
Alhambra Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 18,344
Alum Rock Union School District 11/4/2014 3 5 13,056
Alvord Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 19,774
Anaheim City School District 11/4/2014 3 5 19,092
Anaheim Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 33,134
Antioch Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 19,005
Apple Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 14,785
Bakersfield City School District 11/4/2014 2 5 27,590
Berkeley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,397
Cajon Valley Union School District 11/4/2014 2 5 16,036
Calexico Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,269
Capistrano Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 53,168
Carlsbad Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 11,023
Central Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 14,817
Chaffey Joint Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 25,384
Chico Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 13,036
Chino Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 31,603
Chula Vista Elementary School District 11/4/2014 3 5 27,714
Clovis Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 38,493
Coachella Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 18,478
Colton Joint Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 23,360
Conejo Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 21,072
Corona-Norco Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 53,134
Cupertino Union School District 11/4/2014 3 5 18,360
Desert Sands Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 29,114
East Side Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 25,628
Elk Grove Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 62,171
Escondido Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 19,242
Escondido Union School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,318
Etiwanda School District 11/4/2014 3 5 12,882
Evergreen Elementary School District 11/4/2014 3 5 13,389
Fairfield-Suisun Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 21,451
Folsom-Cordova Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 18,860
Fontana Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 40,800
Franklin-McKinley School District 11/4/2014 3 5 10,274
Fremont Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 32,547
Fremont Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 10,379
Fresno Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 74,826
Fullerton School District 11/4/2014 3 5 13,648
Fullerton Joint Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 14,710
Garden Grove Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 7 48,632
Gilroy Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 11,076
Grossmont Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 24,094
Hayward Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 21,686
Hemet Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 22,248
Hesperia Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 23,120
Huntington Beach Union High School District 11/4/2014 2 5 16,290
Irvine Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 27,180
Jurupa Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 20,069
Kern High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 37,452
Kings Canyon Unified School District 11/4/2014 5 7 9,765
La Mesa-Spring Valley School District 11/4/2014 3 5 12,387
Lake Elsinore Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 22,039
Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 12,771
Lodi Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 30,448
Lompoc Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,877
Los Alamitos Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,629
Los Banos Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 9,250
Lucia Mar Unified School District 11/4/2014 5 7 10,561
Madera Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 19,576
Manteca Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 23,376
Marysville Joint Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 9,858
Merced City School District 11/4/2014 3 5 10,778
Merced Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 10,430
Milpitas Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,887
Moreno Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 36,762
Morgan Hill Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 9,531
Mount Diablo Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 33,967
Murrieta Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 22,313
Napa Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 17,977
Natomas Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 12,330
New Haven Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 12,937
Newport-Mesa Unified School District 11/4/2014 5 7 21,794
Oak Grove School District 11/4/2014 3 5 11,530
Oakland Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 46,428
Ocean View School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,554
Oceanside Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 21,057
Ontario-Montclair Elementary School District 11/4/2014 3 5 22,579
Orange Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 30,336
Oxnard School District 11/4/2014 3 5 15,870
Oxnard Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 16,642
Pajaro Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 19,542
Palm Springs Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 23,620
Palo Alto Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 11,941
Panama-Buena Vista Union School District 11/4/2014 2 5 16,562
Perris Union High School District 11/4/2014 2 5 10,589
Pittsburg Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,938
Placentia-Yorba Linda Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 25,810
Pleasanton Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 14,876
Porterville Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 13,656
Poway Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 34,051
Redlands Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 21,368
Rialto Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 26,987
Rocklin Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 11,648
Roseville City Elementary School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,830
Roseville Joint Union High School District 11/4/2014 2 5 10,047
Sacramento City Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 47,585
Saddleback Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 6 31,700
San Diego Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 131,434
San Dieguito Union High School District 11/4/2014 3 5 12,456
San Francisco Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 55,571
San Jacinto Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,637
San Jose Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 32,980
San Juan Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 46,851
San Lorenzo Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 11,849
San Marcos Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 18,612
San Ramon Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 28,962
Sanger Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 7 10,752
Santa Ana Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 57,286
Santa Barbara Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,670
Santa Clara Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 15,369
Santa Maria-Bonita School District 11/4/2014 2 5 14,182
Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 11,562
Santa Rosa High School District 11/4/2014 3 7 11,379
Simi Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 19,916
South San Francisco Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,295
Stockton Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 38,233
Sweetwater Union High School District 11/4/2014 5 5 41,374
Temecula Valley Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 30,225
Tracy Joint Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 17,529
Tulare City School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,293
Tustin Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 23,087
Upland Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 14,218
Vacaville Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 12,620
Val Verde Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 19,657
Victor Elementary School District 11/4/2014 3 5 11,639
Victor Valley Union High School District 11/4/2014 4 5 13,930
Vista Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 25,791
West Contra Costa Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 29,583
Western Placer Unified School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,170
Westminster Elementary School District 11/4/2014 3 5 9,722
Woodland Joint Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 10,397
Yuba City Unified School District 11/4/2014 4 7 13,194
Yucaipa-Calimesa Joint Unified School District 11/4/2014 2 5 9,730


Path to the ballot

To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in California, a person must be:[20]

  • 18 years of age or older
  • A citizen of California
  • A resident of the school district
  • A registered voter in California
  • Not a current employee of the school district
  • Not disqualified by the California state constitution or laws from holding civil office

On July 23, 2012, Governor Jerry Brown signed AB 4210 into law, which banned convicted felons from running for office in California.[23]

The process of running for office as a school board candidate begins with filing a "declaration of candidacy" form at the local county elections office.[20] This form must be filed between 113 and 88 days before the election is held.[20] Candidates may also be required to submit a filing fee to the county elections office or a petition with nominating signatures in order to be put on the ballot, but these rules vary from school district to school district and are not uniform across California.[20] On the ballot, candidates are listed using a randomized alphabetical order, due to state courts ruling that standard alphabetical or incumbent-first ordering are unconstitutional.[24]

California distributes a voter's guide to all registered voters in the school district prior to the election, and candidates may include a candidate statement in this voter's guide. This usually requires candidates to pay another fee to the county elections office, but some school districts will assume the cost of this candidate statement filing fee for all school board candidates in the district.[20]

Campaign finance

California requires school board candidates who spend or receive more than $1,000 for their campaign to file a campaign finance report detailing their expenditures, loan repayments, contributions and loans received to their local county elections office.[20]

See also

External links

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References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  5. California Department of Education, "Largest & Smallest Public School Districts - CalEdFacts," accessed July 26, 2013
  6. Ed-Data, "Compare Districts - Highest/Lowest," accessed July 26, 2013
  7. California Department of Education - School Fiscal Services Division, "2011–12 Current Expense Per Average Daily Attendance (ADA)," January 29, 2013
  8. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  9. California Legislative Information, "SBX5-4 Public schools: Race to the Top.(2009-2010)," accessed July 26, 2013
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 National Conference of State Legislatures, "Parent Trigger Laws in the States," accessed July 26, 2013
  11. 89.3 KPCC Southern California Public Radio, "LA Unified school board member wants changes to California's Parent Trigger Law," June 17, 2013
  12. McClatchy, "California’s ‘parent trigger’ law tested in L.A. school decision," April 9, 2013
  13. The New York Times, "‘Parent Trigger’ Law to Reform Schools Faces Challenges," September 23, 2011
  14. Los Angeles Times, "Mojave Desert parents go back to court over charter school issue," August 28, 2012
  15. The Los Angeles Times, "Lessons of 'parent trigger'," November 14, 2011
  16. Time, "With ‘Parent Trigger’ Laws on the Ropes, Three Overhauled Schools Reopen in Los Angeles," July 26, 2013
  17. U.S. News, "Los Angeles 'Parent Trigger' School Sets Precedent With Public-Charter Hybrid," August 13, 2013
  18. City Journal, "The “Trigger” that Wasn’t Pulled," June 13, 2014
  19. Reason.com, "California’s Parent Trigger Law Is (Finally) Helping Improve Public Schools," June 7, 2014
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 California School Boards Association, "School Board Leadership," accessed July 26, 2013
  21. National School Boards Association, "Survey of the State School Boards Associations on Term Limits for Local Board Members," October, 2006
  22. National Center for Education Statistics, "Elementary/Secondary Information System," accessed March 21, 2014
  23. The Daily News, "New law: Convicted felons can't run for office in California," July 23, 2012
  24. California Secretary of State, "Randomized Alphabet," accessed July 26, 2013