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===2012===
 
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[[File:Chris_Van_Hollen-2012_donor_breakdown.png|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Van Hollen's campaign funds before the 2012 election.]]
 
[[File:Chris_Van_Hollen-2012_donor_breakdown.png|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Van Hollen's campaign funds before the 2012 election.]]
Van Hollen won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Van Hollen's campaign committee raised a total of $1,502,330 and spent $1,413,822.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cid=N00013820 ''Open Secrets,'' "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 16, 2013]</ref>
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Van Hollen won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Van Hollen's campaign committee raised a total of $1,502,330 and spent $1,413,822.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cid=N00013820 ''Open Secrets'', "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 16, 2013]</ref>
  
 
====Cost per vote====
 
====Cost per vote====
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===2010===
 
===2010===
 
[[File:Chris_Van_Hollen_2010_Donor_Breakdown.PNG|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Van Hollen's campaign funds before the 2010 election.]]
 
[[File:Chris_Van_Hollen_2010_Donor_Breakdown.PNG|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Van Hollen's campaign funds before the 2010 election.]]
Van Hollen won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Van Hollen's campaign committee raised a total of $1,901,713 and spent $2,570,775.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cycle=2010&type=I&cid=N00013820&newMem=N ''Open Secrets,'' "Chris Van Hollen 2010 Re-Election Cycle," accessed December 1, 2011]</ref>
+
Van Hollen won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Van Hollen's campaign committee raised a total of $1,901,713 and spent $2,570,775.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cycle=2010&type=I&cid=N00013820&newMem=N ''Open Secrets'', "Chris Van Hollen 2010 Re-Election Cycle," accessed December 1, 2011]</ref>
  
 
{{Congress donor box 2010
 
{{Congress donor box 2010

Revision as of 11:59, 7 April 2014

Chris Van Hollen
Chris van Hollen.jpg
U.S. House, Maryland, District 8
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 2003-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 11
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorConnie Morella (R)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$6.91 in 2012
First electedNovember 5, 2002
Next primaryJune 24, 2014
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$12,070,702
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Maryland State Senate
1994-2002
Maryland House of Representatives
1990-1994
Education
Bachelor'sSwarthmore College
Master'sHarvard University
J.D.Georgetown University Law School
Personal
BirthdayJanuary 10, 1959
Place of birthKarachi, Pakistan
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth$114,003
ReligionEpiscopalian
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Chris Van Hollen campaign logo
Christopher "Chris" Van Hollen, Jr. (b. January 10, 1959, in Karachi, Pakistan) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Maryland's 8th Congressional District. Van Hollen was first elected to the House in 2002 and won re-election on November 6, 2012 defeating challenger George English in the Democratic primary.[1]

Van Hollen announced on August 21, 2013, an intention to file a lawsuit against the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) over the agency's criteria for tax-exempt social welfare groups.[2]

Van Hollen is set to run for re-election in Maryland's 8th Congressional District in the general election on November 4, 2014.

Prior to his congressional career, Van Hollen served as a member of both the Maryland House of Representatives and the Maryland State Senate.[3]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Van Hollen is a more moderate left of center Democratic Party vote. As a result, he may break with the Democratic Party line more than his fellow members.

Biography

Van Hollen was born in 1959 in Karachi, Pakistan, where his father worked as a foreign service officer. He earned his B.A. from Swarthmore College, his M.P.P. from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and his J.D. from Georgetown Law School in 1982, 1985, and 1990, respectively. Prior to his political career, Van Hollen worked as an attorney.[3]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Van Hollen's political career[3]:

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Van Hollen serves on the following committees:[4][5]

2011-2012

Van Hollen served on the following House committees[6]:

Issues

Controversy

Clinton hit list

Van Hollen said his presence on a “political hit list” maintained by Hillary Clinton aides is news to him, and said it was an “unsolved mystery.”[7]

“I'm trying to figure out this last one. ... As I say, it's an unsolved mystery and maybe someone will pick up the phone and tell me,” Van Hollen said. “Again, this assumes that this is a true report.”[7]

Legislative actions

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[8] For more information pertaining to Van Hollen's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[9]

National security

American response in Syria
See also: United States involvement in Syria

Van Hollen submitted a special report to CNN on August 29, 2013, detailing his opinion on the situation with Syria.[10] In the report, he explained three lessons from Iraq he believe can guide intervention in Syria and says President Obama must present clear evidence of Assad regime culpability.[10] Also in the report he says the U.S. must take strong action to punish Assad regime in order to deter use of chemical weapons and the mission must be clearly defined and achievable at an acceptable cost.[10]

In an appearance on Fox News Sunday on September 15, 2013, Van Hollen said he will not criticize President Obama's handling of the U.S. response to an alleged chemical weapons attack by Syria, noting that the administration has reached a deal to rid Syria of its chemical weapons.[11]

"I look at results, and the result could not be more in line with the president's objective," Van Hollen said. "We've gone beyond just deterring the future use of chemical weapons to a plan to actually destroy [Syria President Bashar al-Assad's] chemical weapons stockpile."[11]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Van Hollen voted against HR 2217 - the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[12]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Voted "Yes" Van Hollen voted in favor of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[12]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Van Hollen voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[13] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[12]

NDAA

Voted "Yes" Van Hollen voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[12]

Economy

Farm bill

Nay3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, known as the Farm Bill.[14] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill provides for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[15][16] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[16] Van Hollen voted with 102 other Democratic representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[17][18] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[18] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[19] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Van Hollen joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[17][18]

Government shutdown
See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "No" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[20] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[21] Van Hollen voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[22]

Voted "Yes" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[23] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Van Hollen voted for HR 2775.[24]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Van Hollen voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States. The vote largely followed party lines.[12]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "No" Van Hollen voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[12]

Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act

Voted "No" Van Hollen voted against HR 2009 - Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act of 2013. The bill passed through the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 232-185. The bill would prevent the IRS and Treasury Secretary from enforcing the powers provided to them in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The vote largely followed party lines.[12]

Social issues

Lawsuit against IRS

Van Hollen announced on August 21, 2013, an intention to file a lawsuit against the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) over the agency's criteria for tax-exempt social welfare groups.[2]

The lawsuit will look at a discrepancy in the way federal law defines eligibility requirements for a 501(c)(4) group versus the way the IRS defines such groups, with the main differences coming down to two words: 'exclusively' and 'primarily.'.[2] The federal tax code states that a 501(c)(4) group is tax-exempt if the non-profit is "operated exclusively" to promote social welfare.[2] To meet the IRS social welfare requirements, an organization must "operate primarily to further the common good and general welfare of the people of the community." In other words, a group can participate in political advocacy, as long as its "primary" work benefits a larger community.[2]

The wording in IRS regulations has caused confusion amid the 2013 scandal in which the IRS admitted to applying extra scrutiny to 501(c)(4) groups with names tied to political activism. The controversy sparked numerous congressional hearings and a change in management at the agency.[2] While conservative groups with the names "tea party" and "patriot" were initially revealed as some of the targeted organizations, the IRS inspector general later said that groups with the word "progressive"–a common name found in liberal organizations–were also on a list of criteria for extra scrutiny.[2]

Van Hollen, the ranking member on the House Budget Committee, will file and initiate the suit against the Treasury Department and the IRS. Along with the group Democracy 21, other plaintiffs in the suit include the Campaign Legal Center and Public Citizen.[2]

Amash amendment

Voted "No" Van Hollen voted against House Amendment 413 - Prohibits the National Security Agency from Collecting Records Under the Patriot Act. The amendment failed on July 4, 2013, by a vote of 205-217. The amendment would have prohibited the collection of records by the National Security Agency under the Patriot Act. Both parties were split on the vote.[12]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Van Hollen voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was 1 of 172 Democrats that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[25]

Elections

2014

See also: Maryland's 8th Congressional District elections, 2014

Van Hollen is set to run for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. If he runs, he will seek the Democratic nomination in the primary election. The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: Maryland's 8th Congressional District elections, 2012

Van Hollen ran in the 2012 election for the U.S. House to represent Maryland's 8th District. Van Hollen defeated challenger George English in the Democratic primary on April 3, 2012.[26] He defeated Republican challenger Ken Timmerman in the November general election.

The signature filing deadline for candidates wishing to run was January 11, 2012.[27]

General election

U.S. House, Maryland District 8 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngChris Van Hollen Incumbent 63.4% 217,531
     Republican Ken Timmerman 32.9% 113,033
     Libertarian Mark Grannis 2.1% 7,235
     Green George Gluck 1.5% 5,064
     N/A Other Write-ins 0.1% 393
Total Votes 343,256
Source: Maryland State Board of Elections "Representative in Congress"

Democratic primary

U.S. House, Maryland, District 8 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngChris Van Hollen Incumbent 92.2% 35,989
George English 7.8% 3,041
Total Votes 39,030

Endorsements

Van Hollen was endorsed by the organizations below.[28]

  • Clean Water Action
  • National Association of Social Workers
  • National Education Association Fund
  • NOW PAC
  • Ocean Champions (formerly Congressional Chesapeake Bay Watershed Caucus)
  • Planned Parenthood Action Fund
  • Sierra Club

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Chris Van Hollen is available dating back to 2002. Based on available campaign finance records, Chris Van Hollen raised a total of $12,070,702 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[34]

Chris Van Hollen's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Maryland, District 8) Won $1,502,329
2010 U.S. House (Maryland, District 8) Won $1,901,713
2008 U.S. House (Maryland, District 8) Won $2,317,139
2006 U.S. House (Maryland, District 8) Won $1,676,534
2004 U.S. House (Maryland, District 8) Won $1,702,772
2002 U.S. House (Maryland, District 8) Won $2,970,215
Grand Total Raised $12,070,702

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Hollen’s reports.[35]

Chris Van Hollen (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[36]April 15, 2013$1,996,171.25$67,203.75$(422,691.87)$1,640,683.13
July Quarterly[37]July 15, 2013$1,640,683.13$173,809.62$(83,361.67)$1,731,131.08
October Quarterly[38]October 13, 2013$1,731,131.08$74,512.60$(62,083.28)$1,743,560.40
Year-end[39]January 31, 2014$1,743,560$100,060$(75,778)$1,767,841
April Quarterly[40]April 15, 2014$1,767,841$129,873$(66,209)$1,831,505
Running totals
$545,458.97$(710,123.82)

2012

Breakdown of the source of Van Hollen's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Van Hollen won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Van Hollen's campaign committee raised a total of $1,502,330 and spent $1,413,822.[41]

Cost per vote

Van Hollen spent $6.91 per vote recieved in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Van Hollen's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Van Hollen won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Van Hollen's campaign committee raised a total of $1,901,713 and spent $2,570,775.[42]

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Van Hollen is a "moderate Democratic leader" as of June 24, 2013.[43]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[44]

Van Hollen most often votes with:

Van Hollen least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Van Hollen missed 98 of 7,661 roll call votes from January 2003 to March 2013, which is 1.3% of votes during that period. This is better than the median of 2.2% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[45]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Van Hollen paid his congressional staff a total of $1,102,671 in 2011. He ranked 51st on the list of the highest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 64th overall of the highest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Maryland ranked 11th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[46]

Net worth

See also: Net Worth of United States Senators and Representatives

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Van Hollen's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $47,006 and $181,000. That averages to $114,003, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Van Hollen ranked as the 376th most wealthy representative in 2012.[47]

Chris Van Hollen Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2012$114,003
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year.

2012

Van Hollen ranked 64th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[48]

2011

Van Hollen ranked 114th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[49]

Voting with party

June 2013

Chris Van Hollen voted with the Democratic Party 93.4% of the time, which ranked 71 among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[50]

Personal

Van Hollen lives in Kensington, Maryland, with his wife, Katherine, and their three children.[51]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Chris + Van + Hollen + Maryland + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Chris Van Hollen News Feed

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See also

External links


References

  1. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Maryland"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 CNN.com, "Democratic congressman to sue the IRS," accessed August 21, 2013
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Chris Van Hollen," accessed December 1, 2011
  4. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  5. U.S. House of Representatives, "Committee assignments," accessed March 31, 2014
  6. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "House of Representatives Committee Assignments," accessed December 1, 2011
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Hill, "Van Hollen not sure why he's on hit list," accessed January 13, 2014
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 CNN.com, "On Syria, learn from U.S. mistakes in Iraq," accessed August 29, 2013
  11. 11.0 11.1 Washington Post, "Rep. Chris Van Hollen: I won’t second-guess Obama on Syria," accessed September 16, 2013
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Project Votesmart, "Chris Van Hollen Key Votes," accessed October 14, 2013
  13. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  14. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. Politico, "House clears Farm Bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  19. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  20. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  21. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  22. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  23. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  24. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  25. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named primary
  27. Maryland State Board of Elections, "2012 Primary Results"
  28. Van Hollen's Campaign Website
  29. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  30. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  31. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  32. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  33. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  34. Open Secrets, "Chris Van Hollen," accessed May 16, 2013
  35. Federal Election Commission, "Chris Van Hollen 2014 Summary reports," accessed October 28, 2013
  36. Federal Election Commission, "Chris Van Hollen April Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  37. Federal Election Commission, "Chris Van Hollen July Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  38. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  39. Federal Election Commission, "Year End Report," accessed February 17, 2014
  40. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  41. Open Secrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 16, 2013
  42. Open Secrets, "Chris Van Hollen 2010 Re-Election Cycle," accessed December 1, 2011
  43. GovTrack, "Van Hollen," accessed May June 24, 2013
  44. OpenCongress, "Chris Hollen," accessed August 5, 2013
  45. GovTrack, "Chris Van Hollen," accessed April 2013
  46. LegiStorm, "Chris Van Hollen"
  47. OpenSecrets, "Van Hollen (D-MD), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  48. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  49. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  50. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  51. Official House Site, "Biography," accessed December 1, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Connie Morella
U.S. House of Representatives - Maryland District 8
2003–present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Maryland State Senate
1994-2002
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Maryland House of Representatives
1990-1994
Succeeded by
'