Difference between revisions of "Closed primary"

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{{Voter info VNT}}{{tnr}}[[Primary election|Primaries]] may be closed, or partisan, allowing only declared party members to vote, or [[Open primary|open]], which is nonpartisan.<ref name="enc">[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/476109/primary-election#ref140175 ''Encyclopedia Britannica'' "Primary Election" Accessed April 27, 2012]</ref>
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{{Voter info VNT}}{{tnr}}A '''closed primary''' is a type of [[Primary election|primary election]] used to chose candidates who will run in the general election.<ref name="enc">[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/476109/primary-election#ref140175 ''Encyclopedia Britannica'' "Primary Election" accessed November 6, 2013]</ref>
  
In a closed primary, the selection of a party's candidates in an election is limited to registered party members.<ref name="mtv"/> This prevents members of other parties from "crossing over" to influence the nomination of an opposing party's candidate. <ref name="mtv">[http://www.rockthevote.com/voting-is-easy/the-voting-process/faq/terms-and-definitions.html MTV Rock the Vote: Terms and Definitions]</ref>  
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In a closed primary, only voters registered for the party which is holding the primary may vote.<ref name=geek>[http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-closed-primary.htm Wise Geek: "What is a closed primary?" accessed November 6, 2013]</ref> For example, if the [[Republican]] party is holding a closed primary, then only voters registered as Republicans are permitted to vote.<ref name="us legal"/>  
  
[http://definitions.uslegal.com U.S. Legal] gives an example of the closed primary election. If it is a [[Republican]] [[primary election]], only those people who are registered [[Republican]]s can vote. <ref name="us legal"/>
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In some states, parties may have the option to invite unaffiliated voters to participate in the closed primary. Generally, unaffiliated voters will not be permitted to participate in the closed primary unless they choose to give up their independent status.<ref name=fairvote>[http://www.fairvote.org/congressional-and-presidential-primaries-open-closed-semi-closed-and-top-two#.Unphr_msiSo Fair Vote: "Congressional and Presidential Primaries: Open, Closed, Semi-Closed, and 'Top Two,'" accessed November 6, 2013]</ref>
  
The closed primary election is to choose a particular party’s candidate who will eventually run for office in the general election.<ref name="us legal">[http://definitions.uslegal.com/c/closed-primary/ ''U.S. Legal'' "Closed Primary" Accessed April 27, 2012]</ref>  
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Some states used a '''semi-closed''' primary rather than a strict closed primary. A semi-closed primary allows unaffiliated voters to choose in which party primary to vote.<ref name=fairvote/>  
  
==States that use a closed primary==
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==Usage==
There are 20 states that use a closed primary process.
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Some states use a different primary process for general elections than for other elections. There are 31 states that use a closed or semi-closed primary process for non-presidential elections.
 
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{{colbegin|3}}
*[[Alaska elections, 2012|Alaska]]
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*[[Alaska elections, 2014|Alaska]] (Republican only)
*[[Arizona elections, 2012|Arizona]]
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*[[Arizona elections, 2014|Arizona]]
*[[Connecticut elections, 2012|Connecticut]]
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*[[Colorado elections, 2014|Colorado]]
*[[Delaware elections, 2012|Delaware]]
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*[[Connecticut elections, 2014|Connecticut]]
*[[Florida elections, 2012|Florida]]
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*[[Washington, D.C.|District of Columbia]]
*[[Hawaii elections, 2012|Hawaii]]
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*[[Delaware elections, 2014|Delaware]]
*[[Idaho elections, 2012|Idaho]]
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*[[Florida elections, 2014|Florida]]
*[[Kentucky elections, 2012|Kentucky]]
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*[[Hawaii elections, 2014|Hawaii]] (Democrat only)
*[[Maine elections, 2012|Maine]]
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*[[Idaho elections, 2012|Idaho]] (Republican closed, Democrat semi-closed)
*[[Maryland elections, 2012|Maryland]]
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*[[Illinois elections, 2014|Illinois]]
*[[Nebraska elections, 2012|Nebraska]]
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*[[Iowa elections, 2014|Iowa]]
*[[Nevada elections, 2012|Nevada]]
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*[[Kansas elections, 2014|Kansas]] (Republican closed, Democrat semi-closed)
*[[New Mexico elections, 2012|New Mexico]]
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*[[Kentucky elections, 2014|Kentucky]]
*[[New York elections, 2012|New York]]
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*[[Maine elections, 2014|Maine]]
*[[North Carolina elections, 2012|North Carolina]]
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*[[Maryland elections, 2014|Maryland]]
*[[Oklahoma elections, 2012|Oklahoma]]
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*[[Massachusetts elections, 2014|Massachusetts]]
*[[Oregon elections, 2012|Oregon]]
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*[[Nebraska elections, 2014|Nebraska]]
*[[Pennsylvania elections, 2012|Pennsylvania]]
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*[[Nevada elections, 2014|Nevada]]
*[[South Dakota elections, 2012|South Dakota]]
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*[[New Hampshire elections, 2014|New Hampshire]]
*[[Wyoming elections, 2012|Wyoming]]
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*[[New Jersey elections, 2014|New Jersey]]
{{colend}}
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*[[New Mexico elections, 2014|New Mexico]]
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*[[New York elections, 2014|New York]]
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*[[North Carolina elections, 2014|North Carolina]]
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*[[Oklahoma elections, 2014|Oklahoma]]
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*[[Oregon elections, 2014|Oregon]]
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*[[Pennsylvania elections, 2014|Pennsylvania]]
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*[[Rhode Island elections, 2014|Rhode Island]]
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*[[South Dakota elections, 2014|South Dakota]] (Republican only)
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*[[Utah elections, 2014|Utah]](Republican only)
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*[[West Virginia elections, 2014|West Virginia]]
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*[[Wyoming elections, 2014|Wyoming]]
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{{colend}}<ref name=fairvote/>
  
==Other primary systems==
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==Arguments for and against==
===Open primary===
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Proponents of closed primaries argue that they preserve a political party's freedom of association<ref name=fairvote/> as well as preventing members of other parties from "crossing over" to influence the nomination of an opposing party's candidate. <ref name="mtv">[http://www.rockthevote.com/voting-is-easy/the-voting-process/faq/terms-and-definitions.html MTV Rock the Vote: "Terms and Definitions," accessed November 6, 2013]</ref>  
[[Open primary]] is a [[Primary election|primary election]] in which any registered voter can vote in any party's primary. Voters choose which primary to vote in, and do not have to be a member of that party in order to vote.<ref>[http://www.rockthevote.com/voting-is-easy/the-voting-process/faq/terms-and-definitions.html MTV Rock the Vote: Terms and Definitions]</ref>  
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===Mixed primary===
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Critics of the closed primary system argue that it exacerbates radicalization as candidates must cater to a party's, often more extreme, base rather than the political center.<ref name=fairvote/> Voters who participate in primaries are often dedicated party regulars to whom candidates must appeal to win the primary. Once emerging from the primary, candidates often must change the focus of their campaigns to appeal to a broader electorate.<ref name=geek/>
Some states have a mixed primary system, in which some parties allow any registered voter to vote in their primary and other parties restrict their primary to party members.
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===Blanket primary===
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Critics also argue that because the closed primary often excludes independent voters, they are disenfranchised from choosing a possible nominee.<ref name=geek/>
In a [[blanket primary]], voters pick one candidate for each office without regard to party. The candidates with the most votes advance to the general election. For example, two Democrats or two Republicans can advance beyond the primary to the general election.
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==See also==
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==Other primary systems==
 
*[[Open primary]]
 
*[[Open primary]]
*[[Voting in the 2012 primary_elections]]
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*[[Blanket primary]]
*[[Primary election]]
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*[[Mixed primary]]
*[[Signature requirements and deadlines for 2012 state government elections]]
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*[[Signature requirements and deadlines for 2012 U.S. Congress elections]]
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==See also==
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*[[Voting in the 2013 primary elections]]
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*[[Signature requirements and deadlines for 2014 state government elections]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/476109/primary-election#ref140175 Primary election definition] from [http://www.britannica.com/ Encyclopedia Britannica]
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{{submit a link}}
*[http://www.rockthevote.com/voting-is-easy/the-voting-process/faq/terms-and-definitions.html MTV Rock the Vote Terms and Definitions]
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*[http://definitions.uslegal.com/c/closed-primary/ U.S. Legal Definitions]
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==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 12:12, 6 November 2013

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A closed primary is a type of primary election used to chose candidates who will run in the general election.[1]

In a closed primary, only voters registered for the party which is holding the primary may vote.[2] For example, if the Republican party is holding a closed primary, then only voters registered as Republicans are permitted to vote.[3]

In some states, parties may have the option to invite unaffiliated voters to participate in the closed primary. Generally, unaffiliated voters will not be permitted to participate in the closed primary unless they choose to give up their independent status.[4]

Some states used a semi-closed primary rather than a strict closed primary. A semi-closed primary allows unaffiliated voters to choose in which party primary to vote.[4]

Usage

Some states use a different primary process for general elections than for other elections. There are 31 states that use a closed or semi-closed primary process for non-presidential elections.

[4]

Arguments for and against

Proponents of closed primaries argue that they preserve a political party's freedom of association[4] as well as preventing members of other parties from "crossing over" to influence the nomination of an opposing party's candidate. [5]

Critics of the closed primary system argue that it exacerbates radicalization as candidates must cater to a party's, often more extreme, base rather than the political center.[4] Voters who participate in primaries are often dedicated party regulars to whom candidates must appeal to win the primary. Once emerging from the primary, candidates often must change the focus of their campaigns to appeal to a broader electorate.[2]

Critics also argue that because the closed primary often excludes independent voters, they are disenfranchised from choosing a possible nominee.[2]

Other primary systems

See also

External links

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References