Difference between revisions of "Closed primary"

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==Usage==
 
==Usage==
Some states use a different primary process for general elections than for other elections. There are 31 states that use a closed or semi-closed primary process for non-presidential elections.
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There are 12 states that use a strictly closed primary process, including:<ref name=ncsl>[http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/primary-types.aspx ''National Conference of State Legislatures Website'', "State Primary Election Types," Accessed January 6, 2014]</ref><ref name=fairvote>[http://www.fairvote.org/congressional-and-presidential-primaries-open-closed-semi-closed-and-top-two#.UsGOh2RDvi4 ''Fair Vote'', "Congressional and Presidential Primaries: Open, Closed, Semi-Closed, and 'Top Two,'" Accessed January 6, 2014]</ref><ref name=research>Ballotpedia research conducted December 26, 2013 through January 3, 2014 researching and analyzing state websites and codes.</ref>
 
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*[[Alaska elections, 2014|Alaska]] (Republican only)
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*[[Delaware elections, 2014|Delaware]]
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*[[Florida elections, 2014|Florida]]
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*[[Kansas elections, 2014|Kansas]]
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*[[Kentucky elections, 2014|Kentucky]]
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*[[Maine elections, 2014|Maine]]
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*[[Nevada elections, 2014|Nevada]]
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*[[New Jersey elections, 2014|New Jersey]]
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*[[New Mexico elections, 2014|New Mexico]]
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*[[New York elections, 2014|New York]]
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*[[Oregon elections, 2014|Oregon]]
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*[[Pennsylvania elections, 2014|Pennsylvania]]
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*[[Wyoming elections, 2014|Wyoming]]
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There are 22 states that use a semi-closed primary system. These states either allow parties to choose who can vote in their primary elections or else allow voters the freedom to choose which party's primary they would like to vote in on the day of the election. Some states require voters to change their affiliation status if they choose to do this, though others allow them to remain as they were. The following states use some manner of a semi-closed primary system:<ref name=ncsl/><ref name=fairvote/><ref name=research/>
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*[[Alaska elections, 2014|Alaska]]
 
*[[Arizona elections, 2014|Arizona]]
 
*[[Arizona elections, 2014|Arizona]]
 
*[[Colorado elections, 2014|Colorado]]
 
*[[Colorado elections, 2014|Colorado]]
 
*[[Connecticut elections, 2014|Connecticut]]
 
*[[Connecticut elections, 2014|Connecticut]]
*[[Washington, D.C.|District of Columbia]]
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*[[Idaho elections, 2014|Idaho]]
*[[Delaware elections, 2014|Delaware]]
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*[[Florida elections, 2014|Florida]]
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*[[Hawaii elections, 2014|Hawaii]] (Democrat only)
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*[[Idaho elections, 2012|Idaho]] (Republican closed, Democrat semi-closed)
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*[[Illinois elections, 2014|Illinois]]
 
*[[Illinois elections, 2014|Illinois]]
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*[[Indiana elections, 2014|Indiana]]
 
*[[Iowa elections, 2014|Iowa]]
 
*[[Iowa elections, 2014|Iowa]]
*[[Kansas elections, 2014|Kansas]] (Republican closed, Democrat semi-closed)
 
*[[Kentucky elections, 2014|Kentucky]]
 
*[[Maine elections, 2014|Maine]]
 
 
*[[Maryland elections, 2014|Maryland]]
 
*[[Maryland elections, 2014|Maryland]]
 
*[[Massachusetts elections, 2014|Massachusetts]]
 
*[[Massachusetts elections, 2014|Massachusetts]]
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*[[Mississippi elections, 2014|Mississippi]]
 
*[[Nebraska elections, 2014|Nebraska]]
 
*[[Nebraska elections, 2014|Nebraska]]
*[[Nevada elections, 2014|Nevada]]
 
 
*[[New Hampshire elections, 2014|New Hampshire]]
 
*[[New Hampshire elections, 2014|New Hampshire]]
*[[New Jersey elections, 2014|New Jersey]]
 
*[[New Mexico elections, 2014|New Mexico]]
 
*[[New York elections, 2014|New York]]
 
 
*[[North Carolina elections, 2014|North Carolina]]
 
*[[North Carolina elections, 2014|North Carolina]]
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*[[Ohio elections, 2014|Ohio]]
 
*[[Oklahoma elections, 2014|Oklahoma]]
 
*[[Oklahoma elections, 2014|Oklahoma]]
*[[Oregon elections, 2014|Oregon]]
 
*[[Pennsylvania elections, 2014|Pennsylvania]]
 
 
*[[Rhode Island elections, 2014|Rhode Island]]
 
*[[Rhode Island elections, 2014|Rhode Island]]
*[[South Dakota elections, 2014|South Dakota]] (Republican only)
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*[[South Dakota elections, 2014|South Dakota]]
*[[Utah elections, 2014|Utah]](Republican only)
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*[[Texas elections, 2014|Texas]]
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*[[Utah elections, 2014|Utah]]
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*[[Virginia elections, 2014|Virginia]]
 
*[[West Virginia elections, 2014|West Virginia]]
 
*[[West Virginia elections, 2014|West Virginia]]
*[[Wyoming elections, 2014|Wyoming]]
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{{colend}}
{{colend}}<ref name=fairvote/>
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==Arguments for and against==
 
==Arguments for and against==

Revision as of 13:08, 6 January 2014

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A closed primary is a type of primary election used to chose candidates who will run in the general election.[1]

In a closed primary, only voters registered for the party which is holding the primary may vote.[2] For example, if the Republican party is holding a closed primary, then only voters registered as Republicans are permitted to vote.[3]

In some states, parties may have the option to invite unaffiliated voters to participate in the closed primary. Generally, unaffiliated voters will not be permitted to participate in the closed primary unless they choose to give up their independent status.[4]

Some states used a semi-closed primary rather than a strict closed primary. A semi-closed primary allows unaffiliated voters to choose in which party primary to vote.[4]

Usage

There are 12 states that use a strictly closed primary process, including:[5][4][6]

There are 22 states that use a semi-closed primary system. These states either allow parties to choose who can vote in their primary elections or else allow voters the freedom to choose which party's primary they would like to vote in on the day of the election. Some states require voters to change their affiliation status if they choose to do this, though others allow them to remain as they were. The following states use some manner of a semi-closed primary system:[5][4][6]

Arguments for and against

Proponents of closed primaries argue that they preserve a political party's freedom of association[4] as well as preventing members of other parties from "crossing over" to influence the nomination of an opposing party's candidate. [7]

Critics of the closed primary system argue that it exacerbates radicalization as candidates must cater to a party's, often more extreme, base rather than the political center.[4] Voters who participate in primaries are often dedicated party regulars to whom candidates must appeal to win the primary. Once emerging from the primary, candidates often must change the focus of their campaigns to appeal to a broader electorate.[2]

Critics also argue that because the closed primary often excludes independent voters, they are disenfranchised from choosing a possible nominee.[2]

Other primary systems

See also

Ballotpedia:Index of Terms

External links

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References